Category Archives: Cosmetics

Depigmentation effect of Quercus infectoria and Terminalia chebula

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 5(5): 270-277, 2017.

Original Article | Artículo Original

Quercus infectoria and Terminalia chebula decrease melanin content and tyrosinase activity in B16/F10 cell lines

[Quercus infectoria y Terminalia chebula disminuyen el contenido de melanina y la actividad tirosinasa en las líneas celulares B16/F10]

Akram Jamshidzadeh1, Yaser Shokri2**, Nahid Ahmadi1, Neda Mohamadi3, Fariba Sharififar3*

1Toxicology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
2Herbal and Traditional Medicines Research Center, Department of Pharmacognosy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
3Pharmaceutics Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

E-mail: *, **


Context: One of the most complained skin cares in ethnic skin like Asian women is hyperpigmentation, and lightening preparations have been long-standing desired. Due to the side effects of current drugs, medicinal plants have attracted more attentions as a source of novel drugs. Mazo (Quercus infectoria galls) and Terminalia chebula fruits have been suggested in Persian Traditional Medicine as a safe treatment for hyperpigmentation.

Aims: To evaluate the cytotoxicity and the effect on melanin synthesis in B16/F10 melanoma of Q. infectoria and T. chebula extracts.

Methods: After collection and scientific authentication, plants were extracted by maceration method with methanol and were standardized based on total phenolic content. MTT assay and colorimetric method were used for cytotoxicity and determination of melanin content and tyrosinase activity in B16/F10 cells, respectively. Kojic acid was used as a reference compound.

Results: Total phenolic content of Q. infectoria and T. chebula was determined as 287.34 ± 4.21 and 172.61 ± 8.67 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract, respectively. Both plants decreased cell viability at 100 µg/mL and significantly reduced intercellular melanin to 66.25% and 71.1%, respectively in comparison to kojic acid (56.63%) at 50 µg/mL. In the same concentration, 65.7% and 71.2% tyrosinase activity was inhibited by Q. infectoria and T. chebula, which significantly were different from control (p<0.001).

Conclusions: These findings suggest that both plants especially Q. infectoria could inhibit melanogenesis in non-toxic concentrations and would be a good candidate for further studies.

Keywords: B16/F10 melanoma cells; depigmentation; melanin; Quercus infectoria; Terminalia chebula.


Contexto: Uno de los cuidados de la piel más reclamados en la piel étnica de las mujeres asiáticas es la hiperpigmentación, y se han deseado, desde hace mucho tiempo, preparaciones de aclaramiento. Debido a los efectos secundarios de los fármacos actuales, las plantas medicinales han atraído más atenciones como fuente de nuevos fármacos. Mazo (agallas de Quercus infectoria) y frutos de Terminalia chebula han sido sugeridos en la medicina tradicional persa como un tratamiento seguro para la hiperpigmentación.

Objetivos: Evaluar la citotoxicidad y el efecto sobre la síntesis de melanina en células de melanoma B16/F10 de los extractos de Q. infectoria y T. chebula.

Métodos: Después de la recolección y la autenticación científica, las plantas se extrajeron por método de maceración con metanol y se normalizaron en base al contenido fenólico total. El ensayo MTT y el método colorimétrico se utilizaron para la citotoxicidad y la determinación del contenido de melanina y la actividad tirosinasa en células B16/F10, respectivamente. Se usó ácido kójico como compuesto de referencia.

Resultados: El contenido fenólico total de Q. infectoria y T. chebula se determinó como 287,34 ± 4,21 y 172,61 ± 8,67 mg equivalente de ácido gálico/g de extracto seco, respectivamente. Ambas plantas disminuyeron la viabilidad celular a 100 μg/mL y redujeron significativamente la melanina intercelular a 66,25% y 71,1%, respectivamente, en comparación con el ácido kójico (56,63%) a 50 μg/mL. En la misma concentración, Q. inhiboria y T. chebula inhibieron el 65,7% y el 71,2% de actividad tirosinasa, que fueron significativamente diferentes del control (p <0,001).

Conclusiones: Estos hallazgos sugieren que ambas plantas, especialmente Q. infectoria, podrían inhibir la melanogénesis en concentraciones no tóxicas y sería un buen candidato para estudios posteriores.

Palabras Clave: células de melanoma B16/F10; despigmentación; melanina; Quercus infectoria; Terminalia chebula.

