Category Archives: Ethnobotany

Clerics’ knowledge in herbal medicine in Nigeria

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 5(4): 200-216, 2017.

Original Article | Artículo Original

Herbal medicine: Clerics’ knowledge in a sub urban center in Niger Delta, Nigeria- a pilot study

[Medicina herbaria: el conocimiento de los clérigos en un centro suburbano en el delta del Níger, Nigeria – un estudio piloto]

Gideon O. Alade*, Kola’ K. Ajibesin

Department of Pharmacognosy and Herbal Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa, Nigeria.

*E-mail: gideon.alade@ndu.edu.ng, aladegideon@yahoo.com

Abstract

Context: Places of worship such as churches and mosques can be dissemination centers for herbal medicines. Clerics play religious and social as well as political roles in the society and so exert a profound influence on their followers.

Aims: To document the knowledge, belief, and disposition of clerics in Amassoma in Herbal Medicine as well as the medicinal plants mentioned by them.

Methods: Using semi-structured questionnaires, information was gathered through personal interviews with thirty-two (32) clerics.

Results: A total of 36 medicinal plant species representing 34 genera and 26 families were mentioned by the 32 clerics for various ailments. Approximately 85% of the clerics believed that neither the Quran, Bible nor their teaching was against the use of herbs. All the respondents have had contact with herbs, and a little above half of the population (53.1%) was highly satisfied with the results obtained from the use of herbs, while 22.0% showed low satisfaction and a quarter showed no satisfaction at all.

Conclusions: The present study has shown that the clerics can serve as a good source of disseminating information on herbal medicines to the people. They can promote herbal medicine through their knowledge of it.

Keywords: Christianity; clerics; herbal medicines; Islam.

Resumen

Contexto: Lugares de culto como iglesias y mezquitas pueden ser centros de diseminación de hierbas medicinales. Los clérigos desempeñan papeles religiosos y sociales, así como políticos, en la sociedad y ejercen una influencia profunda sobre sus seguidores.

Objetivos: Documentar el conocimiento, creencia y disposición de los clérigos en Amassoma en Medicina Herbaria así como las plantas medicinales mencionadas por ellos.

Métodos: La información se obtuvo a través de entrevistas personales con treinta y dos (32) clérigos usando cuestionarios semi-estructurados.

Resultados: Un total de 36 especies de plantas medicinales, que representan 34 géneros y 26 familias, fueron mencionadas por los 32 clérigos para diversas dolencias. Aproximadamente el 85% de los clérigos creían que ni el Corán, ni la Biblia, ni su enseñanza estuviera contra el uso de hierbas. Todos los encuestados han tenido contacto con las hierbas, y el 53,1% estuvo altamente satisfecho con los resultados obtenidos del uso de hierbas, mientras que el 22,0% mostró una baja satisfacción y una cuarta parte mostró ninguna satisfacción.

Conclusiones: El presente estudio ha demostrado que los clérigos pueden servir como una buena fuente de información sobre la diseminación de hierbas medicinales a las personas. Ellos pueden promover la medicina herbaria a través de su conocimiento.

Palabras Clave: clérigos; cristianismo; hierbas medicinales; islam.

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Citation Format: Alade GO, Ajibesin KK (2017) Herbal medicine: Clerics’ knowledge in a sub urban center in Niger Delta, Nigeria- a pilot study. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 5(4): 200-216.
This article has been cited by:
Ayeni EA, Aliyu N (2018) Ethnomedicinal survey and documentation of healing river sources among the Yoruba People (Ijesha land), Nigeria. Journal of Complementary Medicine Research 8(2): 59–70. DOI: 10.5455/jcmr.20180504090258

© 2017 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Medicinal plants used for diabetes mellitus in Zaria, Nigeria

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 5(3): 156-164, 2017.

Original Article | Artículo Original

Medicinal plants used for the management of diabetes mellitus in Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria

[Plantas medicinales utilizadas para el manejo de la diabetes mellitus en Zaria, estado de Kaduna, Nigeria]

Umar S. Abubakar*, Sani Abdullahi, Victoria Ayuba, Shettima Kaigama, Usman S. Halidu, Muhammad K. Ayuba

Bioresources Development Centre, Kano. National Biotechnology Development Agency (NABDA), Abuja, Nigeria.

