Anticancer and antioxidant activities of Euphorbia paralias

Excerpt:


J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 786-799, Jul-Aug 2024. DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres23.1918_12.4.786 Original Article Bioactive compounds and profiling of anticancer and antioxidant activities of Euphorbia paralias L. family Euphorbiaceae [Compuestos bioactivos y perfil de actividades anticancerígena y antioxidante de Euphorbia paralias L. familia Euphorbiaceae] Ahmed M.M. Youssef1*, Thabet H. Althneibat2, Doaa A.M. Maaty3, … Continue reading Anticancer and antioxidant activities of Euphorbia paralias

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 786-799, Jul-Aug 2024.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres23.1918_12.4.786

Original Article

Bioactive compounds and profiling of anticancer and antioxidant activities of Euphorbia paralias L. family Euphorbiaceae

[Compuestos bioactivos y perfil de actividades anticancerígena y antioxidante de Euphorbia paralias L. familia Euphorbiaceae]

Ahmed M.M. Youssef1*, Thabet H. Althneibat2, Doaa A.M. Maaty3, Tayel A. Al Hujran4, Yousef M. Al-Saraireh5

1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mutah University, P.O. Box 7, Al-Karak 61710, Jordan.

2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mutah University, P.O. Box 7, Al-Karak 61710, Jordan.

3Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Girls Branch, Cairo 11754, Egypt.

4Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mutah University, P.O. Box 7, Al-Karak 61710, Jordan.

5Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Mutah University, P.O. Box 7, Al-Karak 61710, Jordan.

*E-mail: ammyouss@mutah.edu.jo

Abstract

Context: Medicinal plants are considered the bases for chemical compounds that could be used therapeutically. Euphorbia paralias belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. Some species of this family have demonstrated anticancer and antioxidant activities. However, the chemical compounds responsible for the anticancer and antioxidant activities of E. paralias have not been extensively studied.

Aims: To identify chemical compounds of E. paralias that possess anticancer and antioxidant properties.

Methods: Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) was employed to characterise the chemical compounds E. paralias methanolic extract. Using the MTT assay, anticancer activity was investigated. DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP tests were applied to assess the antioxidant action.

Results: Several polyphenolic compounds, including phenolic acids, flavonoids, flavanols, fatty acids, terpenoids, and sterols, were identified in the extract. These compounds possess various biological activities. The cancer cell lines most affected by the E. paralias extract were PANC-1 with an IC50 of 60.1 ± 10.1 µg /mL, DLD-1 with an IC50 of 64.3 ± 17.5 µg/mL, and A549 with IC50 of 71.9 ± 9.8 µg/mL. The values of IC50 for the MCF-7 and U87 cancer cell lines were 74.6 ± 15.6 µg/mL and 121.3 ± 17.2 µg/mL, respectively. The cell line of normal HDF had an IC50 of 128.9 ± 11.7 µg/mL. ABTS and DPPH showed that the methanol extract scavenged the free radicals by 89.57% and 92.65%, respectively, compared to ascorbic acid and Trolox positive controls. The FRAP test showed that 1 mg of methanol extract was equivalent to 387.41 μM of Trolox.

Conclusions: E. paralias contained various phytochemicals that may have anticancer and antioxidant activities. E. paralias may possess anticancer activity against pancreatic, colon and lung cancers, and it may also have antioxidant activity. Future research is recommended to investigate the isolated phytochemicals from E. paralias.

Keywords: anticancer; antioxidant; Euphorbia paralias; phytochemistry.

PDF Download

Resumen

Contexto: Las plantas medicinales se consideran la base de compuestos químicos que podrían utilizarse terapéuticamente. Euphorbia paralias pertenece a la familia Euphorbiaceae. Algunas especies de esta familia han demostrado actividades anticancerígenas y antioxidantes. Sin embargo, los compuestos químicos responsables de las actividades anticancerígenas y antioxidantes de E. paralias no se han estudiado ampliamente.

Objetivos: Identificar los compuestos químicos de E. paralias que poseen propiedades anticancerígenas y antioxidantes.

Métodos: Se empleó cromatografía líquida/espectrometría de masas (LC/MS) para caracterizar los compuestos químicos del extracto metanólico de E. paralias. Se investigó la actividad anticancerígena mediante el ensayo MTT. Se aplicaron las pruebas DPPH, ABTS y FRAP para evaluar la acción antioxidante.