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Citation Format: Jamshidzadeh A, Shokri Y, Ahmadi N, Mohamadi N, Sharififar F (2017) Quercus infectoria and Terminalia chebula decrease melanin content and tyrosinase activity in B16/F10 cell lines. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 5(5): 270–277.
This article has been cited by:
Şenol FS, Şekeroğlu N, Gezici S, Kiliç E, Erdoğan Orhan İ (2018) Neuroprotective potential of the fruit (acorn) from Quercus coccifera L. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 42(2): 82-87. DOI: 10.3906/tar-1711-18

© 2017 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Brazilian agriculture as source of raw material to organic cosmetics

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 5(3): 165-166, 2017.

Letter to the Editor | Carta al Editor

The profile of Brazilian agriculture as source of raw material to obtain organic cosmetics

[El perfil de la agricultura brasileña como fuente de materia prima para obtener cosméticos orgánicos]

Neila de Paula Pereira, Douglas Dourado*

Laboratory of Research of Medicines and Cosmetics (LAPEMEC). Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, Brazil.

Dear Editor:

The concept of organic products has expanded beyond food sector foods. Althougth it still causes resistance in some people, it has already captured a wide public, since the basic conditions that define organic products are an absence of agricultural toxins and chemical fertilizers during cultivation. True organic cosmetics are composed only of natural ingredients, with a minimum of 95% of the raw materials used, produced according to the precepts of organic agriculture. They also do not contain preservatives, synthetic fragrances, or petroleum derivatives, among other components of non-natural origin (Kapsnet, 2007; Ethos, 2012). This differentiates them in terms of composition from other cosmetics that claim to possess organic ingredients, i.e., among other non-organic raw materials that make up such products, which additionally contain organic ingredients.

Pereira (2009) has stated that the cosmetics represent the greatest investment in research involving natural raw materials, especially in Brazil, which with the exploration of its biodiversity, adopted agroforestry type production processes that integrate vegetation production with the ecosystem, producing environmental, social, and economic benefits. Therefore, a significant element in the spread of organic cosmetics in Brazil is related to policies for sustainability, which promote environmental integrity through the practice of using non-extractive raw materials, as well as recycling packaging. To assure that all the requirements of organic products are met agencies emerged (ECOCERT and IBD) inspect and certify the production from the raw materials stage through to the finished product (Higuchi, 2013). At the beginning of the 1980, the Institute of Biodynamic Development was founded (IBD, 2009). The only 100% nationally regulated institute, internationally recognized, which carries the credentials for exports destined for all countries. In addition, health researchers are concerned about the raw materials used in the manufacture of cosmetics, which cause allergies, proposing therefore, organic cosmetics as an alternative (De Buzin, 2016).

With one of the most notable floras in the world for sustainable research, the Brazilian Amazon region currently counts on financial incentives from the Brazilian Government for private national and foreign businesses. The ongoing implantation of a Biocosmetics Research and Development Network (REDEBIO) aims to stimulate research involving natural resources from the Brazilian states that make up the zone defined as “Amazônia Legal”. The objective of this region, still under development in Brazil, is principally to aggregate value to products manufactured in small local industries through the use of sustainable technology currently being established. Certain certified raw materials already included in the country’s sustainability program, have also begun to be cultivated according to the requirements of organic cultivation (Neves, 2009). The majority are species of Amazonian vegetation: Euterpe oleracea (Açai), Orbignya martiana (Babaçu), Theobroma grandi-florum (Cupuaçu), Carapas guianensis (Andiroba), Pentaclethra macroloba (Pracaxi), Copaifera landesdorffi (Copaiba), Platonia insignis (Bacuri), Theobroma cacao (Cacao), Virola surinamensis (Ucuuba) and Bertholletia excelsa (Brazil nut). These generate phytopreparations, such as oils, extracts, and dyes that are widely used in the manufacture of Brazilian organic cosmetics with scientifically proven topical and capillary benefits (ABIHPEC, 2012). In the final balance, Brazilian organic cosmetics should continue to gain force over the next few years, especially with the regulation of the organic cosmetics market that is being drafted by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture. Moreover, lines of ecologically aware products that provide quality of life for both for rural and metropolitan communities show a tendency to occupy greater space in the market.


ABIHPEC (2012) Brazilian Association of the Personal Hygiene, Perfumery and Cosmetics Industry. [Consulted December 10, 2016].

De Buzin EJWK (2016) Mercado de produtos orgânicos em Goiânia: Venda direta. PhD Thesis, Department of Agronomy, Federal University of Goias, Goiânia, Brazil.

Ethos (2012) Institute of Business and Social Responsibility. [Consulted December 5, 2016].