*E-mail: umarfarouk2003@yahoo.com

Abstract

Context: The knowledge of traditional uses of medicinal plants in the management of diabetes mellitus in Zaria is still intact with the traditional medicine practitioners.

Aims: To collect, identify and document medicinal plants used traditionally for the management of diabetes mellitus in Zaria city.

Methods: Open-ended informal interviews and general conversation were administered to twenty-two (22) traditional medicine practitioners (TMPs) and herb sellers. The data collected included the local names of plants, parts used, method of preparations and mode of administration.

Results: Twenty-six (26) species of plants belonging to eighteen (18) families were identified. Herbal remedies were mostly prepared from freshly collected plants, while decoction was the main method of preparation. Leaves and stem bark formed the major parts of plants for herbal preparations.

Conclusions: The study has documented different traditional practices used for the management of diabetes mellitus in the study area. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of plant species that have not yet been studied and to identify the bioactive compounds responsible for the antidiabetic activity as claimed by the traditional healers.

Keywords: decoction; diabetes mellitus; medicinal plants; traditional healers.

Resumen

Contexto: El conocimiento de los usos tradicionales de las plantas medicinales en el manejo de la diabetes mellitus en Zaria sigue intacto con los médicos tradicionales.

Objetivos: Colectar, identificar y documentar las plantas medicinales utilizadas tradicionalmente para el manejo de la diabetes mellitus en la ciudad de Zaria.

Métodos: Se realizaron entrevistas informales abiertas y conversaciones generales a veintidós (22) practicantes de medicina tradicional (TMPs) y vendedores de hierbas. Los datos recogidos incluyeron los nombres locales de plantas, partes utilizadas, método de preparación y modo de administración.

Resultados: Se identificaron veintiséis (26) especies de plantas pertenecientes a dieciocho (18) familias. Los remedios herbarios se prepararon sobre todo de las plantas recién recogidas, mientras que la decocción era el método principal de la preparación. Las hojas y la corteza del tallo formaron las partes principales de las plantas para las preparaciones herbarias.

Conclusiones: El estudio ha documentado diferentes prácticas tradicionales utilizadas para el manejo de la diabetes mellitus en el área de estudio. Se deben realizar estudios adicionales para evaluar la actividad antidiabética de las especies de plantas que aún no han sido estudiadas y para identificar los compuestos bioactivos responsables de la actividad antidiabética según lo reivindicado por los curanderos tradicionales.

Palabras Clave: curanderos tradicionales; decocción; diabetes mellitus; plantas medicinales.

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Citation Format: Abubakar US, Abdullahi S, Victoria A, Shettima K, Usman SH, Ayuba MK (2017) Medicinal plants used for the management of diabetes mellitus in Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 5(3): 156-164.
This article has been cited by:
Padilla Santamaría F, Cruz Balderrabano J (2018) Extractos de hojas de Moringa oleífera en la prevención y tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus. Revista Cubana de Medicina Natural y Tradicional 2(1). Website 
Lal KPurohit ARam H (2017) Glucose homeostatic and pancreas protective potential of Tecomella undulata root extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 10(6): 292-297. DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i6.17997

© 2017 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Use of medicinal plants in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 5(1): 1-14, 2017.

Original Article | Artículo Original

Traditional uses of medicinal plants at Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro

[Usos tradicionales de plantas medicinales en Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro]

Douglas S.A. Chaves 1*, Rosiane C.S. Siqueira1, Lidiane M. Souza1, Mirza N.G. Sanches1, André M. dos Santos2, Cristiano J. Riger2

1Department of Pharmaceutical Science, Health and Biological Science Institute. Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, CEP: 23897-000, Brazil.
2Department of Chemistry. Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, CEP: 23897-000, Brazil.

*E-mail: chavesdsa@ufrrj.br

Abstract

Context: This work had as outcome to deal with the part of the population of Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro those who use the public health system and use alternative medicinal plants for the treatment of illness.

Aims: To evaluate the potential medicinal uses of local plants traditionally used in curing/treatment different diseases and illnesses, and contribute as a therapeutic option in the public health system of municipality.

