Category Archives: Dermatology and Cosmetic Science

Philippines Equisetum hyemale as potential hair grower

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 7(5): 323-330, 2019.

Original Article | Artículo Original

Hair regenerative activities of flavonoid-rich extract of Equisetum hyemale L. (Equisetaceae) in chemically-induced alopecia in Sprague Dawley rats

[Actividad regeneradora del cabello de extracto rico en flavonoides de Equisetum hyemale L. (Equisetaceae) en alopecia inducida químicamente en ratas Sprague Dawley]

Penuel P. David1,2*, Cecilia D. Santiago1,3, Anges L. Castillo4, Gerard Q. De Guzman1,3,5,6,7

1Graduate School, Centro Escolar University, Manila, Philippines.
2Department of Pharmacy, Centro Escolar University, Malolos, Philippines.
3School of Pharmacy, Centro Escolar University, Manila, Philippines.
4Faculty of Pharmacy and the Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines.
5College of Pharmacy and Graduate School, Adamson University, Manila, Philippines.
6Francisco Q. Duque Medical Foundation, College of Medicine, Lyceum Northwestern University, Dagupan, Pangasinan, Philippines.
 7The Graduate School, Virgen Milagrosa University Foundation, San Carlos, Pangasinan, Philippines.
Abstract

Context: The prevalence of alopecia around the world is high and awareness continuously increased due to social stigma. There are limited commercially-available medications for the management of different forms of baldness, most of which are prohibitively expensive and presents with various adverse effects.

Aims: To evaluate the flavonoid-rich ethyl acetate extract of Equisetum hyemale stem for its hair-regenerative properties in chemically-induced alopecia in Sprague Dawley rats.

Methods: Various concentrations of the flavonoid-rich extract of E. hyemale were applied in depilated areas in dorsal rat skin after chemical induction of alopecia. Evidence of hair growth was observed for 28 days in a weekly basis. Histopathological analysis of rat skin was performed to demonstrate evidence of follicular hair growth.

Results: The abundance of flavonoids in the ethyl acetate extract was established by total flavonoid contents and LC-MS analyses. The 2.5% E. hyemale extract exhibited hair-regenerative properties with high tensile strengths, combined masses and follicular growth, which was comparable to the positive control, 5% minoxidil (p>0.05). The highest rate of hair follicular development was observed in the telogen phase in rat skin after 28 days of treatment.

Conclusions: The flavonoid-rich ethyl acetate extract of E. hyemale exhibits in situ hair-regenerative properties in chemically-induced alopecia in rats at 2.5% w/v concentration.

Keywords: alopecia; Equisetum hyemale; flavonoids; hair-regenerative; horsetail.

Resumen

Contexto: La prevalencia de alopecia en todo el mundo es alta y la conciencia aumenta continuamente debido al estigma social. Existen medicamentos disponibles pero limitados para el tratamiento de diferentes formas de calvicie, la mayoría de ellos son muy caros y presentan diversos efectos adversos.

Objetivos: Evaluar el extracto de acetato de etilo, rico en flavonoides, del tallo de Equisetum hyemale por sus propiedades regenerativas del cabello en la alopecia inducida químicamente en ratas Sprague Dawley.

Métodos: Se aplicaron diversas concentraciones del extracto rico en flavonoides de E. hyemale en áreas depiladas en la piel dorsal de rata después de la inducción de la alopecia. La evidencia de crecimiento del pelo se observó semanalmente durante 28 días. El análisis histopatológico de la piel de rata se realizó para demostrar la evidencia de crecimiento folicular del pelo.

Resultados: La abundancia de flavonoides en el extracto de acetato de etilo se estableció mediante el contenido total de estos y el análisis LC-MS. El extracto de E. hyemale al 2,5% mostró propiedades de regeneración del cabello con altas resistencias a la tracción, masas combinadas y crecimiento folicular, que fue comparable al control positivo, 5% de minoxidil (p> 0.05). La mayor tasa de desarrollo folicular del cabello se observó en la fase telógena en la piel de rata después de 28 días de tratamiento.

Conclusiones: El extracto de acetato de etilo, rico en flavonoides, de E. hyemale exhibe propiedades regenerativas del cabello in situ en la alopecia inducida en ratas a una concentración de 2,5% p/v.