Resultados: En el extracto se identificaron varios compuestos polifenólicos, como ácidos fenólicos, flavonoides, flavanoles, ácidos grasos, terpenoides y esteroles. Estos compuestos poseen diversas actividades biológicas. Las líneas celulares cancerosas más afectadas por el extracto de E. paralias fueron PANC-1, con una IC50 de 60,1 ± 10,1 µg /mL, DLD-1, con una IC50 de 64,3 ± 17,5 µg/mL, y A549, con una IC50 de 71,9 ± 9,8 µg/mL. Los valores de IC50 para las líneas celulares de cáncer MCF-7 y U87 fueron de 74,6 ± 15,6 µg/mL y 121,3 ± 17,2 µg/mL, respectivamente. La línea celular de HDF normal tuvo un IC50 de 128,9 ± 11,7 µg/mL. ABTS y DPPH mostraron que el extracto de metanol eliminó los radicales libres en un 89,57% y 92,65%, respectivamente, en comparación con los controles positivos de ácido ascórbico y Trolox. La prueba FRAP mostró que 1 mg de extracto de metanol era equivalente a 387,41 μM de Trolox.

Conclusiones: E. paralias contiene varios fitoquímicos que pueden tener actividades anticancerígenas y antioxidantes. E. paralias puede tener actividad anticancerígena contra los cánceres de páncreas, colon y pulmón, así como actividad antioxidante. Se recomienda investigar en el futuro los fitoquímicos aislados de E. paralias.

Palabras Clave: anticancerígeno; antioxidante; Euphorbia paralias; fitoquímica.

PDF Download
 
Citation Format: Youssef A, Althneibat T, Maaty D, Al Hujran T, Al-Saraireh Y (2024) Bioactive compounds and profiling of anticancer and antioxidant activities of Euphorbia paralias L. family Euphorbiaceae. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 12(4): 786–799. https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres23.1918_12.4.786
References

Abood WN, Fahmi I, Abdulla MA, Ismail S (2014) Immunomodulatory effect of an isolated fraction from Tinospora crispa on intracellular expression of INF-γ, IL-6 and IL-8. BMC Complement Altern Med 14: 205. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-14-205

Abu Bin Nyeem M, Sadul Haque M, Akramuzzaman M, Mohammad Abu Bin Nyeem C, Siddika R, Sultana S, Rabiul Islam B (2017) Euphorbia hirta Linn. A wonderful miracle plant of mediterranean region: a review. J Med Plant Res 5: 170–175.

Agra LC, Lins MP, da Silva Marques P, Smaniotto S, Bandeira de Melo C, Lagente V, Barreto E (2016) Uvaol attenuates pleuritis and eosinophilic inflammation in ovalbumin-induced allergy in mice. Eur J Pharmacol 780: 232–242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2016.03.056

Aleksandrov M, Maksimova V, Koleva Gudeva L (2019) Review of the anticancer and cytotoxic activity of some species from genus Euphorbia. Agric Conspec Sci 84: 1–5.

Al-Saraireh YM, Youssef AMM, Alsarayreh AZ, Al Hujran TA, Al-Sarayreh S, Al-Shuneigat JM, Alrawashdeh HM (2021) Phytochemical and anti-cancer properties of Euphorbia hierosolymitana Boiss. crude extracts. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 9: 13–23. https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres20.916_9.1.13

Al-Yousef HM, Alqahtani AS, Ghani ASA, El-Toumy SA, El-Dougdoug WIA, Hassan WHB, Hassan HM (2021) Nephroprotective, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of Euphorbia paralias. Saudi J Biol Sci 28: 785–792. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.11.011

Ashraf A, Sarfraz RA, Rashid MA, Shahid M (2015) Antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumor, and cytotoxic activities of an important medicinal plant (Euphorbia royleana) from Pakistan. J Food Drug Anal 23: 109–115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfda.2014.05.007

Babu S, Jayaraman S (2020) An update on β-sitosterol: A potential herbal nutraceutical for diabetic management. Biomed Pharmacother 131: 110702. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110702

Bae J, Kim N, Shin Y, Kim SY, Kim YJ (2020) Activity of catechins and their applications. Biomed Dermatol 4: 8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41702-020-0057-8

Benzie IF, Strain JJ (1996) The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of "antioxidant power": the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem 239: 70–76. https://doi.org/10.1006/abio.1996.0292