Methods: A semi-structured questionnaire was used to measure independent variables and issues related to the consumption of medicinal plants, based on field surveys and direct face to face communication. It was calculated the relative importance index (RI) of the medicinal plants used in the community as the number of users that mentioned them and the agreement use.

Results: Seventy-three plants (44 families) were cited by the population. Species with the highest number of citations (50%) were boldo, lemon grass, gorse, lemon balm, breaks stone and air plant, and the leaves over part used in medicinal preparations; it was the tea as the main form of use from the fresh plant.

Conclusions: The data suggest that the use of medicinal plants remains an important therapy and wanted by the population, and this would be integrating the knowledge of the practices of traditional medicine to scientific knowledge of these species, replacing the empirical use to the correct use, ensuring secure access to the population. This study is the first ethnopharmacological report in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro.

Keywords: complementary practices; ethnopharmacological importance; medicinal plants; traditional knowledge.

Resumen

Contexto: Este trabajo tuvo como salida estudiar la parte de la población de Seropédica, Río de Janeiro que utiliza el sistema de salud pública y el uso de plantas medicinales como alternativa para el tratamiento de enfermedades.

Objetivos: Evaluar los posibles usos medicinales de las plantas locales utilizadas tradicionalmente en la cura-tratamiento de diferentes enfermedades y dolencias, y contribuir como una opción terapéutica en el sistema de salud pública del municipio.

Métodos: Un cuestionario semi-estructurado fue utilizado para medir las variables independientes y aquellas relacionadas con el consumo de plantas medicinales, utilizando una encuesta de campo y de comunicación directa cara a cara. Se calculó el índice de importancia relativa (RI) de las plantas medicinales utilizadas en la comunidad así como el número de usuarios que mencionaron éstas y el uso de ellas.

Resultados: Setenta y tres plantas (44 familias) fueron citadas por la población. Las especies con el mayor número de citas (50%) fueron boldo, hierba de limón, aulaga, melisa, chanca piedra y planta de aire. Las hojas fueron la parte más utilizada en preparaciones medicinales. La infusión fue la principal forma de utilización de la planta fresca.

Conclusiones: Los datos sugieren que el uso de plantas medicinales sigue siendo una terapia importante y buscada por la población, y esto integraría los conocimientos de las prácticas de la medicina tradicional con el conocimiento científico de estas especies, sustituyendo el uso empírico por el uso correcto, asegurando el acceso seguro de la población. Este es el primer informe etnofarmacológico en Seropédica, Río de Janeiro.

Palabras Clave: conocimiento tradicional; importancia etnofarmacológica; plantas medicinales; prácticas complementarias.

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Citation Format: Chaves DSA, Siqueira RCS, Souza LM, Sanches MNG, dos Santos AM; Riger CJ (2017) Traditional uses of medicinal plants at Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 5(1): 1-14.
This article has been cited by:
Pallerla P, Vanapatla S, Yellu NR, Bobbala RK (2018) Effect of Lindernia ciliata (Colsm.) Pennell. against ethanol Induced oxidative damage in HEPG2 cells. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 2018; 10(4): 117-120. Website

© 2017 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Ethnopharmacology and random screening

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 3(2): 45-46, 2015.

Letter to the Editor | Carta al Editor

Ethnopharmacology and random screening

[La etnofarmacología y el cribado aleatorio]

Saad Touqeer

Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Lahore, 1 km Defense Road, Off Raiwand Road, Bhobtian Chowk, Postal code: 54000, Lahore, Pakistan.
*E-mail: saadtouqeer@gmail.com

Dear Editor:

Mankind has been using plants as food and medicine for centuries. This interaction has enabled them to understand the harms and benefits achievable through them thus laying down the foundation of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants (Ghorbani et al., 2006; Sulejman, 2007). The term “Ethnopharmacology” was first used in 1967. Since then it has been used as a valuable tool for drug discovery (Heinrich and Gibbons, 2001). Ethnopharmacology is an interdisciplinary field focusing on the scientific study and experimentation to prove and validate the traditional uses of plants and other natural products. It also includes the study of the bioactive compounds present in these products so that they can be synthesized on a commercial basis. Ethnopharmacology plays an important role in the preservation of the cultural heritage. It also identifies the harmful effects of many traditional therapies and provides an up to date knowledge and assistance to the herbal practitioners.

