Ageratum conyzoides and eggshell membrane hydrolysates in chronic inflammation


J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 972-993, Sep-Oct 2024. DOI: Original Article Anti-inflammatory effect of the mixture of Ageratum conyzoides L. extract and eggshell membrane hydrolysates and in silico active compound predictions [Efecto antiinflamatorio de la mezcla de extracto de Ageratum conyzoides L. e hidrolizados de membrana de cáscara de huevo, … Continue reading Ageratum conyzoides and eggshell membrane hydrolysates in chronic inflammation

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 972-993, Sep-Oct 2024.


Original Article

Anti-inflammatory effect of the mixture of Ageratum conyzoides L. extract and eggshell membrane hydrolysates and in silico active compound predictions

[Efecto antiinflamatorio de la mezcla de extracto de Ageratum conyzoides L. e hidrolizados de membrana de cáscara de huevo, y predicción in silico de compuestos activos]

Suci Nar Vikasari1,3*, Elin Yulinah Sukandar3, Tri Suciati2, I Ketut Adnyana1*

1Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia.

2Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia.

3Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Jenderal Achmad Yani, Cimahi, Indonesia.



Context: Ageratum conyzoides L. and eggshell membrane have the potential to be used as medicine. The independent use of A. conyzoides extract or eggshell membrane hydrolysates independently as a natural medicine has been widely known, but the mixture of the two as an anti-inflammatory has not been studied.

Aims: To evaluate both the in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of A. conyzoides extract and eggshell membrane hydrolysates, independently and in combination. In silico testing was conducted to identify chemicals that have a key role in inflammation signaling pathways.

Methods: The chronic anti-inflammatory effects of A. conyzoides extract and eggshell membrane hydrolysates were evaluated on cotton pellet-induced rats using diclofenac-Na as a control. In vitro anti-inflammatory effects were studied via protein denaturation, membrane stability, and antiprotease activity. Furthermore, molecular docking was performed on the p38-MAPK signaling pathway using compounds found in A. conyzoides extract and eggshell membrane hydrolysates.

Results: A. conyzoides extract and eggshell membrane hydrolysates given separately or in combination can inhibit the formation of exudates and granulomas. Molecular docking simulations showed that the metabolites in the extract and hydrolysate interact with p38-MAPK. Nobiletin in the extract is the potential metabolite that interacts with the p38-MAPK receptor with a free energy of binding and inhibition constant of -8.92 kcal/mol and 260.80 nM. Amino acids in the hydrolysates showed weaker interactions compared to the compound in the extract.

Conclusions: A. conyzoides extract and eggshell membrane hydrolysates work additively to inhibit the severity of chronic inflammation.

Keywords: Ageratum conyzoides; anti-inflammatory; eggshell membrane hydrolysates; molecular docking; p38-MAPK.

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Contexto: El Ageratum conyzoides L. y la membrana de cáscara de huevo tienen potencial para ser utilizados como medicamentos. El uso independiente del extracto de A. conyzoides o de los hidrolizados de membrana de cáscara de huevo como medicina natural es ampliamente conocido, pero no se ha estudiado la mezcla de ambos como antiinflamatorio.

Objetivos: Evaluar los efectos antiinflamatorios in vivo e in vitro del extracto de A. conyzoides y de los hidrolizados de membrana de cáscara de huevo, independientemente y en combinación. Se realizaron pruebas in silico para identificar sustancias químicas que desempeñan un papel clave en las vías de señalización de la inflamación.

Métodos: Se evaluaron los efectos antiinflamatorios crónicos del extracto de A. conyzoides y de los hidrolizados de membrana de cáscara de huevo en ratas inducidas por gránulos de algodón, utilizando diclofenaco-Na como control. In vitro, los efectos antiinflamatorios se estudiaron mediante la desnaturalización de proteínas, la estabilidad de la membrana y la actividad antiproteasa. Además, se realizó un acoplamiento molecular de la vía de señalización p38-MAPK utilizando compuestos presentes en el extracto de A. conyzoides y en los hidrolizados de membrana de cáscara de huevo.

Resultados: El extracto de A. conyzoides y los hidrolizados de membrana de cáscara de huevo administrados por separado o en combinación pueden inhibir la formación de exudados y granulomas. Las simulaciones de acoplamiento molecular mostraron que los metabolitos del extracto y el hidrolizado interactúan con p38-MAPK. La nobiletina del extracto es el metabolito potencial que interactúa con el receptor p38-MAPK con una energía libre de unión y una constante de inhibición de -8,92 kcal/mol y 260,80 nM. Los aminoácidos de los hidrolizados mostraron interacciones más débiles en comparación con el compuesto del extracto.

Conclusiones: El extracto de A. conyzoides y los hidrolizados de membrana de cáscara de huevo actúan de forma aditiva para inhibir la gravedad de la inflamación crónica.

Palabras Clave: acoplamiento molecular; Ageratum conyzoides; anti-inflamatorio; hidrolizados de membrana de cáscara de huevo; p38-MAPK.

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Citation Format: Vikasari SN, Sukandar EY, Suciati T, Adnyana IK (2024) Anti-inflammatory effect of the mixture of Ageratum conyzoides L. extract and eggshell membrane hydrolysates and in silico active compound predictions. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 12(5): 972–993.

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