Anti-obesity activity of Cymbopogon citratus

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J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1090-1110, Nov-Dec 2024. DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres24.1989_12.6.1090 Review Anti-obesity activity of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass): A systematic review [Actividad antiobesidad de Cymbopogon citratus (hierba limón): Una revisión sistemática] Musthika Wida Mashitah1,2*, Nashi Widodo3, Nur Permatasari4, Achmad Rudijanto5 1Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Institute of Technology, Science and … Continue reading Anti-obesity activity of Cymbopogon citratus

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1090-1110, Nov-Dec 2024.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres24.1989_12.6.1090

Review

Anti-obesity activity of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass): A systematic review

[Actividad antiobesidad de Cymbopogon citratus (hierba limón): Una revisión sistemática]

Musthika Wida Mashitah1,2*, Nashi Widodo3, Nur Permatasari4, Achmad Rudijanto5

1Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Institute of Technology, Science and Health Dr. Soepraoen Hospital, Malang, 65147, Indonesia.

2Doctoral Program in Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, 65145, Indonesia.

3Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, 65145, Indonesia.

4Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, 65145, Indonesia.

5Division of Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya/Dr. Saiful Anwar Hospital, Malang, 65145, Indonesia.

*E-mail: ns.musthika@itsk-soepraoen.ac.id

Abstract

Context: Obesity represents a significant global health challenge. The limited efficacy and possible side effects of available anti-obesity agents highlight the need to find new, effective, and safe agents. Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) is an aromatic herbal plant traditionally used as an anti-obesity agent, but previous review studies did not explain the mechanism in detail.

Aims: To evaluate the anti-obesity activity of C. citratus in vitro, in vivo, and in humans.

Methods: Full-text relevant articles published between 2003 and 2023 were searched through Google Scholar, PubMed, and Scopus. The American Dietetic Association (ADA) quality criteria checklist was used to assess the risk of bias. Data were systematically analysed and presented in tables and flowcharts.

Results: Eighteen articles met the inclusion criteria. The anti-obesity activity of C. citratus could come from various parts of the plant (leaves, stalks, roots, or whole plant). Its hydroalcoholic-based extract was rich in polyphenols, which had anti-obesity activity through inhibiting digestive enzymes, appetite suppression, modulation of lipid metabolism, and adipogenesis inhibition. Its essential oil and citral had anti-obesity activity through energy expenditure stimulation, lipid metabolism modulation, and adipogenesis inhibition. Dietary fibre from C. citratus had anti-obesity activity by inhibiting digestive enzymes and modulating lipid metabolism.

Conclusions: The anti-obesity activity of C. citratus could come from its polyphenol content, essential oil, or fibre through the same or different mechanisms, namely inhibition of digestive enzymes, suppression of appetite, modulation of lipid metabolism, inhibition of adipogenesis, and stimulation of energy expenditure.

Keywords: anti-obesity; Cymbopogon citratus; lemongrass.

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Resumen

Contexto: La obesidad representa un importante desafío para la salud mundial. La eficacia limitada y los posibles efectos secundarios de los agentes contra la obesidad disponibles resaltan la necesidad de encontrar agentes nuevos, eficaces y seguros. La hierba limón (Cymbopogon citratus) es una planta herbaria aromática utilizada tradicionalmente como agente contra la obesidad, pero estudios de revisión anteriores no explicaron el mecanismo en detalle.

Objetivos: Evaluar la actividad antiobesidad de C. citratus in vitro, in vivo y en humanos.

Métodos: Se buscaron artículos relevantes de texto completo publicados entre 2003 y 2023 a través de Google Scholar, PubMed y Scopus. Se utilizó la lista de verificación de criterios de calidad de la Asociación Dietética Americana (ADA) para evaluar el riesgo de sesgo. Los datos fueron analizados sistemáticamente y presentados en tablas y diagramas de flujo.

Resultados: Dieciocho artículos cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. La actividad antiobesidad de C. citratus podría provenir de varias partes de la planta (hojas, tallos, raíces o planta entera). Su extracto de base hidroalcohólica era rico en polifenoles, que tenían actividad antiobesidad mediante la inhibición de las enzimas digestivas, la supresión del apetito, la modulación del metabolismo de los lípidos y la inhibición de la adipogénesis. Su aceite esencial y citral tenían actividad antiobesidad mediante la estimulación del gasto energético, la modulación del metabolismo de los lípidos y la inhibición de la adipogénesis. La fibra dietética procedente de C. citratus tenía actividad antiobesidad al inhibir las enzimas digestivas y modular el metabolismo de los lípidos.

Conclusiones: La actividad antiobesidad de C. citratus podría proceder de su contenido en polifenoles, aceite esencial o fibra a través de los mismos o diferentes mecanismos, a saber, inhibición de las enzimas digestivas, supresión del apetito, modulación del metabolismo lipídico, inhibición de la adipogénesis y estimulación del gasto energético.

Palabras Clave: antiobesidad; Cymbopogon citratus; hierba limón.

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Citation Format: Mashitah MW, Widodo N, Permatasari N, Rudijanto A (2024) Anti-obesity activity of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass): A systematic review. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 12(6): 1090–1110. https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres24.1989_12.6.1090
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