Adolescents in Indonesia and COVID-19 pandemic

Excerpt:


J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 426-436, May-June 2023. DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres22.1560_11.3.426 Original Article Perception, mental health, and social media exposure on adolescents in Indonesia during COVID-19 pandemic [Percepción, salud mental y exposición a los medios sociales en adolescentes de Indonesia durante la pandemia de COVID-19] Efa Nugroho1*, Alfiana Ainun Nisa1, Widya Hary Cahyati1, … Continue reading Adolescents in Indonesia and COVID-19 pandemic

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 426-436, May-June 2023.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres22.1560_11.3.426

Original Article

Perception, mental health, and social media exposure on adolescents in Indonesia during COVID-19 pandemic

[Percepción, salud mental y exposición a los medios sociales en adolescentes de Indonesia durante la pandemia de COVID-19]

Efa Nugroho1*, Alfiana Ainun Nisa1, Widya Hary Cahyati1, Najib2

1Department of Public Health, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia.

2National Research and Innovation Agency, Indonesia.

*E-mail: efa.nugroho@mail.unnes.ac.id

Abstract

Context: Many adolescents exposed to social media information during the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) appeared in Indonesia, especially in Central Java.

Aims: To assess adolescent perceptions of COVID-19 and the prevalence of mental health problems and examine their relationship with social media exposure.

Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design in adolescents aged between 10-24 years in Central Java province and was conducted from May to June 2020. The snowball sampling technique was used to distribute questionnaires online via WhatsApp. The estimated number of samples who filled out the questionnaire was 1357 respondents. The instruments used in this study wereWHO-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7), and a questionnaire developed by researchers using the theoretical framework approach Health Belief Model. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the relationship between social media exposure with mental health problems and adolescent perceptions after controlling for covariates.

Results: From the results of the study obtained data that were associated with social media exposure in adolescents in Central Java during the pandemic as age (p = 0.0001), education (p = 0.025), and health conditions (p = 0.016). Then social media exposure in adolescents during a pandemic affected perception (p = 0.0001) and stress (p = 0.005) but did not affect depression (p = 0.108).

Conclusions: The findings indicated that social media exposure had a significant effect on perception and stress levels. Adolescents who had higher exposure to social media during the pandemic experienced changes in their perception and reported higher levels of stress. However, the study did not find a significant association between social media exposure and depression among adolescents during the pandemic. This suggests that while social media exposure may influence perception and stress, it may not have a direct impact on depression.

Keywords: adolescents; COVID-19; mental health; perception; social media.

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Resumen

Contexto: Muchos adolescentes expuestos a la información de los medios sociales durante la pandemia de coronavirus (COVID-19) aparecieron en Indonesia, especialmente en Java Central.

Objetivos: Evaluar las percepciones de los adolescentes sobre COVID-19 y la prevalencia de problemas de salud mental y examinar su relación con la exposición a los medios sociales.

Métodos: Este estudio utilizó un diseño transversal en adolescentes de entre 10 y 24 años de la provincia de Java Central y se llevó a cabo entre mayo y junio de 2020. Se utilizó la técnica de muestreo de bola de nieve para distribuir cuestionarios en línea a través de WhatsApp. El número estimado de muestras que rellenaron el cuestionario fue de 1357 encuestados. Los instrumentos utilizados en este estudio fueron el Índice de Bienestar de la OMS-Cinco (OMS-5), el Trastorno de Ansiedad Generalizada (TAG-7) y un cuestionario desarrollado por los investigadores utilizando el enfoque del marco teórico Modelo de Creencias de Salud. Se utilizó la regresión logística multivariable para identificar la relación entre la exposición a los medios sociales con los problemas de salud mental y las percepciones de los adolescentes tras controlar las covariables.

Resultados: De los resultados del estudio se obtuvieron datos que se asociaron con la exposición a los medios sociales en adolescentes de Java Central durante la pandemia como la edad (p = 0,0001), la educación (p = 0,025), y las condiciones de salud (p = 0,016). La exposición a los medios sociales en adolescentes durante la pandemia afectó a la percepción (p = 0,0001) y al estrés (p = 0,005), pero no afectó a la depresión (p = 0,108).

Conclusiones: Los resultados indicaron que la exposición a los medios sociales tuvo un efecto significativo en la percepción y los niveles de estrés. Los adolescentes más expuestos a los medios sociales durante la pandemia experimentaron cambios en su percepción y declararon mayores niveles de estrés. Sin embargo, el estudio no encontró una asociación significativa entre la exposición a los medios sociales y la depresión entre los adolescentes durante la pandemia. Esto sugiere que, aunque la exposición a los medios sociales puede influir en la percepción y el estrés, es posible que no tenga un impacto directo en la depresión.

Palabras Clave: adolescentes; COVID-19; salud mental; percepción; medios sociales.

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Citation Format: Nugroho E, Nisa AA, Cahyati WH, Najib (2023) Perception, mental health, and social media exposure on adolescents in Indonesia during COVID-19 pandemic. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 11(3): 426–436. https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres22.1560_11.3.426
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