Antimicrobial activities of Ochna schweinfurthiana stem extracts

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 3(6): 171-182, 2015.

Original Article | Artículo Original

Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activities of methanolic stem extracts of Ochna schweinfurthiana F.Hoffm.

[Análisis fitoquímico y actividad antimicrobiana de extractos metanólicos del tallo de Ochna schweinfurthiana F.Hoffm.]

Umar Mukhtar Danmusa1, Idris Abdullahi Nasir2*, Musa I. Abdullahi1, Auwal Alkasim Ahmad3, Ibrahim S. Abdulkadir4

1Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Sokoto State, Nigeria.
2Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, PMB 228 Gwagwalada. FCT Abuja, Nigeria.
3Faculty of Pharmacy, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
4Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri. Borno State, Nigeria.
Abstract

Context: Medicinal plants are an enormous source of alternative antimicrobial therapy, particularly in this era of emerging resistance against orthodox antimicrobial agents.

Aims: To evaluate the phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of methanolic stem extracts of Ochna schweinfurthiana F.Hoffm. and various fractions (chloroform, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol) obtained through liquid-liquid partition.

Methods: The basic phytochemistry assay and disc diffusion/broth dilution techniques were used. The microorganisms tested were pure isolates of Methicillin Resistance Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Klebsiella pneumonia, Neisseria gonnorhea, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Corynebacterium ulcerans, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida stellatoidea and Candida krusei.

Results: Thin layer chromatography results showed 13 prominent coloured spots from chloroform extract using dichloromethane/methanol 10:1 as the solvent system.  The crude extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides and steroids/terpenes. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and zones of inhibition (ZI) findings showed that stem extracts inhibited growth of all microbes at ZI range of 22 – 29 mm except C. ulcerans, B. subtilis, E. coli, P. mirabilis, C. stellatoidea and C. krusei. It was observed that chloroform fraction had the highest antimicrobial activities with minimum inhibitory concentration of 1.25 mg/mL against all susceptible pathogens except P. aeruginosa (2.5 mg/mL).

Conclusions: Ochna schweinfurthiana F.Hoffm. stem contains bioactive constituents with potent antimicrobial activities at low MIC, especially in the chloroform soluble fraction. This study validates and encourages the ethnomedicinal use of this plant in treating infections caused by these susceptible microbes.

Keywords: Antimicrobial; bioactive constituents; Ochna schweinfurthiana; Nigeria; pathogens.

Resumen

Contexto: Las plantas medicinales son una enorme fuente para la terapia antimicrobiana alternativa en esta era de resistencia emergente contra los agentes antimicrobianos ortodoxos.

Objetivos: Evaluar la fitoquímica y la actividad antimicrobiana de extractos metanólicos de tallos de Ochna schweinfurthiana F.Hoffm. y varias fracciones (cloroformo, n-hexano, acetato de etilo y n-butanol) obtenidas a través de la partición líquido-líquido.

Métodos: Se utilizaron ensayos básicos fitoquímicos y técnicas de difusión en disco/caldo. Los microorganismos probados fueron aislados de Staphylococcus aureus resistentes a meticilina, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Klebsiella pneumonia, Neisseria gonnorhea, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Corynebacterium ulcerans, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida stellatoidea y Candida krusei.

Resultados: Los resultados de la cromatografía en capa fina mostraron 13 manchas coloreadas en el extracto clorofórmico mediante un sistema de disolventes diclorometano/metanol 10:1. El extracto crudo reveló la presencia de flavonoides, saponinas, taninos, glicósidos y esteroides/terpenos. El extracto de tallos inhibió el crecimiento de todos los microorganismos con zonas de inbición entre 22 – 29 mm, excepto C. ulcerans, B. subtilis, E. coli, P. mirabilis, C. stellatoidea y C. krusei. La fracción clorofórmica tuvo una mayor actividad antimicrobiana con una concentración inhibitoria mínima de 1,25 mg/mL contra todos los patógenos susceptibles, excepto P. aeruginosa (2,5 mg/mL).

Conclusiones: El tallo de Ochna schweinfurthiana F.Hoffm. contiene constituyentes bioactivos con potente actividad antimicrobiana, especialmente en la fracción clorofórmica soluble. Este estudio valida y promueve el uso ethnomedicinal de esta planta en el tratamiento de infecciones causadas por estos microorganismos susceptibles.

Palabras Clave: Antimicrobiano; constituyentes bioactivos; Ochna schweinfurthiana; Nigeria; parógenos.

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Citation Format: Umar Mukhtar Danmusa, Idris Abdullahi Nasir, Musa I. Abdullahi, Auwal Alkasim Ahmad, Ibrahim S. Abdulkadir (2015) Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activities of methanolic stem extracts of Ochna schweinfurthiana F.Hoffm. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 3(6): 171-182.

© 2015 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)