Evaluation of microbial and physico-chemical qualities of cough syrups

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J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 3(4): 92-99, 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres14.027_3.4.92 Original Article Evaluation of microbial and physico-chemical qualities of some cough syrups marketed in Sana'a city, Yemen [Evaluación de la calidad físico-química y microbiológica de jarabes para la tos comercializados en la ciudad de Sana’a, Yemen] Ali G. Al−Kaf1*, Saeed M. Alghalibi2, Wadhah H. Edrees2 1Medicinal Chemistry Department, … Continue reading Evaluation of microbial and physico-chemical qualities of cough syrups

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 3(4): 92-99, 2015.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres14.027_3.4.92

Original Article

Evaluation of microbial and physico-chemical qualities of some cough syrups marketed in Sana'a city, Yemen

[Evaluación de la calidad físico-química y microbiológica de jarabes para la tos comercializados en la ciudad de Sana’a, Yemen]

Ali G. Al−Kaf1*, Saeed M. Alghalibi2, Wadhah H. Edrees2

1Medicinal Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy; 2Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Sana'a University, Sana’a, Yemen.*E-mail: alialkaf21@gmail.com
Abstract

Context: Microbial contamination of cough syrups can bring clinical hazards to the users or patients as well as physical and chemical changes in the product.

Aims: To evaluate the microbial and physicochemical characteristics of two hundred samples of four different types of cough syrups marketed in Sana’a city, Yemen.

Methods: All collected samples were subjected to the following examinations: the total microbial count, type of isolated microorganisms, physical parameters, and concentration of active ingredients were identified and assessed by standard techniques described in US Pharmacopeia.

Results: All the cough syrup samples used contained viable microbial load within acceptable limit according Pharmacopeia specifications. Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus fulvum, and Staphylococcus epidermidis were the most commonly recovered bacteria. However, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium notatum, Mucor sp., and Aspergillus flavus were the most fungi isolated. The physical properties represented in the appearance, density, and pH of the analyzed samples complied with Pharmacopoeia standards. The concentrations of diphenhydramine HCl (92,51 - 108,78%), pseudoephedrine HCl (94,55 - 109,07%), and triprolidine HCl (98,20 - 104,19%) were recorded.

Conclusions: All cough syrups marketed in Sana'a City had good microbiological and physico-chemical qualities.

Keywords: Diphenhydramine; microbiological assay, physical assay, pseudoephedrine; triprolidine.

Resumen

Contexto: La contaminación microbiana de los jarabes para la tos puede traer riesgos clínicos a los usuarios o pacientes, así como los cambios físicos y químicos en el producto.

Objetivos: Evaluar las características microbianas y físico-químicas de doscientas muestras de cuatro tipos diferentes de jarabes para la tos que se comercializan en la ciudad de Sana'a, Yemen.

Métodos: Todas las muestras recogidas se sometieron a los siguientes exámenes: recuento microbiano total, tipo de microorganismos aislado, parámetros físicos, y la concentración de ingredientes activos fue identificada y evaluada por técnicas estándares descritas en la Farmacopea de EE.UU.

Resultados: Todas las muestras de jarabe para la tos contenían carga microbiana viable, dentro de límites aceptables según las especificaciones de la Farmacopea. Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus fulvum y Staphylococcus epidermidis fueron las bacterias más comúnmente identificadas. Sin embargo, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium notatum, Mucor sp., Aspergillus flavus fueron los hongos aislados. Las propiedades físicas, representadas en la apariencia, densidad, y el pH de las muestras cumplieron con los estándares de la Farmacopea. Se registraron las concentraciones difenhidramina HCl (92,51 - 108,78%), pseudoefedrina HCl (94,55 - 109,07%), y de triprolidina HCl (98,20 - 104,19%).

Conclusiones: Todos los jarabes para la tos comercializados en la ciudad de Sana'a tuvieron buenas cualidades microbiológicas y físico-químicas.

Palabras Clave: Difenhidramina; ensayo físico; ensayo microbiológico; pseudoefedrina; triprolidina.

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Citation Format: Ali G. Al−Kaf, Saeed M. Alghalibi, Wadhah H. Edrees (2015) Evaluation of microbial and physico-chemical qualities of some cough syrups marketed in Sana’a city, Yemen. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 3(4): 92-99. DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres14.027_3.4.92

© 2015 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

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