Palabras Clave: alopecia; cola de caballo; Equisetum hyemale; flavonoides; regenerador del cabello.

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Citation Format: David PP, Santiago CD, Castillo AL, De Guzman GQ (2019) Hair regenerative activities of flavonoid-rich extract of Equisetum hyemale L. (Equisetaceae) in chemically-induced alopecia in Sprague Dawley rats. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 7(5): 323–330.

© 2019 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Optimization of a chitosan ointment

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 7(4): 297-309, 2019.

Original Article | Artículo Original

Optimization, physical-chemical evaluation and healing activity of chitosan ointment

[Optimización, evaluación físico-química y actividad cicatrizante del ungüento de quitosana]

Dania Pérez1, Nilia de la Paz2, Mirna Fernández1*, Niurys Mantilla2, Mariela Peña1, Addis Menéndez2

 

1Instituto de Farmacia y Alimentos (IFAL). Universidad de La Habana. Calle 23 No. 21425 e/ 214 y 222. La Habana. Cuba.
2Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo de Medicamentos (CIDEM). Ave. 26 # 1605 e/ Puentes Grandes y Boyeros. La Habana, Cuba.

*E-mail: mirnafc@ifal.uh.cu

Abstract

Context: Chitosan has received attention as a functional, sustainably renewable, nontoxic and biodegradable biopolymer for pharmaceutical applications such as healing agent.

Aims: To design a semisolid pharmaceutical form (ointment), employing 1% chitosan as an active pharmaceutical ingredient.

Methods: The formulation was carried out through D-optimal mixing design, with a linear model. Variation components evaluated were the concentration of sodium hydroxide, water and anhydrous lanolin. Variables included those of response pH and extensibility. Three batches were produced, and the physical and chemical stability of the ointment was assessed through stress and shelf-life tests for 24 months. Physical-chemical parameters studied included organoleptic characteristics, chitosan content, rheological behavior, apparent viscosity, pH and extensibility. Wound healing activity was also tested for burns damage model in rats.

Results: The mixture design showed that the best formulation was the one containing 0.12% sodium hydroxide, 20.0% anhydrous lanolin and 40.0% water, with the mechanical-structural behavior characteristics of a semisolid product. This product had healing effects and showed adequate physical chemical stability during the time under study.

Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that 1% chitosan ointment design favors scarring in the second-degree burn damage model in rats skin applied for 14 days at the rate of daily administration.

Keywords: chitosan; D-optimal mixing design; healing effect; ointment.

Resumen

Contexto: La quitosana ha recibido gran atención al ser un biopolímero funcional, biodegradable, renovable y no tóxico con múltiples aplicaciones farmacéuticas, entre ellas como agente cicatrizante.

Objetivos: Diseñar una forma farmacéutica semisólida (ungüento), empleando quitosana al 1% como ingrediente farmacéutico activo.

Métodos: El diseño de formulación se llevó a cabo a través de un diseño de mezcla D-optimal, modelo lineal, evaluándose como componentes de variación la concentración de hidróxido de sodio, agua y lanolina anhidra y como variables respuesta el pH y la extensibilidad. Se elaboraron tres lotes y se evaluó la estabilidad la estabilidad física y química de los mismos durante 24 meses. Como parámetros fisicoquímicos se estudiaron las características organolépticas, concentración de quitosana, comportamiento reológico, viscosidad aparente, pH y extensibilidad. La actividad cicatrizante se evaluó mediante el modelo de daño por quemaduras en ratas.

Resultados: El diseño de mezclas arrojó que la mejor formulación resultó ser la que contenía 0,12% de hidróxido de sodio, 20,0% de lanolina anhidra y 40,0% de agua, coincidiendo con la formulación 6 del diseño, con un comportamiento mecánico-estructural característico de un producto semisólido, mostrando efecto cicatrizante y una adecuada estabilidad durante el tiempo de estudio.

Conclusiones: Los resultados de este estudio sugieren que el ungüento de quitosana al 1% diseñado favorece la cicatrización en quemaduras de segundo grado, al ser administrado en ratas durante 14 días.

Palabras Clave: diseño de mezcla D-optimal; efecto cicatrizante; quitosana; ungüento.

