Anti-aging activity of Muntingia calabura

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 409-421, July-August 2021.

Original article

In vitro anti-aging activity of Muntingia calabura L. fruit extract and its fractions

[Actividad anti-envejecimiento in vitro del extracto del fruto de Muntingia calabura L. y sus fracciones]

Syamsu Nur1*, Aprilia Angreiny Angelina1, Muhammad Aswad2, Risfah Yulianty2, Asril Burhan1, Nursamsiar1

1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Farmasi, Makassar, 90242, Indonesia.

2Pharmacy Faculty, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, 90242, Indonesia.

*E-mail: syamsu.nur@stifa.ac.id

Abstract

Context: Premature aging usually occurred due to free radicals reducing the skins’ physiological functions. Muntingia calabura, a plant containing rich antioxidants, has the potential to overcome this problem.

Aims: To evaluate the antioxidant capacity of M. calabura in inhibiting the premature aging process, to be potentially developed into an antiaging active ingredient.

Methods: The samples were extracted using ethanol 96%, and processed into n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol fractions, respectively. Total phenolic content was determined, followed by the evaluation of antioxidant capacity through DPPH, FRAP, and ABTS assay. Further, anti-elastase was conducted using human neutrophil elastase as a skin degradation enzyme, followed by an anti-collagenase test. Finally, normal cell proliferation was also evaluated via the MTT method measuring cell viability on HDFa cells.

Results: As the results, ethanol extract, ethyl acetate fraction, and ethanol fraction showed a strong antioxidant effect, having great capacity reducing DPPH, ABTS radicals, and also iron reduction, in contrast to n-hexane fraction that exhibited only weak activity. The antioxidant trend capacities were found directly correlated to total phenolic contents. Furthermore, the ethyl acetate fraction was found to have optimum activity in inhibiting elastase and collagenase enzymes, showing a similar impact on cell viability.

Conclusions: The ethyl acetate fraction from M. calabura exhibits the prospect for further development to support its effectiveness as an active ingredient in antiaging cosmetics.

Keywords: antiaging; antioxidant; cell viability; cosmetic; Muntingia calabura L.

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Resumen

Contexto: El envejecimiento prematuro generalmente se produce debido a que los radicales libres reducen las funciones fisiológicas de la piel. Muntingia calabura, una planta que contiene ricos antioxidantes tiene el potencial de superar este problema.

Objetivos: Evaluar la capacidad antioxidante de M. calabura para inhibir el proceso de envejecimiento prematuro, para convertirse potencialmente en un ingrediente activo antienvejecimiento.

Métodos: Las muestras se extrajeron con etanol al 96% y se procesaron en fracciones de n-hexano, acetato de etilo y etanol, respectivamente. Se determinó el contenido fenólico total, seguido de la evaluación de la capacidad antioxidante mediante el ensayo DPPH, FRAP y ABTS. Además, la evaluación anti-elastasa se llevó a cabo utilizando elastasa de neutrófilos humanos como enzima de degradación de la piel, seguida de una prueba anti-colagenasa. Finalmente, también se evaluó la proliferación celular normal mediante el método MTT que mide la viabilidad celular en células HDFa.

Resultados: El extracto de etanol, las fracciones de acetato de etilo y de etanol mostraron un fuerte efecto antioxidante, teniendo gran capacidad reductora de radicales DPPH, ABTS y también reducción de hierro, en contraste con la fracción n-hexano que exhibió solo actividad débil. Las capacidades de tendencia antioxidante se correlacionaron directamente con el contenido total de fenoles. Además, se encontró que la fracción de acetato de etilo tiene una actividad óptima para inhibir las enzimas elastasa y colagenasa, mostrando un impacto similar en la viabilidad celular.

Conclusiones: La fracción de acetato de etilo de M. calabura presenta la posibilidad de un mayor desarrollo para respaldar su eficacia como ingrediente activo en cosméticos antienvejecimiento

Palabras Clave: clave: anti-envejecimiento; antioxidante; cosmético; Muntingia calabura L.; viabilidad celular.

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Citation Format: Nur S, Angelina AA, Aswad M, Yulianti R, Burhan A, Nursamsiar N (2021) In vitro anti-aging activity of Muntingia calabura L. fruit extract and its fractions. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 9(4): 409–421.
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