Category Archives: Education

Quality of life among Vietnamese dental students

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 8(3): 201-210, 2020.

Original Article

Health-related quality of life among undergraduate dentistry students in Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam: A cross-sectional WHOQOL‑BREF study

[Calidad de vida relacionada con la salud entre estudiantes de pregrado de odontología en Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam: Un estudio transversal de WHOQOL-BREF]

Trung Quang Vo1*, Duy Duc Tran2, Hien Thi Thuong Dinh2

1Department of Economic and Administrative Pharmacy (EAP), Faculty of Pharmacy, Pham Ngoc Thach University of Medicine, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam.
2Faculty of Pharmacy, Pham Ngoc Thach University of Medicine, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam.
Abstract

Context: Dentistry is one of the most stressful and difficult programs in Vietnam. The quality of life (QoL) of dentistry students strongly affects their learning ability and is an issue that causes anxiety among educators.

Aims: To assess the QoL of dentistry students using the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument – Short Form (WHOQOL-BREF) and to explore the relationship between questionnaire scores and participant characteristics.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was administered directly in February to May 2019 with the participation of 201 dentistry students from three universities in southern Vietnam.

Results: The mean scores of the students in the four WHOQOL-BREF domains were 57.20 ± 11.93 (physical health), 53.75 ± 14.78 (psychological health), 59.70 ± 15.68 (social relationships), and 55.79 ± 13.25 (environment). Their QoL scores were lower than those of their counterparts in the US and Pakistan. The female students had lower psychological, environmental, and physical health domain scores than those acquired by the male students (p<0.01). The frequency of physical exercise and average sleep duration was significantly associated with all the QoL domains (p<0.05).

Conclusions: The WHOQOL-BREF is a suitable questionnaire for evaluating the QoL of Vietnamese dentistry students. To improve the health and well-being of this population, medical universities should innovate dentistry education programs and provide essential support, especially to female and fourth year students. Such institutions should also encourage students to participate in sport activities outside learning time and obtain enough sleep for a healthy body and satisfactory academic performance.

Keywords: dentistry students; environment; physical health; psychological health; social relationship; Vietnam.

Resumen

Contexto: La odontología es uno de los programas más estresantes y difíciles en Vietnam. La calidad de vida (QoL) de los estudiantes de odontología afecta fuertemente su capacidad de aprendizaje y es un problema que causa ansiedad entre los educadores.

Objetivos: Evaluar la calidad de vida de los estudiantes de odontología utilizando el instrumento de calidad de vida de la Organización Mundial de la Salud – Formulario abreviado (WHOQOL-BREF) y explorar la relación entre los puntajes del cuestionario y las características de los participantes.

Métodos: Una encuesta transversal se administró directamente de febrero a mayo de 2019 con la participación de 201 estudiantes de odontología de tres universidades del sur de Vietnam.

Resultados: Las puntuaciones medias de los estudiantes en los cuatro dominios WHOQOL-BREF fueron 57,20 ± 11,93 (salud física), 53,75 ± 14,78 (salud psicológica), 59,70 ± 15,68 (relaciones sociales) y 55,79 ± 13,25 (ambiente). Sus puntuaciones de calidad de vida fueron más bajas que las de sus homólogos en los Estados Unidos y Pakistán. Las estudiantes tenían puntuaciones más bajas en el dominio de la salud psicológica, ambiental y física que las adquiridas por los estudiantes varones (p<0,01). La frecuencia del ejercicio físico y la duración promedio del sueño se asociaron significativamente con todos los dominios de la calidad de vida (p<0,05).

Conclusiones: El WHOQOL-BREF es un cuestionario adecuado para evaluar la calidad de vida de los estudiantes de odontología vietnamitas. Para mejorar la salud y el bienestar de esta población, las universidades médicas deben innovar los programas de educación en odontología y proporcionar un apoyo esencial, especialmente a las estudiantes de cuarto año. Dichas instituciones también deberían alentar a los estudiantes a participar en actividades deportivas fuera del tiempo de aprendizaje y obtener suficiente sueño para un cuerpo sano y un rendimiento académico satisfactorio.

Palabras Clave: ambiente; estudiantes de odontología; relación social; salud física; salud psicológica; Vietnam.

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Citation Format: Vo TQ, Tran DD, Dinh HTT (2020) Health-related quality of life among undergraduate dentistry students in Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam: A cross-sectional WHOQOL‑BREF study. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 8(3): 201–210.