Higuchi CT (2013) The rational use of cosmetics and its disposal and aware of appeal for use products organic and natural sources. InterfacEHS 8(3): 138-142.

IBD (2009) Guidelines for certification of health care products and organic beauty, and natural and organic raw materials and natural. [Consulted December 1, 2016].

Kapsner T (2007) Organic cosmetic standards: A new formulation challenge. Cosmet Toiletries 122: 71‑78.

Neves K (2009) Green formulation. Cosmet Toiletries 21: 22-30.

Pereira NP (2009) Sustainability of cosmetic products in Brazil. J Cosmet Dermatol 8: 160‑161.

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Citation Format: Pereira NP, Dourado D (2017) The profile of Brazilian agriculture as source of raw material to obtain organic cosmetics. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 5(3): 165-166.

© 2017 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Emulsifying systems of raw material grease from Brazil flora

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 3(5): 130-140, 2015.

Original Article | Artículo Original

Development and evaluation of emulsifying systems of the material grease from Brazilian flora

[Desarrollo y evaluación de sistemas emulsionantes a partir de grasas de la flora brasileña]

Douglas Dourado1,2*, Camilla Barreto1, Rafaela S. Fernandes1, Ian M.R. Blanco1, Danilo Oliveira3, Neila Pereira1, Mateus F. Leite3

1Laboratory of Research of Medicines and Cosmetics, LAPEMEC. Federal University of Bahia. UFBA, Salvador, Brazil. 2Laboratory of Molecular Interactions and Chemical and Photochemical Reactivity, IMRCP. University Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France. 3Multidisciplinary Institute for Health, Federal University of Bahia, UFBA, Vitoria da Conquista, Brazil.

Context: Oils and butter of seed from Brazilian biodiversity are extending the range of innovative products for cosmetics development. They have a fat potential similar to skin composition, leading to the improved performance of these product.

Aims: Improve the emulsions spreadability through prior screening of grease composition and studying the viscosity, and the emulsions accelerated stability.

Methods: Emulsions were formulated using oils from semiarid plants from Bahia: Syagrus coronate, Pachira retusa, and Pachira aquatica, so as to compare them with oils already standard in the production of cosmetics. Spreadability and stability tests were made comparing the results. The same criteria were used with Amazon seed butter: Virola surinamensis, Butyrospermum parkii, Astrocaryum murumuru, Theobroma cacao and Theobroma grandiflorum. For the emulsions screening and performance, a system was developed for oil/ butter, following tests of accelerated stability, viscosity, and spreadability.

Results: The combined system of spreadability was optimized using screening. Emollients containing oleic and palmitic acids, and light chain fatty acids obtained good spreadability. The oil emulsion containing Pachira retusa and Virola surinamensis butter had a higher viscosity.

Conclusions: With high content of fatty acids such as oleic, palmitic or the light chain fatty acids obtain an appropriated appearance, texture, and spreadability for cosmetic use. Thus, oils with a low fatty acid content may be combined with butter that have a high fatty acid content and vice-versa. Analyzing and strategically combining grease composition, one can optimize the performance of cosmetic formulations.

Keywords: Raw material grease; screening; spreadability; viscosity.


Contexto: Los aceites y mantecas de semillas de la biodiversidad brasileña están ampliando la gama de productos innovadores para el desarrollo de los cosméticos. Estos tienen una grasa potencial similar a la composición de la piel, dando lugar a la mejora del rendimiento de estos productos.

Objetivos: Mejorar la capacidad de extensión de las emulsiones mediante el cribado previo de la composición de grasa y el estudio de la viscosidad y la estabilidad acelerada de las emulsione.

Métodos: Las emulsiones se formularon utilizando aceites de plantas semiáridas de Bahía: Syagrus coronata, Pachira retusa, Pachira aquatica y mantecas de semillas de la Amazona: Virola surinamensis, Butyrospermum parkii, Astrocaryum murumuru, Theobroma cacao y Theobroma grandiflorum. Para el cribado y el rendimiento de las emulsiones se desarrolló un sistema aceite/manteca, seguido de pruebas de estabilidad acelerada, viscosidad y extensibilidad.

Resultados: Los emolientes que contenían ácidos oleico y palmítico, y ácidos grasos de cadena ligera obtuvieron buena extensibilidad. La emulsión de aceite de Pachira retusa y manteca de Virola surinamensis tuvo una viscosidad más alta.