Ethnopharmacological studies are a result of combined efforts of scientists from many fields mainly, botany, pharmacology and chemistry (Holmstedt and Bruhn, 1983; Heinrich et al., 2006). The source of information to carry out various studies comes from ethnobotanical and ethnomedical literature. Thus, ethnopharmacology proves the traditional claims in a scientific manner (Waller, 1993). The study of biological activities may involve the use of different in vitro or in vivo models. Both approaches have several advantages and disadvantages. The decision whether to use an in vivo or in vitro assay is made after considering many factors. For example if the amount of sample under study is high and sufficient financial resources are available, in vivo assay may be preferred if there are no ethical issues under debate. These assays will give a better picture of the medicinal activity of the plant. However if there is time limitation, inadequate funds or less sample volume, an in vitro assay will be a better choice in such case (Houghton et al., 2007). After the successful completion of a series of different assays and proving of significant biological activities, the medicinal plant is subjected to the drug development process (Cordell and Colvard, 2005).

Besides the ethno-directed approach, the selection of plants for pharmacological screening may be based on random screening in which all of the plants belonging to any specific area are selected and tested for different activities. Thus, random screening does not require any proper justification through literature. The plants can also be selected for study if they are rich in phytochemicals or if other members of the family to which it belongs, possess biological activities. The latter is because many associated species possess similar phytochemicals (Waller, 1993; Ghorbani et al., 2006; Rout et al., 2009). This property has specially been noticed in the case of alkaloids.

Random screening and phytochemical approach has been found to be very beneficial in discovering new leads especially when folk knowledge is unavailable. These prevent many plants from being ignored due to lack of supporting information (Ghorbani et al., 2006). The two methods however prove to be costly as compared to ethnopharmacological approach as considerable amount of resources are wasted during the trial and error procedure. Biological studies are usually considered to be preliminary. Due to unavailability of costly instruments for phytochemical studies, scientists from developing countries with large flora fail to disseminate their findings on large scale through publication in high impact journals.

References

Cordell GA, Colvard MD (2005) Some thoughts on the future of ethnopharmacology. J Ethnopharmacol 100(1): 5-14.
Ghorbani A, Naghibi F, Mosaddegh M (2006) Ethnobotany, ethnopharmacology and drug discovery. Iran J Pharm Sci 2 (1): 109-118.
Heinrich M, Gibbons S (2001) Ethnopharmacology in drug discovery: an analysis of its role and potential contribution. J Pharm Pharmacol 53(4): 425-432.
Heinrich M, Kufer J, Leonti M, Pardo-de-Santayana M (2006) Ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology- Interdisciplinary links with the historical sciences. J Ethnopharmacol 107(2): 157-160.
Holmstedt B, Bruhn JG (1983) Ethnopharmacology- a challenge. J Ethnopharmacol 8(3): 251-256.
Houghton PJ, Howes MJ, Lee CC, Steventon G (2007) Uses and abuses of in vitro tests in ethnopharmacology: visualizing an elephant. J Ethnopharmacol 110(3): 391-400.
Redžić S (2007) The ecological aspect of ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology of population in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Coll Antropol 31(3): 869-890.
Rout SP, Choudary KA, Kar DM, Das L, Avijeet J (2009) Plants in traditional medicinal system – Future source of new drugs. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 1(1): 1-23.
Waller DP (1993) Methods in ethnopharmacology. J Ethnopharmacol 38(2): 181-188.

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Citation Format: Saad Touqeer (2015) Ethnopharmacology and random screening. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 3(2): 45-46.
This article has been cited by:
Nghia TM. Nguyen, Liliana Vicet-Muro, Dany Siverio-Mota, Maria E. Jorge-Rodriguez, Dulce M. González-Mosquera, Idelfonso Castañeda-Noa (2016) Tamizaje fitoquímico y evaluación de la actividad sobre el sistema nervioso central del extracto etanólico de Eugenia clarensis Britton & P.Wilson. | [Phytochemical screening and evaluation of the central nervous system activity of the ethanolic extract of Eugenia clarensis Britton & P.Wilson]. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 4(1): 39-48. Website

© 2015 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Traditional use of medicinal plants in M’sila, Algeria

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 2(2): 31-35, 2014.