Bonel-Pérez GC, Pérez-Jiménez A, Gris-Cárdenas I, Parra-Pérez AM, Lupiáñez JA, Reyes-Zurita FJ, Siles E, Csuk R, Peragón J, Rufino-Palomares EE (2020) Antiproliferative and Pro-apoptotic effect of uvaol in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells by affecting G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, ROS production and AKT/PI3K signaling pathway. Molecules 25: 4254. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184254

Ceci C, Lacal PM, Tentori L, De Martino MG, Miano R, Graziani G (2018) Experimental evidence of the antitumor, antimetastatic and antiangiogenic activity of ellagic acid. Nutrients 10: 1756. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111756

Chen Y, Wang S, Geng B, Yi Z (2018) Pelargonidin induces antitumor effects in human osteosarcoma cells via autophagy induction, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, G2/M cell cycle arrest and downregulation of PI3K/AKT signalling pathway. J BUON 23: 735–740. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30003744/

Dahham SS, Tabana Y, Asif M, Ahmed M, Babu D, Hassan LE, Ahamed MBK, Sandai D, Barakat K, Siraki A, Majid AMSA (2021) β-Caryophyllene induces apoptosis and inhibits angiogenesis in colorectal cancer models. Int J Mol Sci 22: 10550 https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms221910550

Dawwam G, Saber I, Yassin M, Ibrahim H (2022) Analysis of different bioactive compounds conferring antimicrobial activity from Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus acidophilus with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Egypt Acad J Biol Sci 14: 1–10. https://doi.org/10.21608/eajbsg.2022.213620

Dhar Dubey KK, Sharma G, Kumar A (2019) Conjugated linolenic acids: Implication in cancer. J Agric Food Chem 67: 6091–6101. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.9b01379

Elkanzi NAA, Hrichi H, Alolayan RA, Derafa W, Zahou FM, Bakr RB (2022) Synthesis of chalcones derivatives and their biological activities: A review. ACS Omega 7: 27769–27786. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.2c01779

Fakhr IMI, Zayed SMA (2008) New acetyl triterpenoidal and biological activities of Euphorbia paralias and Euophorbia geniculata (Euphorbiaceae) from Egypt. Egypt. J Chem 51: 3583–3595. https://doi.org/10.21608/ejchem.2020.20211.2215

Ghavami G, Muhammadnejad S, Amanpour S, Sardari S (2020) Bioactivity screening of mulberry leaf extracts and two related flavonoids in combination with cisplatin on human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. Iran J Pharm Res 19: 371–382. https://doi.org/10.22037/ijpr.2020.1101087

Günther A, Makuch E, Nowak A, Duchnik W, Kucharski Ł, Pełech R, Klimowicz A (2021) Enhancement of the antioxidant and skin permeation properties of betulin and its derivatives. Molecules 26: 3435. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113435

Gupta G, Siddiqui MA, Khan MM, Ajmal M, Ahsan R, Rahaman MA, Ahmad MA, Arshad M, Khushtar M (2020) Current pharmacological trends on myricetin. Drug Res (Stuttg) 70: 448–454. https://doi.org/10.1055/a-1224-3625

Gushiken LFS, Beserra FP, Hussni MF, Gonzaga MT, Ribeiro VP, de Souza PF, Campos JCL, Massaro TNC, Hussni CA, Takahira RK, Marcato PD, Bastos JK, Pellizzon CH (2022) Beta-caryophyllene as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and re-epithelialization activities in a rat skin wound excision model. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2022: 9004014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/9004014

Hashemi Goradel N, Eghbal MA, Darabi M, Roshangar L, Asadi M, Zarghami N, Nouri M (2016) Improvement of liver cell therapy in rats by dietary stearic acid. Iran Biomed J 20: 217–222. https://doi.org/10.7508/ibj.2016.04.005

Islam MT, Ali ES, Uddin SJ, Shaw S, Islam MA, Ahmed MI, Chandra Shill M, Karmakar UK, Yarla NS, Khan IN, Billah MM, Pieczynska MD, Zengin G, Malainer C, Nicoletti F, Gulei D, Berindan-Neagoe I, Apostolov A, Banach M, Yeung AWK, El-Demerdash A, Xiao J, Dey P, Yele S, Jóźwik A, Strzałkowska N, Marchewka J, Rengasamy KRR, Horbańczuk J, Kamal MA, Mubarak MS, Mishra SK, Shilpi JA, Atanasov AG (2018) Phytol: A review of biomedical activities. Food Chem Toxicol 121: 82–94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2018.08.032