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Citation Format: Pérez D, de la Paz N, Fernández M, Mantilla N, Peña M, Menéndez A (2019) Optimization, physical-chemical evaluation and healing activity of chitosan ointment. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 7(4): 297–309.

© 2019 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Brazilian agriculture as source of raw material to organic cosmetics

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 5(3): 165-166, 2017.

Letter to the Editor | Carta al Editor

The profile of Brazilian agriculture as source of raw material to obtain organic cosmetics

[El perfil de la agricultura brasileña como fuente de materia prima para obtener cosméticos orgánicos]

Neila de Paula Pereira, Douglas Dourado*

Laboratory of Research of Medicines and Cosmetics (LAPEMEC). Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, Brazil.
*E-mail: douglas.dourado@ufba.br; dougydourado@gmail.com

Dear Editor:

The concept of organic products has expanded beyond food sector foods. Althougth it still causes resistance in some people, it has already captured a wide public, since the basic conditions that define organic products are an absence of agricultural toxins and chemical fertilizers during cultivation. True organic cosmetics are composed only of natural ingredients, with a minimum of 95% of the raw materials used, produced according to the precepts of organic agriculture. They also do not contain preservatives, synthetic fragrances, or petroleum derivatives, among other components of non-natural origin (Kapsnet, 2007; Ethos, 2012). This differentiates them in terms of composition from other cosmetics that claim to possess organic ingredients, i.e., among other non-organic raw materials that make up such products, which additionally contain organic ingredients.

Pereira (2009) has stated that the cosmetics represent the greatest investment in research involving natural raw materials, especially in Brazil, which with the exploration of its biodiversity, adopted agroforestry type production processes that integrate vegetation production with the ecosystem, producing environmental, social, and economic benefits. Therefore, a significant element in the spread of organic cosmetics in Brazil is related to policies for sustainability, which promote environmental integrity through the practice of using non-extractive raw materials, as well as recycling packaging. To assure that all the requirements of organic products are met agencies emerged (ECOCERT and IBD) inspect and certify the production from the raw materials stage through to the finished product (Higuchi, 2013). At the beginning of the 1980, the Institute of Biodynamic Development was founded (IBD, 2009). The only 100% nationally regulated institute, internationally recognized, which carries the credentials for exports destined for all countries. In addition, health researchers are concerned about the raw materials used in the manufacture of cosmetics, which cause allergies, proposing therefore, organic cosmetics as an alternative (De Buzin, 2016).

With one of the most notable floras in the world for sustainable research, the Brazilian Amazon region currently counts on financial incentives from the Brazilian Government for private national and foreign businesses. The ongoing implantation of a Biocosmetics Research and Development Network (REDEBIO) aims to stimulate research involving natural resources from the Brazilian states that make up the zone defined as “Amazônia Legal”. The objective of this region, still under development in Brazil, is principally to aggregate value to products manufactured in small local industries through the use of sustainable technology currently being established. Certain certified raw materials already included in the country’s sustainability program, have also begun to be cultivated according to the requirements of organic cultivation (Neves, 2009). The majority are species of Amazonian vegetation: Euterpe oleracea (Açai), Orbignya martiana (Babaçu), Theobroma grandi-florum (Cupuaçu), Carapas guianensis (Andiroba), Pentaclethra macroloba (Pracaxi), Copaifera landesdorffi (Copaiba), Platonia insignis (Bacuri), Theobroma cacao (Cacao), Virola surinamensis (Ucuuba) and Bertholletia excelsa (Brazil nut). These generate phytopreparations, such as oils, extracts, and dyes that are widely used in the manufacture of Brazilian organic cosmetics with scientifically proven topical and capillary benefits (ABIHPEC, 2012). In the final balance, Brazilian organic cosmetics should continue to gain force over the next few years, especially with the regulation of the organic cosmetics market that is being drafted by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture. Moreover, lines of ecologically aware products that provide quality of life for both for rural and metropolitan communities show a tendency to occupy greater space in the market.

References

ABIHPEC (2012) Brazilian Association of the Personal Hygiene, Perfumery and Cosmetics Industry. http://www.abihp-ec.org.br/bb/principiosativos.php. [Consulted December 10, 2016].

De Buzin EJWK (2016) Mercado de produtos orgânicos em Goiânia: Venda direta. PhD Thesis, Department of Agronomy, Federal University of Goias, Goiânia, Brazil.