Original article | Artículo original

Traditional use of medicinal plants in a city at steppic character (M’sila, Algeria)

[Uso tradicional de plantas medicinales en una ciudad con carácter estepario (M’sila, Argelia)]

Madani Sarria,b*, Fatima Zahra Mouyeta, Meriem Benzianea, Amina Cherieta

aDepartment of Nature Sciences and Life, Faculty of Sciences, M’sila University, 28000 M’sila, Algeria.
bLaboratory of Phytotherapy Applied to Chronic Diseases, Faculty of Nature Sciences and Life, Setif 1 University, 19000 Setif, Algeria. * E-mail: Mad_sari@yahoo.fr
Abstract

Context: M’sila city occupies a privileged position in the central part of northern Algeria. The climate of this area is continental, subject in part to the Saharan influences of which vegetation is steppic.
Aims: Highlight traditional usage of plants despite environmental characteristics.
Methods: An ethnobotanical survey in the city of M’sila was conducted during the period 2011-2012 in collaboration with traditional practitioners, herbalists and healers. A total of 85 adults were able to determine the species and answer questions about the traditional use of plants in artisanal processing, nutritional and medicinal domains.
Results: Medicinal plants recorded in the city of M’sila were 36 divided into 16 families and 31 genera. Lamiaceae family predominates (27.8%), followed by Asteraceae (13.9%). Leaves are the most frequently used (27.4%), the aerial parts (18.5%) and thus the seeds (16.3%). It appears that the population is highly dependent on these plants that allow them to treat different pathologies (digestive, stomach, diarrhea, constipation, vomiting) with a percentage (18.6%), carminative (5.7%) and antidiabetic (12.2%). In general, the remedies are administered orally. Indeed, therapeutic use forms are: the tisane or decoction (44.7%), infusion (27.1%) and powder (12.2%).
Conclusions: The ethnobotanical survey conducted among traditional healers, herbalists and healers in the M’sila city has created an inventory of 36 species and a database that collected all the information on local and traditional therapeutic applications as well as all the diseases treated.

Keywords: Ethnobotany; ethnopharmacological; therapeutic applications.

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Resumen

Contexto: La ciudad de M’sila ocupa una posición privilegiada en la parte central del norte de Argelia. El clima de esta zona es de tipo continental, con la influencia del Sahara, y la vegetación es de estepa.
Objetivos: Destacar el uso tradicional de las plantas, a pesar de las características ambientales.
Métodos: Un estudio etnobotánico se llevó a cabo en la ciudad de M’sila durante el período 2011-2012, en colaboración con los médicos tradicionales, herbalistas y curanderos. Un total de 85 adultos fueron capaces de determinar las especies y responder preguntas sobre el uso tradicional de las plantas en procesos artesanales y los dominios nutricionales y medicinales.
Resultados: Las plantas medicinales registradas fueron 36, divididas en 16 familias y 31 géneros. La famílias más utilizadas son Lamiaceae (27,4%), seguida de Asteraceae (13,9%). Las partes de las plantas más utilizadas son las hojas (27,4%), las partes aéreas (18,5%) y después las semillas (16,3%). Al parecer la población es muy dependiente de estas plantas. El 18,6% manifestó que les permiten el tratamiento de diferentes patologías (digestivas, estomacales, diarrea, estreñimiento, vómitos), carminativo (5,7%) y antidiabético (12,2%). En general, los remedios se administran por vía oral. Las formas de uso terapéutico más usadas son: la tisana o decocción (44,7%), La infusión (27,1%) y el polvo (12,2%).
Conclusiones: El estudio etnobotánico realizado entre los curanderos tradicionales, herbalistas y sanadores en la ciudad M’sila ha creado un inventario de 36 especies y una base de datos que recoge toda la información sobre las aplicaciones terapéuticas locales y tradicionales, así como todas las enfermedades tratadas.