Iwasaki K, Zheng YW, Murata S, Ito H, Nakayama K, Kurokawa T, Sano N, Nowatari T, Villareal MO, Nagano YN, Isoda H, Matsui H, Ohkohchi N (2016) Anticancer effect of linalool via cancer-specific hydroxyl radical generation in human colon cancer. World J Gastroenterol 22: 9765–9774. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v22.i44.9765

Kashyap P, Shikha D, Thakur M, Aneja A (2022) Functionality of apigenin as a potent antioxidant with emphasis on bioavailability, metabolism, action mechanism and in vitro and in vivo studies: A review. J Food Biochem 46: e13950 https://doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13950

Kinghorn AD, Chin YW, Swanson SM (2009) Discovery of natural product anticancer agents from biodiverse organisms. Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel 12: 189–196. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19333864/

Munro B, Vuong QV, Chalmers AC, Goldsmith CD, Bowyer MC, Scarlett CJ (2015) Phytochemical, antioxidant, and anti-cancer properties of Euphorbia tirucalli methanolic and aqueous extracts. Antioxidants 4: 647–661. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox4040647

Mwine JT, van Damme P (2011) Why do Euphorbiaceae tick as medicinal plants? A review of Euphorbiaceae family and its medicinal features. J Med Plant Res 5: 652–662.

Narayanan A, Baskaran SA, Amalaradjou MA, Venkitanarayanan K (2015) Anticarcinogenic properties of medium chain fatty acids on human colorectal, skin and breast cancer cells in vitro. Int J Mol Sci 16: 5014–5027. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16035014

Patel K, Singh GK, Patel DK (2018) A review on pharmacological and analytical aspects of naringenin. Chin J Integr Med 24: 551–560. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11655-014-1960-x

Ramazani E, Akaberi M, Emami SA, Tayarani-Najaran Z (2022) Pharmacological and biological effects of alpha-bisabolol: An updated review of the molecular mechanisms. Life Sci 304: 120728. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2022.120728

Rathod NB, Kulawik P, Ozogul F, Regenstein JM, Ozogul Y (2021) Biological activity of plant-based carvacrol and thymol and their impact on human health and food quality. Trends Food Sci Technol 116: 733–748. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2021.08.023

Rauf A, Imran M, Khan IA, Ur-Rehman M, Gilani SA, Mehmood Z, Mubarak MS (2018) Anticancer potential of quercetin: A comprehensive review. Phytother Res 32: 2109–2130. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6155

Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C (1999) Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic Biol Med 26: 1231–1237. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0891-5849(98)00315-3

Salehi B, Iriti M, Vitalini S, Antolak H, Pawlikowska E, Kręgiel D, Sharifi-Rad J, Oyeleye SI, Ademiluyi AO, Czopek K, Staniak M, Custódio L, Coy-Barrera E, Segura-Carretero A, Cádiz-Gurrea ML, Capasso R, Cho WC, Seca AML (2019) Euphorbia -Derived natural products with potential for use in health maintenance. Biomolecules 9: 337. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9080337

Sharma OP, Bhat TK (2009) DPPH antioxidant assay revisited. Food Chem 113: 1202–1205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.08.008

Singh H, Kumar R, Mazumder A, Salahuddin, Yadav RK, Chauhan B, Abdulah MM (2023) Camphor and menthol as anticancer agents: synthesis, structure-activity relationship, and interaction with cancer cell lines. Anticancer Agents Med Chem 23: 614–623. https://doi.org/10.2174/1871520622666220810153735

Soliman MSM, Abdella A, Khidr YA, Hassan GOO, Al-Saman MA, Elsanhoty RM (2021) Pharmacological activities and characterization of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in methanolic extract of Euphorbia cuneata Vahl aerial parts. Molecules 26: 7345. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26237345

Süntar I (2020) Importance of ethnopharmacological studies in drug discovery: role of medicinal plants. Phytochem Rev 19: 1199–1209. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11101-019-09629-9

Swantara MD, Rita WS, Suartha N, Agustina KK (2019) Anticancer activities of toxic isolate of Xestospongia testudinaria sponge. Vet World 12: 1434–1440. https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2019.1434-1440