© 2020 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Knowledge, attitudes of healthcare students toward HBV

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 6(6): 458-470, 2018.

Original Article | Artículo Original

Exploring knowledge and attitudes toward the hepatitis B virus: an internet-based study among Vietnamese healthcare students

[Explorando el conocimiento y las actitudes hacia el virus de la hepatitis B: un estudio basado en Internet entre estudiantes vietnamitas de la salud]

Trung Quang Vo*, Thanh Le Hoang Nguyen, Mai Ngoc Pham

Department of Pharmacy Administration, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy at Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam.

*E-mail: quangtrung@ump.edu.vn, voquangtrungdk@gmail.com

Abstract

Context: Hepatitis B is a serious global public health problem, especially in developing countries such as Vietnam. Many studies worldwide have focused on health care workers, a population at high risk of infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), but there is little research that explores the high levels of risk faced by health care students.

Aims: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of Vietnamese undergraduate students toward hepatitis B vaccination.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1291 Vietnamese healthcare students between November 2017 and March 2018 via social media.

Results: The mean score for knowledge was 4.0 ± 0.4, and the mean score for attitude was lower (3.5 ± 0.6). Levels of knowledge were higher (p<0.001) among sixth-year students, students who had been vaccinated, and students attending public universities. Most participants were well-informed about the diseases caused by HBV, with 1128 (87.4%) agreeing that HBV infection can lead to liver cancer. Nevertheless, 259 students believed that HBV cannot be spread by sharing a toothbrush with an infected person, and 18.7% thought that asymptomatic carriers are incapable of transmitting HBV.

Conclusions: Although students had adequate knowledge of HBV, their scores for attitude and their rates of vaccination were low. This study therefore recommends improving the knowledge and attitudes of health care students through orientation and sensitization programs and improvements in their educational environment.

Keywords: attitude; hepatitis B virus; health care students; knowledge; Vietnam.

Resumen

Contexto: La hepatitis B es un grave problema de salud pública mundial, especialmente en países en desarrollo como Vietnam. Muchos estudios en todo el mundo se han centrado en trabajadores de la salud, una población con alto riesgo de infección por el virus de la hepatitis B (VHB), pero hay poca investigación que explore los altos niveles de riesgo que enfrentan los estudiantes de atención médica.

Objetivos: Evaluar el conocimiento y las actitudes de los estudiantes vietnamitas de pregrado hacia la vacunación contra la hepatitis B.

Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal entre 1291 estudiantes vietnamitas de salud entre noviembre de 2017 y marzo de 2018 a través de las redes sociales.

Resultados: La puntuación media del conocimiento fue de 4,0 ± 0,4 y la puntuación media para la actitud fue menor (3,5 ± 0,6). Los niveles de conocimiento fueron más altos (p<0.001) entre los estudiantes de sexto año, los estudiantes que habían sido vacunados y los estudiantes que asistían a universidades públicas. La mayoría de los participantes estaban bien informados sobre las enfermedades causadas por el VHB, con 1128 (87,4%) de acuerdo en que la infección por el VHB puede provocar cáncer de hígado. Sin embargo, 259 estudiantes creyeron que el VHB no se puede transmitir al compartir un cepillo de dientes con una persona infectada, y el 18,7% pensó que los portadores asintomáticos son incapaces de transmitir el VHB.

Conclusiones: Aunque los estudiantes tenían un conocimiento adecuado del VHB, sus puntajes de actitud y sus tasas de vacunación fueron bajos. Por lo tanto, recomendamos mejorar el conocimiento y las actitudes de los estudiantes de atención médica a través de programas de orientación y sensibilización y mejoras en su entorno educativo.

Palabras Clave: actitud; virus de la hepatitis B; estudiantes de cuidado de la salud; conocimiento; Vietnam.

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Citation Format: Vo TQ, Nguyen LHT, Pham MN (2018) Exploring knowledge and attitudes toward the hepatitis B virus: an internet-based study among Vietnamese healthcare students. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 6(6): 458–470.

© 2018 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Intervención farmacéutica en pacientes menopáusicas en Antofagasta

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 3(1): 24-36, 2015.