Conclusiones: Con un alto contenido de ácidos grasos oleico, palmítico o los ácidos grasos de cadena ligera se obtienen apariencia, textura y extensibilidad adecuadas para uso cosmético. Por lo tanto, los aceites (contenido bajo de ácidos grasos) se pueden combinar con la manteca (alto contenido de ácidos grasos) y viceversa. Analizando y combinando estratégicamente la composición de grasa se puede optimizar el rendimiento de las formulaciones cosmética.

Palabras Clave: Cribado; extensibilidad; materia prima grasa; viscosidad.

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Citation Format: Dourado D, Barreto C, Fernandes RS, Blanco IMR, Oliveira D, Pereira N, Leite MF (2015) Development and evaluation of emulsifying systems of the material grease from Brazilian flora. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 3(5): 130-140.
This article has been cited by:
Oliveira LP, de A Montenegro M, Lima FCA, Suarez PAZ, da Silva EC, Meneghetti MR, Meneghetti SMP (2019) Biofuel production from Pachira aquatic Aubl and Magonia pubescens A St-Hil: Physical-chemical properties of neat vegetable oils, methyl-esters and bio-oils (hydrocarbons). Industrial Crops and Products 127: 158–163. DOI: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.10.061
Raiser AL, de Sousa AM, Andrighetti CR, Ribeiro EB, Valladão DMS (2018) Evaluation of stability and potential antioxidant activity of munguba (Pachira aquatica Aublet) oil in cosmetic emulsions. Latin American Journal of Pharmacy 37 (8): 1491-1497. Website
de Sousa Coêlho E, Nunes Lopes GL, Martins Pinheiro I, Policarpo de Holanda JN, de Moraes Alves MM,  Carvalho Nogueira N, de Amorim Carvalho FA, Menezes Carvalho AL (2018) Emulgel based on amphotericin B and bacuri butter (Platonia insignis Mart.) for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis: characterization and in vitro assays. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy. DOI: 10.1080/03639045.2018.1492610 
Antonia Cesar Nobre de Abrantes (2016) Obtenção de sistemas macroemulsionados a partir de óleos vegetais, para incorporar extrato seco de Punica granatum. Dissertação de mestrado em Química apresentada ao Programa de Pós-graduação em Química, Centro de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal. Website

© 2015 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)


J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 2(Suppl. 1): S13, 2014

Special supplement with the abstract book of LATINFARMA 2013

Oral Communication


Vinardell MP.

Dep. Fisiología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII s/n 08028 Barcelona, Spain. E-mail:

From July 11, 2013 onward, cosmetic products placed on the market of European Economic Area are obliged to comply with the new European cosmetics regulations, of which some provisions will be enforced before the above date. These new cosmetic requirements are released in the form of EU regulations in the 27 EU member states plus Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein, and implemented as national law, unlike the EU directives which need converting into each domestic version. This Regulation will replace the old cosmetics directive of and the subsequent 67 amendments. The new regulation simplifies the cosmetic requirements of European Economic Area, making itself a single law, and eliminate ambiguities that may occur among the member states during the enforcement process.

The European Cosmetic Regulation indicates that all cosmetic products in the European Union should be safe for the human health in the normal use conditions. In Europe the safety of cosmetics is based on the safety evaluation of each individual ingredient. Currently, the safety of cosmetic products has to be assessed prior to release by a ‘suitably qualified’ person. The new regulations specify that the qualifications should be in toxicology and that the assessment should follow a particular protocol.

Cosmetics in general, do not induce severe problems to health, but this is not synonymous of innocuous. All the substances that should represent any serious health risk are listed in the annexes of the Regulation, including forbidden products, with restrictions, colorants, preservatives and UV filter. In these cases, the responsible of safe evaluation is the European Commission through the Directorate General for Health and Consumers (DG SANCO), the safety evaluation performed by the Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Safety (SCCS). This evaluation is based on the data of the dossiers submitted by industry. The SCCS publishes an opinion that appears in the open DG SANCO web.

The European Directive on Cosmetic 2003/15/EC established since March 2009 a ban to use animals in the safety evaluation of cosmetic ingredients.

In practice, the safety evaluations of the SCCS are based on old studies done with animals and prior to the ban and recently on in vitro studies.

In this talk the percentage of in vitro methods evaluated by the SCCS since 2009 will be presented. One of the difficulties relative to the use of in vitro methods is the lack of validated ones. The most used in vitro methods presented in the dossiers are the studies of dermal absorption, mutagenicity and genotoxicity and in a less extents studies of eye irritation and dermal irritation.