Ethos (2012) Institute of Business and Social Responsibility. http://www1.ethos.org.br/EthosWeb/Default.aspx. [Consulted December 5, 2016].

Higuchi CT (2013) The rational use of cosmetics and its disposal and aware of appeal for use products organic and natural sources. InterfacEHS 8(3): 138-142.

IBD (2009) Guidelines for certification of health care products and organic beauty, and natural and organic raw materials and natural. http://www.ibd.com.br. [Consulted December 1, 2016].

Kapsner T (2007) Organic cosmetic standards: A new formulation challenge. Cosmet Toiletries 122: 71‑78.

Neves K (2009) Green formulation. Cosmet Toiletries 21: 22-30.

Pereira NP (2009) Sustainability of cosmetic products in Brazil. J Cosmet Dermatol 8: 160‑161.

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Citation Format: Pereira NP, Dourado D (2017) The profile of Brazilian agriculture as source of raw material to obtain organic cosmetics. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 5(3): 165-166.

© 2017 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Irritabilidad dérmica y oftálmica de OLEOMASAJE

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 3(4): 87-91, 2015.

Short Communication | Comunicación Corta

Evaluación de la irritabilidad dérmica y oftálmica de la formulación OLEOMASAJE

[Evaluation of the ophthalmic and dermal irritability of the OLEOMASAJE formulation]

Maritza F. Díaz1*, Kendra García2, Rosa I. Meneau3, Yaíma Sánchez3, Gastón García4

1Sociedad Médica Terapéutica LTDA, Martin de Zamora No. 3042, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile.2Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas, 24 y 158, Cubanacán, Playa, La Habana, Cuba.3Centro para el Control Estatal de Medicamentos, 5ta A y 60, Playa, La Habana, Cuba.
4Centro de Estudios para las Investigaciones y Evaluaciones Biológicas, Instituto de Farmacia y Alimentos, 222 y 25, La Lisa, La Habana, Cuba.
Abstract

Context: Ozonized vegetable oils present germicidal effects which can be used as active principle in different cosmetological compositions. The thematic about of the corporal massage advantage have been very treatment by aesthetics, dermatologic and consumers. OLEOMASAJE formulation content ozonized sunflower oil OLEOZON as active principle active which present moisturizer and conditioner effects.

Aims: To determine the possible dermal and ophthalmic irritability effects of the OLEOMASAJE.

Methods: The trial was conducted in rabbits and the techniques described in the standardized procedures of the work established by the Center of Biological Research and Evaluations from Pharmacy and Food Institute of Havana University were used according to Norma ISO 10993-10. The ethical principles of the Good Practices of Laboratory were fulfilled to avoid suffering to the animals during the experimentation. Male rabbits with body weight between 2.05 and 2.48 kg were used. In the skin and the ocular structures the effects were observed immediately after of the application at 1, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Draize´s scale was applied to evaluate skin and ocular structures lesions.

Results: The OLEOMASAJE formulation does not irritate de skin of the assayed rabbits. However, the ocular structures irritability index was of 4.5 after of first hour to apply of product. These wounds were missing before of 24 hours to apply of product.

Conclusions: The OLEOMASAJE formulation obeys the indispensable requirements for the acceptance as cosmetic product and for it is used in corporal massage.

Keywords: Corporal massage; ozonized sunflower oil; topic OLEOZON.

Resumen

Contexto: Los aceites vegetales ozonizados presentan efectos germicidas los cuales pueden ser utilizados como principios activos en diferentes composiciones cosmetológicas. La temática acerca del beneficio del masaje corporal ha sido muy tratada por esteticistas, dermatólogos y consumidores. La formulación OLEOMASAJE contiene aceite de girasol ozonizado OLEOZON como principio activo y presenta efectos suavizante y humectante.

Objetivos: Determinar la posible irritabilidad dérmica y oftálmica del producto OLEOMASAJE.