Original Article | Artículo Original

Intervención farmacéutica a pacientes menopáusicas con terapia hormonal de reemplazo en una farmacia comunitaria de Antofagasta

[Pharmaceutical intervention in menopausal patients with hormone replacement therapy in a community pharmacy from Antofagasta]

Alejandrina Alucema1, Silvia C. González1, Ingrid Valenzuela2, Marisela Valdés1*

1Departamento de Ciencias Farmacéuticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Católica del Norte, Angamos 0610, Antofagasta, Chile.2Farmacias Cruz Verde, Antofagasta, Chile.
*E-mail: mvaldes01@ucn.cl
Abstract

Context: Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is the most widely used treatment for controlling the effects of menopause. This type of therapy causes some drug-related problems (DRP), which requires monitoring to control the negative effects and ensure patient adherence to therapy.

Aims: Perform a pharmacotherapeutic monitoring and educate to menopausal patients in HRT of a community pharmacy from the city of Antofagasta.

Methods: A 98-menopausal patients underwent a pharmaceutical intervention to identify the PRM and its resolution. It was applied to them a survey before and after educational activities about this disease and HRT to determine the knowledge on the subject.

Results: During the pharmacotherapeutic monitoring was determined that 55% of patients using combined HRT. 62 DRPs were detected, of which 43 were resolved (69%); the most were Patient-Pharmacist (73%). The better resolution DRP were DRP 4(b) “frequency of inadequate administration” and DRP 2(a) “no medical indication”. At baseline, 90% had an inadequate level of knowledge about the disease and THR, 8% intermediate, and only 2% adequate. After the implementation of the education strategy, the level of knowledge increased, achieving at the end of the study only intermediate (10%) and adequate (90%) levels.

Conclusions: The results confirm the importance of pharmaceutical intervention for the identification and resolution of DRP and the requirement to establish educational strategies to increase the knowledge about menopause and HRT in menopausal patients.

Keywords: Hormone replacement therapy; menopause; pharmaceutical care.

Resumen

Contexto: La terapia hormonal de reemplazo (THR) es el tratamiento más utilizado para controlar los efectos del climaterio. Este tipo de terapia ocasiona algunos problemas relacionados con los medicamentos (PRM), por lo que requiere de un seguimiento para controlar los efectos negativos y asegurar la adherencia de la paciente a la terapia.

Objetivos: Realizar un seguimiento farmacoterapéutico y educar a pacientes menopáusicas en THR de una farmacia comunitaria de la ciudad de Antofagasta.

Métodos: A 98 pacientes menopaúsicas se le realizó una intervención farmacéutica para identificar los PRM y su resolución. Se les aplicó una encuesta antes y después de actividades educativas sobre dicha patología y la TRH, para determinar los conocimientos sobre la temática.

Resultados: Durante el seguimiento farmacoterapéutico se determinó que el 55% de las pacientes utilizaba THR combinada. Se detectaron 62 PRM, de los cuales se resolvieron 43 (69%), la mayoría de forma Farmacéutico-Paciente (73%). Los de mejor resolución fueron los PRM 4(b) “frecuencia de administración inadecuada” y PRM 2(a) “ausencia de indicación médica”. Al inicio del estudio el 90% poseía un nivel inadecuado de conocimiento sobre la patología y la THR, 8% intermedio y solo un 2% adecuado. Posterior a la aplicación de la estrategia educativa, el nivel de conocimiento aumentó, logrando al finalizar del estudio sólo niveles intermedio (10%) y adecuado (90%).

Conclusiones: Los resultados confirman la importancia de la intervención farmacéutica para la identificación y resolución de PRM, así como la necesidad de establecer estrategias educativas para elevar el conocimiento sobre la menopausia y la THR en pacientes menopaúsicas.

Palabras Clave: Atención farmacéutica; menopausia; terapia de reemplazo hormonal.

Download the PDF file .

Citation Format: Alejandrina Alucema, Silvia C. González, Ingrid Valenzuela, Marisela Valdés (2015) Intervención farmacéutica a pacientes menopáusicas con terapia hormonal de reemplazo en una farmacia comunitaria de Antofagasta. [Pharmaceutical intervention in menopausal patients with hormone replacement therapy in a community pharmacy from Antofagasta]. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 3(1): 24-36.

