Category Archives: Therapeutics

A postal survey of pharmacist opinions regarding falsified medicines

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 6(4): 242-249, 2018.

Short Communication | Comunicación Corta

Development and initial validation of a postal survey evaluation of community pharmacists’ opinion regarding falsified (counterfeit) medicines in Hampshire (UK)

[Desarrollo y validación inicial de evaluación de la opinión de los farmacéuticos de la comunidad con respecto a los medicamentos falsificados en Hampshire (Reino Unido)]

Ravina Barrett*, Hussein A. Al-Mousawi

University of Portsmouth, St Michael’s Building, White Swan Road, Portsmouth, PO1 2DT, United Kingdom.

*E-mail: ravina.barrett@port.ac.uk

Abstract

Context: Falsified-medicines pose a worldwide problem to patients, healthcare professionals, pharmaceutical companies, and governments. Community pharmacists are usually the last points of contact with patients and can protect them by quarantining falsified medicines. Hence, their opinions are valuable in exploring how the profession can combat this.

Aims: To explore the opinion of pharmacists with respect to falsified medicines.

Methods: A postal survey was developed and distributed to 359 pharmacies via the local pharmaceutical committee in Hampshire, UK. Descriptive statistics and hypothesis testing was conducted. Hypothesis testing (95% CI, α = 0.05) will be conducted to identify any gender differences, differences based on years of experience and differences based on number of working hours per week.

Results: A 14% response rate was achieved. Pharmacists surveyed believe that falsified-medicines pose a significant problem to the profession on a five-point Likert scale (4.02 ± 1.078). A pharmacist’s intervention can prevent or disrupt the supply to patients (4.12 ± 0.824) and training courses can improve pharmacist’s knowledge (4.06 ± 0.843). Pharmacists are not confident and capable in identifying falsified-medicines (2.62 ± 1.105). This is surprising and unexpected because pharmacists are medicines-expert. A 10-item scale is validated (72.2% Cronbach alpha).

Conclusions: Falsified-medicines pose a small but significant and growing challenge to the profession. There is underutilization of the high street community pharmacist in identifying falsified-medicines. Healthcare professionals should report suspect counterfeits to the MHRA.

Keywords: counterfeit medicines; falsified medicines; pharmacists; survey.

Resumen

Contexto: Los medicamentos falsificados representan un problema mundial para los pacientes, los profesionales de la salud, las compañías farmacéuticas y los gobiernos. Los farmacéuticos en oficina de farmacia son el punto primario de contacto con los pacientes y pueden protegerlos detectando falsificaciones. Por lo tanto, sus opiniones son valiosas para explorar cómo la profesión puede combatir este problema.

Objetivos: Explorar la opinión de los farmacéuticos con respecto a los medicamentos falsificados.

Métodos: Se desarrolló una encuesta postal y se distribuyó a 359 farmacias a través del comité farmacéutico local en Hampshire, Reino Unido. Se realizaron cálculos estadísticos para refutar la hipótesis. Se estableció una hipótesis (95% IC, α = 0.05) con respecto a la identificación de medicamentos falsos, con diferencias basadas en años de experiencia y número de horas de trabajo por semana.

Resultados: La tasa de respuesta fue del 14%. Los farmacéuticos encuestados creen que los medicamentos falsificados representan un problema importante para la profesión en una escala de Likert de cinco puntos (4.02 ± 1.078). La intervención de un farmacéutico puede prevenir o interrumpir el suministro a los pacientes (4.12 ± 0.824) y los cursos de capacitación pueden mejorar el conocimiento del farmacéutico (4.06 ± 0.843). Los farmacéuticos se consideran con limitada capacidad de identificar medicamentos falsificados (2.62 ± 1.105). Este resultado contrasta con la experiencia y conocimientos que presentan con respecto a medicamentos. Se valida una escala de 10 ítems (72.2% alfa de Cronbach).

Conclusiones: Los medicamentos falsificados representan un problema creciente para la profesión. Hay una subutilización del farmacéutico de oficina de farmacia para identificar medicamentos falsificados. Los profesionales de la salud deben ser capaces de identificar y reportar falsificaciones sospechosas a los organismos correspondientes.

Palabras Clave: encuesta; medicamentos falsificados; farmacéuticos.

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Citation Format: Barrett R, Al-Mousawi HA (2018) Development and initial validation of a postal survey evaluation of community pharmacists' opinion regarding falsified (counterfeit) medicines in Hampshire (UK). J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 6(4): 242–249.

© 2018 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Potencialidades terapéuticas de Rhizophora mangle L.

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 4(1): 1-17, 2016.