Viet TD, Xuan TD, Anh H (2021) alpha-Amyrin and beta-amyrin isolated from Celastrus hindsii leaves and their antioxidant, anti-xanthine oxidase, and anti-tyrosinase potentials. Molecules 26: 7248. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26237248

Wali AF, Al Dhaheri Y, Pillai JR, Mushtaq A, Rao PGM, Rabbani SA, Firdous A, Elshikh MS, Al Farraj DA (2020) LC-MS phytochemical screening, in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity of microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata extract. Separations 7: 54. https://doi.org/10.3390/separations7040054

Wall ME (1998) Camptothecin and taxol: Discovery to clinic. Med Res Rev 18: 299–314. https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1098-1128(199809)18:5%3C299::aid-med2%3E3.0.co;2-o

Wan SZ, Liu C, Huang CK, Luo FY, Zhu X. (2019) Ursolic acid improves intestinal damage and bacterial dysbiosis in liver fibrosis mice. Front Pharmacol 10: 1321. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2019.01321

Wardana, T. A. P., Nuringtyas, T. R., Wijayanti, N., Hidayati, L (2019) Phytochemical analysis of agarwood (Gyrinops versteegii (Gilg.) Domke) leaves extracts as anticancer using GC-MS. AIP Conf Proc 2194: 020136. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5139868

Wu Y, Song F, Li Y, Li J, Cui Y, Hong Y, Han W, Wu W, Lakhani I, Li G, Wang Y (2021) Acacetin exerts antioxidant potential against atherosclerosis through Nrf2 pathway in apoE −/− Mice. J Cell Mol Med 25: 521–534. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16106

Youssef AMM, Maaty DAM, Al-Saraireh YM (2023a) Phytochemical analysis and profiling of antioxidants and anticancer compounds from Tephrosia purpurea (L.) subsp. apollinea family Fabaceae. Molecules 28: 3939. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28093939

Youssef AMM, Maaty DAM, Al-Saraireh YM (2023b) Phytochemical analysis and profiling of antitumor compounds of leaves and stems of Calystegia silvatica (Kit.) Griseb. Molecules 28: 630. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28020630

Yu CC, Hsieh CR, Hsiao G, Chen PY, Chang ML, Yin HW, Lee TH, Lee CK (2012) Regulated expressions of MMP-2, -9 by diterpenoids from Euphorbia formosana Hayata. Molecules 17: 2082–2090. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17022082

© 2024 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research

Anti-dormant mycobacterial of marine-derived fungi
J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 16-26, Jan-Feb 2025. DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres24.1953_13.1.16 Original Article Activity of ethyl acetate extracts of marine-derived fungi against active and hypoxia-induced dormant Mycobacterium [Actividad de extractos de acetato de etilo de hongos de origen marino contra Mycobacterium latente activa e inducida por hipoxia] Muhammad Azhari1, Atik Pereztia Litanjuasari1, … Continue reading Anti-dormant mycobacterial of marine-derived fungi
Rift Valley fever virus RdRp inhibition by RNA polymerase inhibitors
J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 1-15, Jan-Feb 2025. DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres24.1967_13.1.1 Original Article In silico study of RNA polymerase inhibitor drugs for Rift Valley fever virus using RdRp protein as the target [Estudio in silico de fármacos inhibidores de la ARN polimerasa para el virus de la fiebre del valle del Rift … Continue reading Rift Valley fever virus RdRp inhibition by RNA polymerase inhibitors
Probable interaction between levothyroxine and Thymus vulgaris
J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1196-1198, Nov-Dec 2024. DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres24.2008_12.6.1196 Case Report Probable interaction between levothyroxine sodium and thyme (Thymus vulgaris), about a case report [Interacción probable entre levotiroxina sódica y tomillo (Thymus vulgaris), sobre un reporte de caso] Nassima Elyebdri1,2*, Sihem Baba Ahmed1, Nessrine Abourejal1, Lotfi Loudjedi3, Assia Bououden3, Nour … Continue reading Probable interaction between levothyroxine and Thymus vulgaris

© 2013-2020 by the authors; licensee JPPRes, Antofagasta, Chile. This journal is an open-access journal distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license-Non Commercial 4.0 international. The content on this site is intended for health professionals. If you are not a health professional, please talk to your doctor about any doubts or concerns regarding your health

Made with ♥ by AVAGAX Studio