Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Senecio nutans

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 1026-1036, November-December 2022.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres22.1471_10.6.1026

Original Article

In vitro antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic extract of Senecio nutans Sch. Beep. (Asteraceae)

[Propiedades antioxidantes in vitro y actividad antimicrobiana del extracto etanólico de Senecio nutans Sch. Beep. (Asteraceae)]

Felipe Surco-Laos1, Jorge A. Garcia1, María R. Bendezú1, Doris Laos-Anchante1, Juan F. Panay-Centeno1, Manuel Valle-Campos1, Juan J. Palomino-Jhong1, Paulina Eliades Yarasca-Carlos2, Berta Loja3, Angel T. Alvarado4*

1Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, San Luis Gonzaga National University of Ica, 11004, Ica, Peru.

2Biological Sciences Faculty, San Luis Gonzaga National University of Ica, 11004, Ica, Peru.

3Environmental Engineering, San Ignacio de Loyola University, La Molina 15024, Lima, Peru.

4International Research Network of Pharmacology and Precision Medicine (REDIFMEP), San Ignacio de Loyola University, La Molina 15024, Lima, Peru.

*E-mail: angel.alvarado@usil.pe

Abstract

Context: Senecio nutans Sch. Beep. is used by the Andean population of Ayacucho-Peru as traditional medicine for various health problems.

Aims: To evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic extract of leaves of S. nutans against the enteropathogen Escherichia coli and the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger.

Methods: The antioxidant capacity of the ethanolic extract was evaluated by ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays; the antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the agar diffusion method, and determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal (MBC), and fungicidal concentration (MFC).

Results: Polyphenols, terpenes, and tannins were identified; the total polyphenolic content was 67.91 ± 0.29 mg GAE/g. The ethanolic extract at 20 mg/mL showed moderate antibacterial activity (79.14 ± 0.02% inhibition, MIC and MBC >400 μg/mL on E. coli), and antifungal (88.90 ± 0.17% inhibition, MIC and MCF >400 μg/mL on A. niger); radical scavenging capacity (ABTS 10.31 ± 0.09 mM TE/g; DPPH 8.28 ± 0.07 IC50 µg/mL) and iron reducing power (FRAP 17.72 ± 0.11 mM TE/g). S. nutans turned out to be a potential antimicrobial and antioxidant species associated with the presence of its bioactive components, for which further investigation is warranted.

Conclusions: The ethanolic extract of leaves S. nutans showed moderate activity against pathogenic bacteria (E. coli) and filamentous fungus (A. niger), as well as antioxidant activity in three in vitro methods.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity; chachacoma; in vitro antioxidant activity; phenolic compounds; Senecio nutans.

jppres_pdf_free

Resumen

Contexto: Senecio nutans Sch. Beep. es utilizada por la población andina de Ayacucho-Perú como medicina tradicional en diversos problemas de salud.

Objetivos: Evaluar la actividad antioxidante y antimicrobiana del extracto etanólico de hojas de S. nutans frente al enteropatógeno Escherichia coli y el hongo filamentoso Aspergillus niger.

Métodos: La capacidad antioxidante del extracto etanólico fue evaluada mediante los ensayos de ABTS, DPPH y FRAP; la actividad antimicrobiana se evaluó mediante el método de difusión en agar, y determinando la concentración inhibitoria mínima (MIC), concentración bactericida (MBC) y fungicida mínimo (MCF).

Resultados: Se identificó polifenoles, terpenos y taninos; el contenido polifenólico total fue de 67,91 ± 0,29 mg GAE/g. El extracto etanólico a 20 mg/mL mostró actividad antibacteriana moderada (79,14 ± 0,02% de inhibición, MIC y MBC >400 μg/mL sobre E. coli), y antifúngica (88,90 ± 0,17 % de inhibición, MIC y MCF >400 μg/mL sobre A. niger); capacidad secuestradora de radicales (ABTS 10,31 ± 0,09 mM TE/g; DPPH 8,28 ± 0,07 IC50 µg/mL) y poder reductor del hierro (FRAP 17,72 ± 0,11 mM TE/g). S. nutans resultó ser una especie potencial como antimicrobiana y antioxidante, asociado a la presencia de sus componentes bioactivos, por lo que amerita mayor investigación.

