Antibacterial plants from Gayo Lues Highland


J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 117-128, January-February 2023. DOI: Original Article Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of ethnomedicinal plants from Gayo Lues Highland, Indonesia [Cribado fitoquímico y actividad antibacteriana de plantas etnomedicinales del altiplano de Gayo Lues, Indonesia] Hawa Purnama Celala Ary Cane1, Musri Musman2, Mustanir Yahya3, Nurdin Saidi3, Darusman Darusman4,Muhammad … Continue reading Antibacterial plants from Gayo Lues Highland

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 117-128, January-February 2023.


Original Article

Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of ethnomedicinal plants from Gayo Lues Highland, Indonesia

[Cribado fitoquímico y actividad antibacteriana de plantas etnomedicinales del altiplano de Gayo Lues, Indonesia]

Hawa Purnama Celala Ary Cane1, Musri Musman2, Mustanir Yahya3, Nurdin Saidi3, Darusman Darusman4,Muhammad Nanda5, Diva Rayyan Rizki6,7, Kana Puspita2*

1Department of Chemistry, Institut Teknologi Sumatera, Lampung Selatan 35365, Indonesia.

2Department of Chemistry Education, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia.

3Department of Chemistry, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia.

4Department of Soil Science, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia.

5Department of Marine Sciences, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia.

6Medical Research Unit, School of Medicine, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh, 23111, Indonesia.

7Innovative Sustainability Lab, PT. Biham Riset dan Edukasi, Banda Aceh 23243, Indonesia.



Context: Investigations of phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity were carried out on traditional medicinal plants collected in the highlands of Gayo Lues, Aceh Province, at an elevation of 1,000 meters above sea level (m.a.s.l.).

Aims: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of plants chosen based on the interview results with the traditional healers (n = 5) in Gayo Lues.

Methods: Ethanolic maceration was performed on the 12 identified ethnomedicinal plants and qualitatively screened for the phytochemical contents. Antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus were tested for each extract based on the disc diffusion method, and MIC was determined using cephazolin as a reference drug.

Results: The phytochemical screening of twelve plant species showed secondary metabolites class steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, phenols, alkaloids, and saponins. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the extract (10 mg/mL) yielded inhibition zone ranges of 9.8 ± 0.26 to 21.87 ± 0.47 mm for E. coli and 8.93 ± 0.9 to 23.97 ± 0.68 for S. aureus. The ethanolic extract of Garcinia macrophylla Mart stem barks showed the highest antibacterial activity, where at the lowest concentration (1.25 mg/mL), the inhibition zones were found to be 19.2 ± 0.61 and 20.72 ± 0.44 mm for E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. The MIC was found to be 1.25 mg/mL.

Conclusions: This study concludes that the twelve plant species are worthy of further investigation for novel antibacterial agent exploration.

Keywords: antibacterial; Escherichia coli; ethnomedicinal plant; Garcinia macrophylla; phytochemical; Staphylococcus aureus.


Contexto: Se llevaron a cabo investigaciones de cribado fitoquímico y actividad antibacteriana en plantas medicinales tradicionales recolectadas en las tierras altas de Gayo Lues, provincia de Aceh, a una altitud de 1.000 metros sobre el nivel del mar (m.s.n.m.).

Objetivos: Evaluar la actividad antibacteriana de plantas elegidas basándose en los resultados de las entrevistas con los curanderos tradicionales (n = 5) de Gayo Lues.

Métodos: Se realizó una maceración etanólica de las 12 plantas etnomedicinales identificadas y se analizó cualitativamente su contenido fitoquímico. Se probó la actividad antibacteriana de cada extracto contra Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 y Staphylococcus aureus mediante el método de difusión en disco y se determinó la CMI utilizando la cefazolina como fármaco de referencia.

Resultados: El cribado fitoquímico de doce especies de plantas mostró una clase de metabolitos secundarios de esteroides, terpenoides, flavonoides, fenoles, alcaloides y saponinas. La evaluación de la actividad antibacteriana del extracto (10 mg/mL), arrojó rangos de zona de inhibición de 9,8 ± 0,26 a 21,87 ± 0,47 mm para E. coli y de 8,93 ± 0,9 a 23,97 ± 0,68 para S. aureus. El extracto etanólico de la corteza del tallo de Garcinia macrophylla Mart mostró la mayor actividad antibacteriana, ya que a la concentración más baja (1,25 mg/mL) las zonas de inhibición fueron de 19,2 ± 0,61 y 20,72 ± 0,44 mm para E. coli y S. aureus, respectivamente. La CMI fue de 1,25 mg/mL.

Conclusiones: Este estudio concluye que las doce especies de plantas son dignas de una mayor investigación para la exploración de nuevos agentes antibacterianos.

Palabras Clave: antibacteriano; Escherichia coli; fitoquímico; Garcinia macrophylla; planta etnomedicinal; Staphylococcus aureus.

Citation Format: Cane HPCA, Musman M, Yahya M, Saidi N, Darusman D, Nanda M, Rizki DR, Puspita K (2023) Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of ethnomedicinal plants from Gayo Lues Highland, Indonesia. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 11(1): 117–128.

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