© 2015 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

CO 040: EDUCATIVE INTERVENTION ON ESSENTIAL MEDICATIONS TO BE USED IN DISASTERS BY FAMILY DOCTORS IN ARROYO NARANJO MUNICIPALITY, IN 2012

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 2(Suppl. 1): S22, 2014

Special supplement with the abstract book of LATINFARMA 2013

Oral Communication

CO 040: EDUCATIVE INTERVENTION ON ESSENTIAL MEDICATIONS TO BE USED IN DISASTERS BY FAMILY DOCTORS IN ARROYO NARANJO MUNICIPALITY, IN 2012

López Aguilera AF, Furones Mourelle JA, Bravo Palma PP.

Facultad de Medicina Julio Trigo López, La Habana, Cuba. E-mail: alopagui@infomed.sld.cu
Abstract

Introduction: The World Health Organization (WHO) has proposed a list of essential medications to be used in case of natural and anthropogenic disasters. Cuba in its list of essential medications has included almost all these medications as recommended by that organization.

Objective: To improve the knowledge on essential medications to be used in case of disasters on the part of family doctors in Arroyo Naranjo municipality.

Method: A quasi experimental study on essential medications to be used in case of disasters was conducted before and after the educative intervention in Arroyo Naranjo municipality in 2012. The work universe was composed of 70 family doctors. The sample consisted of 55 doctors. These doctors were chosen by non-probabilistic sampling by expert criteria. They were subjected to an initial inquire to find out the weak points on their knowledge about essential medications in case of disasters. The variables taken into consideration were the actual existence of medications, kinds of medications, pharmacological group, nonexistent medications, and substitutive medications. The lists of essential medications in case of emergencies of the WHO were used as a referential pattern. Absolute frequencies and percentages were used as summation measurement.

Results: At the beginning 87.4% of the family doctors’ knowledge on the matter was evaluated as BAD, and only 5.4% as GOOD. Later on, in the second evaluative period, 89.2% of the doctors reached the qualitative category of GOOD. All conceptual errors on different aspects found in the first evaluative period were improved.

Conclusions: The educative intervention proved to be useful when trying to improve the family doctors’ knowledge concerning essential medications when facing disasters.

CO 034: DISSECTION OF THE VENTRAL NERVE CORD-DEEP ABDONIMAL FLEXOR MUSCLE SYSTEM OF THE FRESHWATER LOBSTER OF THE Cherax GENUS

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 2(Suppl. 1): S18, 2014

Special supplement with the abstract book of LATINFARMA 2013

Oral Communication

CO 034: DISSECTION OF THE VENTRAL NERVE CORD-DEEP ABDONIMAL FLEXOR MUSCLE SYSTEM OF THE FRESHWATER LOBSTER OF THE Cherax GENUS: AN IN SITU MODEL FOR TEACHING PHARMACOLOGY

Islas V, Martínez C, Alavez JS, Hernández A, Lazo RE.

Facultad de Estudios Superiores “Zaragoza”, UNAM. Av. Guelatao No. 66, Col. Ejército de Oriente, Iztapalapa, C.P. 09230, México DF. Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria No. 3000, México D.F. E-mail: vislas@unam.mx
Abstract

Introduction: The publication of norms regarding the use of laboratory animals has limited the implementation of practices towards the teaching of pharmacology, arising the need to develop alternative experimental models. In the present work, an in situ model of the ventral nerve cord-deep abdominal flexor muscle system as a pharmacology-teaching tool was developed.

Material and methods: Five lobsters of the Cherax genus were dissected separately as follows: the lobsters were anesthetized by submerging them for 10 minutes in an ice-bath. Afterwards, the head, the cephalothorax, and other crustacean extremities were removed, placing what remained on top of a dissection table. The ventral nervous-abdominal flexor muscle system was isolated after removal of the shell and abdominal cuticle. The caudal end of the muscle was attached to a myograph and the nerves were electrically stimulated using a varying voltage of 0.1 mV – 110 V; any muscular contractions were recorded. The electrical stimulation was repeated two more times, once with the addition of a solution of 2% lidocaine, and the other with the addition of 2% pilocarpine.

Results: The central nervous cord and the deep flexor muscle were easily isolated. All nerve-muscle dissections presented flexor-muscle contractions after stimulation of the ventral nerve with voltages ≥ 40 V. The contractions were inhibited after adding licodaine, and they were favored in the presence of pilocarpine.