Métodos: Los ensayos se llevaron a cabo en conejos con las técnicas descritas en los procedimientos normalizados de trabajo establecidos en el Centro de Investigaciones y Evaluaciones Biológicas de la Universidad de La Habana, según la Norma ISO 10993-10. Se cumplieron los principios de las Buenas Prácticas de Laboratorio y los principios éticos para evitar sufrimiento a los animales durante la experimentación. Se utilizaron conejos machos con peso corporal entre 2,05 y 2,48 kg. En la piel como en las estructuras oculares los efectos fueron observados inmediatamente después de la aplicación a las 1, 24, 48 y 72 horas. Se aplicó la escala Draize para evaluar las lesiones sobre la piel y las estructuras oculares.

Resultados: El producto OLEOMASAJE no resulta irritante en la piel de los conejos ensayados. Sin embargo en las estructuras oculares el índice de irritabilidad fue de 4,5 después de la primera hora de aplicación del producto. Estas lesiones desparecieron antes de las 24 horas de aplicado el producto.

Conclusiones: La formulación OLEOMASAJE cumple con los requisitos indispensables para ser aceptado como producto cosmético y ser utilizado como masaje corporal.

Palabras Clave: Aceite de girasol ozonizado; masaje corporal; OLEOZON tópico.

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Citation Format: Maritza F. Díaz, Kendra García, Rosa I. Meneau, Yaíma Sánchez, Gastón García (2015) Evaluación de la irritabilidad dérmica y oftálmica de la formulación OLEOMASAJE. [Evaluation of the ophthalmic and dermal irritability of the OLEOMASAJE formulation]. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 3(4): 87-91.

© 2015 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Nanocarriers for skin delivery of cosmetic antioxidants

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 2(4): 73-92, 2014.

Review | Revisión

Nanocarriers for skin delivery of cosmetic antioxidants.

[Nanovehículos para la liberación en piel de cosméticos antioxidantes]

Lucia Montenegro

Department of Drug Sciences, University of Catania, V.le A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania, Italy.
*E-mail: lmontene@unict.it
Abstract

The demand of natural skin care products is steadily growing since consumers perceive them as safe. Currently, cosmetic manufacturers are focusing their efforts on developing innovative natural products to address skin-aging signs, thus meeting consumers’ needs of healthy appearance and well-being. To prevent or treat skin aging, topical supplementation with antioxidant is regarded as one of the most promising strategies. However, most antioxidants presently used in skin care formulations show unfavorable physicochemical properties such as excessive lipophilicity or hydrophilicity, chemical instability and poor skin penetration that actively limit their effectiveness after topical application. Therefore, nanocarriers such as liposomes, niosomes, microemulsions and nanoparticles have been widely investigated as delivery systems for antioxidants to improve their beneficial effects in the treatment of skin aging. In this article, the antioxidants most commonly used in anti-aging cosmetic products will be reviewed along with the nanocarriers designed to improve their safety and effectiveness.

Keywords: Anti-aging; antioxidant; cosmetic; nanocarrier; topical delivery system.

Resumen

La demanda de los productos naturales para el cuidado de piel es cada vez mayor ya que los consumidores los perciben como seguros. En la actualidad, los fabricantes de cosméticos centran sus esfuerzos en el desarrollo de productos naturales innovadores para abordar los signos de envejecimiento de la piel y, por tanto, satisfacer las necesidades de apariencia saludable y el bienestar de los consumidores. La suplementación con antioxidantes tópicos está considerada como una de las estrategias más prometedoras para prevenir o tratar el envejecimiento de la piel. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los antioxidantes que se utilizan actualmente en las formulaciones de cuidado de la piel muestran propiedades fisicoquímicas desfavorables como lipofilia o hidrofilia excesivas, inestabilidad química y escasa penetración de la piel, que limita su eficacia después de la aplicación tópica. Por lo tanto, nanovehículos tales como liposomas, niosomas, microemulsiones y nanopartículas han sido ampliamente investigados como sistemas de liberación para antioxidantes, para mejorar sus efectos beneficiosos en el tratamiento de envejecimiento de la piel. En este artículo serán revisados los antioxidantes más utilizados en productos cosméticos en la lucha contra el envejecimiento, junto con los nanovehículos diseñados para mejorar la seguridad y la eficacia.

Palabras Clave: Antienvejecimiento; antioxidante; cosmético; nanovehículo; sistema de liberación tópica.

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Citation Format: Montenegro L (2014) Nanocarriers for skin delivery of cosmetic antioxidants. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 2(4): 73-92.
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© 2014 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)