Anticancer and antioxidant activities of Euphorbia paralias


J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 786-799, Jul-Aug 2024. DOI: Original Article Bioactive compounds and profiling of anticancer and antioxidant activities of Euphorbia paralias L. family Euphorbiaceae [Compuestos bioactivos y perfil de actividades anticancerígena y antioxidante de Euphorbia paralias L. familia Euphorbiaceae] Ahmed M.M. Youssef1*, Thabet H. Althneibat2, Doaa A.M. Maaty3, … Continue reading Anticancer and antioxidant activities of Euphorbia paralias

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 786-799, Jul-Aug 2024.


Original Article

Bioactive compounds and profiling of anticancer and antioxidant activities of Euphorbia paralias L. family Euphorbiaceae

[Compuestos bioactivos y perfil de actividades anticancerígena y antioxidante de Euphorbia paralias L. familia Euphorbiaceae]

Ahmed M.M. Youssef1*, Thabet H. Althneibat2, Doaa A.M. Maaty3, Tayel A. Al Hujran4, Yousef M. Al-Saraireh5

1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mutah University, P.O. Box 7, Al-Karak 61710, Jordan.

2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mutah University, P.O. Box 7, Al-Karak 61710, Jordan.

3Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Girls Branch, Cairo 11754, Egypt.

4Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mutah University, P.O. Box 7, Al-Karak 61710, Jordan.

5Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Mutah University, P.O. Box 7, Al-Karak 61710, Jordan.



Context: Medicinal plants are considered the bases for chemical compounds that could be used therapeutically. Euphorbia paralias belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. Some species of this family have demonstrated anticancer and antioxidant activities. However, the chemical compounds responsible for the anticancer and antioxidant activities of E. paralias have not been extensively studied.

Aims: To identify chemical compounds of E. paralias that possess anticancer and antioxidant properties.

Methods: Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) was employed to characterise the chemical compounds E. paralias methanolic extract. Using the MTT assay, anticancer activity was investigated. DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP tests were applied to assess the antioxidant action.

Results: Several polyphenolic compounds, including phenolic acids, flavonoids, flavanols, fatty acids, terpenoids, and sterols, were identified in the extract. These compounds possess various biological activities. The cancer cell lines most affected by the E. paralias extract were PANC-1 with an IC50 of 60.1 ± 10.1 µg /mL, DLD-1 with an IC50 of 64.3 ± 17.5 µg/mL, and A549 with IC50 of 71.9 ± 9.8 µg/mL. The values of IC50 for the MCF-7 and U87 cancer cell lines were 74.6 ± 15.6 µg/mL and 121.3 ± 17.2 µg/mL, respectively. The cell line of normal HDF had an IC50 of 128.9 ± 11.7 µg/mL. ABTS and DPPH showed that the methanol extract scavenged the free radicals by 89.57% and 92.65%, respectively, compared to ascorbic acid and Trolox positive controls. The FRAP test showed that 1 mg of methanol extract was equivalent to 387.41 μM of Trolox.

Conclusions: E. paralias contained various phytochemicals that may have anticancer and antioxidant activities. E. paralias may possess anticancer activity against pancreatic, colon and lung cancers, and it may also have antioxidant activity. Future research is recommended to investigate the isolated phytochemicals from E. paralias.

Keywords: anticancer; antioxidant; Euphorbia paralias; phytochemistry.

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Contexto: Las plantas medicinales se consideran la base de compuestos químicos que podrían utilizarse terapéuticamente. Euphorbia paralias pertenece a la familia Euphorbiaceae. Algunas especies de esta familia han demostrado actividades anticancerígenas y antioxidantes. Sin embargo, los compuestos químicos responsables de las actividades anticancerígenas y antioxidantes de E. paralias no se han estudiado ampliamente.

Objetivos: Identificar los compuestos químicos de E. paralias que poseen propiedades anticancerígenas y antioxidantes.

Métodos: Se empleó cromatografía líquida/espectrometría de masas (LC/MS) para caracterizar los compuestos químicos del extracto metanólico de E. paralias. Se investigó la actividad anticancerígena mediante el ensayo MTT. Se aplicaron las pruebas DPPH, ABTS y FRAP para evaluar la acción antioxidante.

Resultados: En el extracto se identificaron varios compuestos polifenólicos, como ácidos fenólicos, flavonoides, flavanoles, ácidos grasos, terpenoides y esteroles. Estos compuestos poseen diversas actividades biológicas. Las líneas celulares cancerosas más afectadas por el extracto de E. paralias fueron PANC-1, con una IC50 de 60,1 ± 10,1 µg /mL, DLD-1, con una IC50 de 64,3 ± 17,5 µg/mL, y A549, con una IC50 de 71,9 ± 9,8 µg/mL. Los valores de IC50 para las líneas celulares de cáncer MCF-7 y U87 fueron de 74,6 ± 15,6 µg/mL y 121,3 ± 17,2 µg/mL, respectivamente. La línea celular de HDF normal tuvo un IC50 de 128,9 ± 11,7 µg/mL. ABTS y DPPH mostraron que el extracto de metanol eliminó los radicales libres en un 89,57% y 92,65%, respectivamente, en comparación con los controles positivos de ácido ascórbico y Trolox. La prueba FRAP mostró que 1 mg de extracto de metanol era equivalente a 387,41 μM de Trolox.

Conclusiones: E. paralias contiene varios fitoquímicos que pueden tener actividades anticancerígenas y antioxidantes. E. paralias puede tener actividad anticancerígena contra los cánceres de páncreas, colon y pulmón, así como actividad antioxidante. Se recomienda investigar en el futuro los fitoquímicos aislados de E. paralias.

Palabras Clave: anticancerígeno; antioxidante; Euphorbia paralias; fitoquímica.

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Citation Format: Youssef A, Althneibat T, Maaty D, Al Hujran T, Al-Saraireh Y (2024) Bioactive compounds and profiling of anticancer and antioxidant activities of Euphorbia paralias L. family Euphorbiaceae. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 12(4): 786–799.

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