Palabras Clave: Etnobotánica; etnofarmacología; aplicaciones terapéuticas.

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Citation Format: Sarri M, Mouyet FZ, Benziane M, Cheriet A (2014) Traditional use of medicinal plants in a city at steppic character (M’sila, Algeria). J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 2(2): 31-35.
This article has been cited by:
Yabrir B, Touati M, Adli B, Bezini E, Ghafoul M, Khalifa S, Guit B (2018) Therapeutic use of spontaneous medicinal flora from an extreme environment (dune cordon) in Djelfa region, Algeria. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 6(5): 358–373. Website
Bakchiche B, Guenane H, Rezzoug M, Gherib A(2018) DPPH free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extracts of twenty two medicinal species from south Algeria (Laghouat region). Journal of Medical and Surgical Research IV(3): 469-474. Website
Miara MD, Bendif H, Ait Hammou M, Teixidor-Toneu I (2018) Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by nomadic peoples in the Algerian steppe. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 219: 248-256. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2018.03.011
Kitaz A (2017) Comparison of the total phenol, flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity of methanolic roots extracts of Asphodelus microcarpus and Asphodeline lutea Growing in Syria. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 9(2): 159-164. DOI: 10.25258/phyto.v9i2.8057
Sarri M, Boudjelal A, Hendel N, Sarri D, Hamdaoui H (2017) An ethnobotanical survey of galactogenic plants of Berhoum district (M'sila, Algeria). Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology 6(3): 311-315. DOI: 10.5455/jice.20170811073514
Sisay M, Gashaw T (2017) Ethnobotanical, ethnopharmacological, and phytochemical studies of Myrtus communis Linn: A popular herb in Unani system of medicine. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine 2017: 1-9. DOI: 10.1177/2156587217718958
Di Petrillo A, Fais APintus FSantos-Buelga CGonzález-Paramás AMPiras VOrrù GMameli ATramontano E, Frau A (2017) Broad-range potential of Asphodelus microcarpus leaves extract for drug development. BMC Microbiology BMC series 17: 159. DOI: 10.1186/s12866-017-1068-5
Rabah B, Khellaf R, Mouloud G, Mustapha D, Djamel MM (2017) Flora and medicinal plants in the green spaces of Bousaâda (Algeria) and surroundings. Global Journal of Research on Medicinal Plants & Indigenous Medicine 6(1):0114. Website
Sisay M, Gashaw T (2017) Myrtus communis Linn: A review on ethnobotanical, ethnopharmacological and phytochemical studies. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy 9(6): 77-86. DOI: 10.5897/JPP2017.0451
Dali Yahia MK (2017) Étude phytochimique bioguidée de plantes aromatiques sahariennes. These pour l'obtention du Doctorat en Sciences Médicales. Université Abou Bekr Belkaïd, Tlemcen, Algeria. Website
Al-Kayali RKitaz AHaroun M (2016) Antibacterial activity of Asphodelin lutea and Asphodelus microcarpus against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 8(12): 1964-1968. Website
Nelson K, Lyles JT, Li T, Saitta A, Addie-Noye E, Tyler P, Quave CL (2016) Anti-acne activity of Italian medicinal plants used for skin infection. Front Pharmacol 7: 425. DOI:  10.3389/fphar.2016.00425
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Benarba B, Belabid L, Righi K, Bekkar AA, Elouissi M, Khaldi A, Hamimed A (2015) Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Mascara (North West of Algeria). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 175: 626-637. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.09.030
Sarri M, Boudjelal A, Hendel N, Sarri D, Benkhaled A (2015) Flora and ethnobotany of medicinal plants in the southeast of the capital of Hodna (Algeria). Arabian Journal of Medicinal & Aromatic Plants 1(1): 24-30. Website
Engidawork E, Sisay M (2015) Evaluation of in-vivo antidiarrheal activities of 80% methanol extract and solvent fractions of the leaves of Myrtus communis Linn (Myrtaceae) in mice. A thesis paper submitted to the Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, in partial fulfillment of the requirements of Master of Science Degree in Pharmacology. Website

© 2014 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)