Conclusions: The simple nervous and muscular structure of the Cherax genus lobster facilitated the dissection of the ventral nerve-deep abdominal flexor muscle system. By electrically stimulating the system, positive muscular contractions were obtained starting with 40 V. The contractions were also studied under the presence of lidocaine and pilocarpine. The above work gives a suitable alternative model for the teaching of pharmacology.

CO 033: USING VIDEOS AND PLASTINATED MURINE MODELS FOR TRAINING

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 2(Suppl. 1): S17, 2014

Special supplement with the abstract book of LATINFARMA 2013

Oral Communication

CO 033: USING VIDEOS AND PLASTINATED MURINE MODELS FOR TRAINING

Streber ML, Ramirez MA.

INCMNSZ, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, México City, México. E-mail: mstreberj@gmail.com DVM, SENASA, SENASICA, SAGARPA, Tecamac, México, México.
Abstract

Our training program is based in Mexican Norm NOM-062-ZOO-1999, one of the species used as a requirement are small rodents. Most of times, students have different animal experience and different levels of manual skills. We refined this program using classroom presentations, a training video in Spanish and also a plastinated murine model. We used 30 adult nude mice, no longer needed as reproducers, they were euthanized by CO2, internal organs were removed, and cotton balls were placed inside. The bodies including, head and skin or the skeleton were fixed by immersion in 10% buffered formalin. After several weeks of fixation, bodies were washed with tap water and allowed to dry with paper towels. Cotton balls were removed. Immediately, the bodies were placed in a glass jar over a lake of acetone. After two changes, the bodies were immersed in glycerin. The process was finalized when the skin was soft and translucid. Plastinated nude mice were used for learning handling and also different routes of administration (ocular, per os, IP, IM, SC), specially because the nu/nu strain is very expensive and sensitive. Also, the murine models could be used to learn blood sample taking and tissue sampling. Each plastinated mouse has a soft consistence, no bad odor, and could be re-used as many times as student needs. Total length of course: 25 hr. Each wet lab: 4 h, composed of 15 students. Survey questions were tested before and after training. The learning curve using the video, plastinated models and anesthetized animals, was reduced. The students felt comfortable to have the opportunity to learn a lot in a short period of time and to have the experience before using live un-anesthetized animals. This format has the potential to improve animal welfare, and promote high quality research, avoiding accidents like bites and harming animals.

CO 032: SUPER-SELECTIVE OPHTHALMIC ARTERY CATHETERIZATION IN THE PIG AS A TRAINING MODEL WITH POSSIBLE IMPLICATIONS FOR RETINOBLASTOMA TREATMENT

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 2(Suppl. 1): S17, 2014

Special supplement with the abstract book of LATINFARMA 2013

Oral Communication

CO 032: SUPER-SELECTIVE OPHTHALMIC ARTERY CATHETERIZATION IN THE PIG AS A TRAINING MODEL WITH POSSIBLE IMPLICATIONS FOR RETINOBLASTOMA TREATMENT

Asprea M, Schaiquevich P, Requejo F, Buitrago E, Chantada G.

Hospital de Pediatría JP Garrahan, Buenos Aires. Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Abstract

Introduction: Super-selective ophthalmic artery infusion was studied in a porcine model and compared to periocular administration as an alternative route for administration in retinoblastoma. Ophthalmic artery infusion of topotecan results in significantly higher vitreous exposure compared to periocular administration. Systemic exposure was low after both routes of administration, confirming feasibility of the method.

Aim: To develop a technique for local drug administration in a porcine model with potential translation to retinoblastoma chemotherapy treatment.

Material and methods: Six domestic Landrace pigs were included. In four, the ophthalmic artery catheterization was performed in an anesthesized animal under anticoagulation. A 5-French arterial sheath was placed in the femoral artery and a 5-F catheter was guided into the common carotid artery to the maxillary artery. The ophthalmic artery was super-selectively catheterized (OAI) using a microcatheter. Serial angiograms were performed. Super-selective OAI of topotecan (1 mg) toone eye and periocular injection (1 mg) to the fellow eye was performed after a wash-out period. Chemotherapy (topotecan) was delivered in a pulsating fashion. The microcatheter was removed and systematic procurement of vitreous and plasma samples was started immediately. Two other animals were only administered intraarterially (IA) with the same dose of chemotherapy through the external carotid, and plasma and vitreous samples were obtained. All animals were sacrificed at the end of the experiment according to an approved method of euthanasia.