Review | Revisión

Rhizophora mangle L. (mangle rojo): Una especie con potencialidades de uso terapéutico

[Rhizophora mangle L. (red mangrove): A species with potential therapeutic uses]

Ada I. Regalado, Luz M. Sánchez, Betty Mancebo

Departamento de Química Farmacología Toxicología. Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA). PO Box 10, San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, CP 32700, Cuba.
Abstract

Check the properties attributed to medicinal plants is of vital importance as an alternative in the medical therapy and as a source of development of new drugs. Medicinal plants offer a path with great possibilities, an encouraging alternative for the control of various diseases in man. Mangroves are a resource of great significance for Cuba and the world, mangrove vegetation is represented in this country for four tree species, where Rhizophora mangle L. also known as red mangrove, is now the dominant species. Due to the pharmacological results found in this species as healing, antiseptic, antimicrobial, anti-ulcer, treatment of open wounds, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, insecticide, larvicide among others; it could be an important source of new products aimed at solving health problems of great current relevance, but using this species for drug development has been limited by the damage it can cause to the ecosystem over-exploitation of mangroves. The objective of this scientific review is to show the benefits and therapeutic potential of R. mangle from a review of existing information and the main results in the researches on this species.

Keywords: Mangroves; Rhizophora mangle L.; therapeutic properties.

Resumen

Comprobar las propiedades que se atribuyen a las plantas medicinales reviste una importancia trascendental como alternativa en la terapéutica médica y como fuente de obtención de nuevos fármacos. Las plantas medicinales brindan un camino con grandes posibilidades, una alternativa alentadora para el control de diferentes enfermedades en el hombre. Los manglares constituyen un recurso de gran significación para Cuba y el mundo; la vegetación de manglar está representada en este país por cuatro especies arbóreas, donde Rhizophora mangle L., también conocido como mangle rojo, es en estos momentos la especie dominante. Debido a los resultados farmacológicos encontrados en esta planta como cicatrizante, antiséptico, antimicrobiano, antiulceroso, tratamiento de heridas abiertas, antiinflamatorio, antioxidante, antidiarreico, insecticida, larvicida entre otros, podría constituir una fuente importante de nuevos productos destinados a solucionar problemas de salud de gran relevancia actual. Pero el uso de esta especie para la elaboración de medicamentos ha estado limitado por los daños que puede causar la explotación desmedida de los manglares al ecosistema. El objetivo de esta revisión científica es mostrar los beneficios y las potencialidades terapéuticas de R. mangle a partir de una revisión de la información existente y los principales resultados en las investigaciones realizadas sobre esta especie.

Palabras Clave: Manglares; propiedades terapéuticas; Rhizophora mangle L.

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Citation Format: Ada I. Regalado, Luz M. Sánchez, Betty Mancebo (2016) Rhizophora mangle L. (mangle rojo): Una especie con potencialidades de uso terapéutico. | [Rhizophora mangle L. (red mangrove): A species with potential therapeutic uses]. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 4(1): 1-17.
This article has been cited by:
Acosta Sánchez GM (2018) Evaluación de la actividad antibacteriana y antiinflamatoria in vitro del extracto vegetal seco de mangle rojo (Rhizophora mangle L). Tesis para optar al título de Ingeniera Bioquímica. Universidad Técnica de Ambatos, Ecuador. Website
Cusme Valdez K, Molina-Moreira N (2018) Evaluación de las especies del manglar establecidas en el parque histórico Guayaquil, (2017). Investigatio 10:70-84. DOI: 10.31095/irr.v0i10.202
Alexandra Yingst (2016) The effect of mangrove development on coral reef fish in Bocas del Toro, Panama and global mangrove management methods. Thesis submitted to the Graduate Faculty of Kenneth P. Dietrich School of Arts and Sciences in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Philosophy. University of Pittsburgh. Website

© 2016 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

C 017: LOW LEVEL LASER THERAPY (LLLT): THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS, DOSES, INDICATIONS AND CONTRAINDICATIONS, SIDE EFFECTS

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 2(Suppl. 1): S34, 2014

Special supplement with the abstract book of LATINFARMA 2013

Conference

C 017: LOW LEVEL LASER THERAPY (LLLT): THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS, DOSES, INDICATIONS AND CONTRAINDICATIONS, SIDE EFFECTS

Fornaini C, Merigo E.

Dental School, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Italy.
Abstract

Introduction: The first laser device was constructed in 1960 by Maiman and, some years after, this technology began to be used also in medicine. Since 1967 Mester performed several studies reporting that laser irradiation, at extremely low power (mJ), caused several changes in the target tissues determining at macroscopic level, for example, a better and faster healing of skin burns or ulcerative lesions.

Material and methods: A literature metanalysis demonstrated that these effects, invisible to the naked eye, lead essentially to two types of results: the so-called “biostimulation” or, according to newer definitions, “biomodulation” which, exploiting the action of the beam on the mitochondria, through the increase of ATP production and the proliferation and differentiation of fibroblasts, accelerates the healing of tissues decreasing, at the same time, the inflammatory reactions, and the analgesic effect caused by the change of the electric potential at membrane level (theory of the gate).

Results: Mechanisms of laser action on the tissues in LLLT protocols are described in this work by showing several and different clinical cases with a medium-long term follow-up until the gain of clinical result. Laser parameters are analysed in order to give well-defined and reproducible protocols for the clinical practice.

Conclusion: These photochemical effects, caused by the action of laser on tissues and commonly known under the name of LLLT (Low Level Laser Therapy) have countless fields of application but must be administered according to very precise rules and parameters to achieve maximum results.