Phytochemical investigation and antimicrobial activity of Vernonia auriculifera

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 3(6): 141-147, 2015.

Original Article | Artículo Original

Phytochemical investigation and antimicrobial activity of leaves extract of Vernonia auriculifera Hiern

[Investigación fitoquímica y actividad antimicrobiana de extractos de hojas de Vernonia auriculifera Hiern]

Bekele Albejo1, Milkyas Endale2*, Belayhun Kibret3**, Mathewos Anza4

1Department of Chemistry, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Dilla University, P.O.Box 419, Dilla, Ethiopia.
2Department of Chemistry, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Hawassa University, P.O.Box 05, Hawassa, Ethiopia.
3Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia.
4Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural and Computational Sciences, Wolaita Sodo University, P.O.BOX 238, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia.
Abstract

Context: The genus Vernonia is one of the largest groups in the family Compositae constituting more than 500 species distributed widely in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Africa, Asia, and America. Traditionally the genus is used for the treatment of schistosomiasis, amoebic dysentery, gastrointestinal problems, malaria, venereal diseases, wounds, hepatitis, and diabetes. Vernonia auriculifera Hiern is used for healing wounds as ointment around the injured areas.

Aims: To investigate the phytochemical constituents and evaluate antimicrobial activity of leaves extract of Vernonia auriculifera Hiern.

Methods: Phytochemical screening tests were conducted to identify the class of compounds present in the leaves extracts of V. auriculifera. Silica gel column chromatographic technique was applied to separate the constituents of the extracts. Various spectroscopic techniques (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT-135, COSY, gHSQC, and gHMBC) were applied to determine the structures of isolated compounds.

Results: Phytochemical screening of the methanol leaf extract revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins and absence of anthraquinones, steroids, and alkaloids. Silica gel column chromatography of the methanol leaves extract yielded one compound. The hexane, chloroform, methanol and water extracts were tested against Staphylococcus aureus. The methanol and water extracts showed promising growth suppression at minimum inhibitory concentration of 200 mg/mL.

Conclusions: The polar extracts of the leaves of Vernonia auriculifera Hiern possess antimicrobial activity.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity; phytochemical screening; Staphylococcus aureus; terpenoids; Vernonia auriculifera.

Resumen

Contexto: El género Vernonia es uno de los mayores grupos en la familia Compositae, constituyendo más de 500 especies distribuidas ampliamente en las regiones tropicales y sub-tropicales de África, Asia y América. Tradicionalmente el género es usado para el tratamiento de esquistosomiásis, disentería amébica, problemas gastrointestinales, malaria, enfermedades venéneras, heridas, hepatitis y diabetes. Vernonia auriculifera Hiern es usada para cicatrizar heridas como ungüento alrededor de las áreas dañadas.

Objetivos: Investigar los constituyentes fitoquímicos y evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana de los extractos de hojas de Vernonia auriculifera Hiern.

Métodos: Pruebas de cribado fitoquímico fueron conducidas para identificar metabolitos de los extractos de hojas de V. auriculifera. Columnas cromatográficas de sílica gel fueron utilizadas para separar los constituyentes de los extractos. Varias técnicas espectroscópicas (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT-135, COSY, gHSQC, and gHMBC) fueron aplicadas para determinar las estructuras de los compuestos aislados.

Resultados: El cribado fitoquímico del extracto metanólico de las hojas reveló la presencia de taninos, flavonoides, terpenoides, saponinas y ausencia de atraquinonas, esteroides y alcaloides. Mediante columna cromatográfica de sílica gel del extracto metanólico de las hojas fue aislado un compuesto. Los extractos en hexano, cloroformo, metanol y agua fueron probados contra Staphylococcus aureus. Los extractos metanólico y acuoso mostraron supresión del crecimiento a la concentración mínima inhibitoria de 200 mg/mL.

Conclusiones: Los extractos polares de las hojas de Vernonia auriculifera Hiern poseen actividad antimicrobiana.

Palabras Clave: Actividad antimicrobiana; cribado fitoquímico; terpenoides; Staphylococcus aureus; Vernonia auriculifera.

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Citation Format: Bekele Albejo, Milkyas Endale, Belayhun Kibret, Mathewos Anza (2015) Phytochemical investigation and antimicrobial activity of leaves extract of Vernonia auriculifera Hiern. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 3(6): 141-147.
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© 2015 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)