Results: The ophthalmic artery of all six animals was successfully catheterized by means of the super-selective ophthalmic artery technique. Maximum total topotecan concentration in the vitreous (median, range) after OAI and IA was 131.8 ng/mL (112.9-138.7) and 5.4 ng/mL (4.7-6.1), respectively. Systemic exposure for topotecan was low after both modalities of administration with a median (range) value of 10.6 ng/h/mL (6.8-13.4).

Conclusion: We were able to develop the super-selective ophthalmic artery catheterization in a porcine model. Topotecan was infused using this technique and vitreous drug levels were 24 times higher than those attained after IA infusion of the same dose of chemotherapy. Topotecan systemic exposure was low and comparable between drug administration techniques. These results show the selectivity of the infusion to attain the ocular structures with potential implications in retinoblastoma treatment.

CO 031: ALTERNATIVES TO THE USE OF ANIMALS IN VETERINARY MEDICINE EDUCATION

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 2(Suppl. 1): S16, 2014

Special supplement with the abstract book of LATINFARMA 2013

Oral Communication

CO 031: ALTERNATIVES TO THE USE OF ANIMALS IN VETERINARY MEDICINE EDUCATION

Torres M, Guerrero R, Serrano C, Arcila V.

Grupo de Investigación en Ciencias Animales, GRICA. Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia. Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, UCC, Sede Bucaramanga. E-mail: maria.torresc@campusucc.edu.co
Abstract

The training of biomedical students including veterinarians, involves the use of animals. These practices have been proven to cause high levels of stress that affect animal welfare and health. The traditional teaching model raises a hard ethical dilemma; at the center of this debate lays claims about animal rights to do not suffer pain and anguish. On the other hand there is the student training, which requires the acquisition of high level skills for the future professional life. The aim of this study was to develop a sensitization strategy for the academic community addressing alternatives to the use of animals in higher education. Reducing the use of animals in the classroom and biomedical research through the design of inanimate anatomical models (IAM). A pilot study was conducted on the students attending to a university medical practice. The skills acquisition was assessed in the control and experimental group. The results suggest that the use of IAM might improve the students learning process and the development of technical abilities with a positive impact in the animal health. The entailment of IAM as part of the teaching-learning processes should be considered for approval at the educative institutions curriculum committee. Thus, in order to establish the academic guidelines, which are necessary for the implementation of IAM. From an economic point of view, the use of IAM will benefit faculty expenses considering the substantial reduction on animal maintenance, supplies and drugs costs. As socially acceptable alternative, the use of IAM produces a large positive impact on the relationships with the animal rights organizations and Non-governmental organizations (NGOs).

CO 029: BEST PRACTICE AND ALTERNATIVES TO ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS IN EDUCATION

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 2(Suppl. 1): S16, 2014

Special supplement with the abstract book of LATINFARMA 2013

Oral Communication

CO 029: BEST PRACTICE AND ALTERNATIVES TO ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS IN EDUCATION

Jukes N.

InterNICHE, Leicester, England.
Abstract

The design of the curriculum and of training courses in biological science, medicine and veterinary medicine involves choices about the tools employed to meet teaching objectives. Ensuring that the tools are the most appropriate requires an awareness of developments in technology, educational practice and ethics. Harmful animal use, such as animal experimentation and the dissection of purpose-killed animals, continues to be employed in some practical classes and training courses. However, innovative and humane alternatives are now widely available and are increasingly being implemented to enhance knowledge and skills acquisition and to replace harmful animal use worldwide. This process of transition reflects a growing commitment to best practice, a realization of the potential of technology, and the demands of students, trainees and campaigners. Alternatives include non-animal alternative tools such as multimedia software and virtual reality (VR), training models, mannequins and simulators. They also include alternative approaches such as student self-experimentation, the use of ethically sourced animal cadavers, and clinical learning opportunities with patients. In this presentation, the alternatives employed within pharmacology and other disciplines will be detailed, and selected products will be demonstrated. Teaching objectives and the lessons of the hidden curriculum will be explored, and published studies will provide further evidence of the pedagogical, ethical and economic advantages of alternatives. The positive impact of humane education on students, teachers, society, the professions and the animals will be traced, and case studies will show that such tools and approaches are often no longer considered ‘alternative’, but the norm.