J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 3(suppl. 1): S75, 2015
Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Pharmacology of Natural Products FAPRONATURA 2015 September 21st-25th, 2015; Cuban Society of Pharmacology. Topes de Collantes, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.
OC-52: THE TOXICOLOGICAL PROFILES OF Pimenta dioica (PIMENTO) AND TWO OF ITS CONSTITUENTS
Shelly-Campbell J, Oswald S.
Introduction: Pimenta dioica (pimento) from the family Myrtaceae is one of the major spices produced in Jamaica and is used in the treatment of arthritis. In this study, the toxicological profiles of pimento oil and two of its components; eugenol and methyleugenol were investigated in an adjuvant-induced mono-arthritic murine model. Material and Methods: Arthritis was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) with a single injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) (1 mg/mL) in the synovial cavity of the right knee of each rat and arthritis allowed to develop over 26 days. A day before CFA injection and throughout the experimental period, control rats received a daily dose of corn oil (0.4 mL/kg). Test rats received pimento oil (0.4 mL/kg), eugenol (0.37 mL/kg) or methyleugenol (0.02 mL/kg) (Shama, 1994). The LD50 for all three agents were calculated. Sub-chronic toxicity studies were done for 26 days and the effects of the agents on the stomach, liver and kidneys were observed. Results: P. dioica oil and eugenol caused irritation of the mucus membrane in the mouth, labored breathing and dose dependent sedation. Methyleugenol produced slight sedation but there were no signs of irritation. In chronic toxicity studies, pimento oil, eugenol and methyleugenol produced toxicity of the mucous epithelium of the stomach and deposition of spherical basophilic bodies in the lumen of the kidney tubules. There was no evidence of damage to the liver. Conclusions: The therapeutic usefulness of Pimenta dioica oil and its constituents is dependent on the associated toxic effects. The exfoliation of the gastric epithelium and the nephrotoxicity observed with the agents would limit their potential uses to topical treatments rather than oral therapeutic preparations.
Citation Format: Shelly-Campbell J, Oswald S (2015) The toxicological profiles of Pimenta dioica (pimento) and two of its constituents. [Abstract]. In: Proceedings of the FAPRONATURA 2015; 2015 Sep 21-25; Topes de Collantes, Sancti Spiritus: CSF. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 3(Suppl. 1): S75. Abstract nr OC-52.