Conclusiones: El extracto etanólico de las hojas de S. nutans mostró actividad moderada frente a la bacteria patógena (E. coli) y hongo filamentoso (A. niger), a la vez actividad antioxidante en tres métodos in vitro.

Palabras Clave: actividad antimicrobiana; actividad antioxidante in vitro; chachacoma; compuestos fenólicos; Senecio nutans.

jppres_pdf_free
Citation Format: Surco F, García JA, Bendezú MR, Laos D, Panay JF, Valle M, Palomino JJ, Yarasca PE, Loja B, Alvarado AT (2022) In vitro antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic extract of Senecio nutans Sch. Beep. (Asteraceae). J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(6): 1026–1036. https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres22.1471_10.6.1026
References

Abbas M, Ali A, Arshad M, Atta A, Mehmood Z, Tahir IM, Iqbal M (2018) Mutagenicity, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of Ricinus communis different parts. Chem Cent J 12(1): 3. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13065-018-0370-0

Al-Mansoub MA, Asif M, Revadigar V, Hammad MA, Chear NJ-Y, Hamdan MR, Abdul Majid A, Asmawi M, Murugaiyah V (2021) Chemical composition, antiproliferative and antioxidant attributes of ethanolic extract of resinous sediment from Etlingera elatior (Jack.) inflorescence. Braz J Pharm Sci 57: e18954. https://doi.org/10.1590/s2175-97902020000418954

Alvarado AT, Navarro C, Pineda M, Villanueva L, Muñoz AM, Bendezú MR, Chávez H, García JA (2022) Activity of Lepidium meyenii Walp (purple maca) in immunosuppressed Oryctolagus cuniculus (albino rabbits). Pharmacia 69(2): 501–507. https://doi.org/10.3897/pharmacia.69.e80033

Badaracco P, Sortino M, Pioli RN (2020) Estudio de compuestos vegetales con potencial acción antifúngica sobre patógenos de plantas cultivadas. Chil J Agric Anim Sci 36(3): 244–252. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13065-018-0370-0

Basaid K, Mayad EH, Bouharroud R, Furze JN, Benjlil H, Lopes de Oliveira A, Chebli B (2020) Biopesticidal value of Senecio glaucus subsp. coronopifolius essential oil against pathogenic fungi, nematodes, and mites. Mater Today: Proc 27(4): 3082–3090. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.03.588

Benites J, Bravo F, Rojas M, Fuentes R, Moiteiro C, Venancio F (2011) Composition and antimicrobial screening of the essential oil from the leaves and stems of Senecio atacamensis Phil. from Chile. J Chil Chem Soc 56(2): 712–714. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0717-97072011000200020

Carbonel K, Suárez S, Arnao A (2016) Características fisicoquímicas y capacidad antioxidante in vitro del extracto de Gentianella nitida. An Fac med 77(4): 333–337. https://doi.org/10.15381/anales.v77i4.12648

Casian FC, Souza AM, Zuchetto M, Hirota BCK, Duarte AFS, Kulik JD, Miguel MD, Miguel OG (2015) Análise fitoquímica, potencial antioxidante e toxicidade do extrato bruto etanólico e das frações da espécie Senecio westermanii Dusén frente à Artemia salina. Rev Bras Plant Med, Campinas 17(4): 1031–1040. https://doi.org/10.1590/1983-084X/14_137

Centurión-Hidalgo D, Espinosa-Moreno J, Mayo-Mosqueda A, Frías-Jiménez A, Velázquez-Martínez JR (2013) Evaluación de la actividad antibacteriana de los extractos hexánicos de las inflorescencias de palmas comestibles de la Sierra de Tabasco, México. Polibotánica 35: 133–142.

CNEPCE-Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Prevención y Control de Enfermedades (2022) Número de casos de EDA según grupos de edad, Perú 2017 a 2022. MINSA. https://www.dge.gob.pe/portal/docs/vigilancia/sala/2022/SE16/edas.pdf [Consulted 20 June, 2022].

CLSI-Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2018) Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria That Grow Aerobically. 11th Edition. document M07. Wayne, PA: National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standard. https://clsi.org/media/1928/m07ed11_sample.pdf [Consulted 25 September, 2022].

Chávez H, Palomino F, Angelino J, Torres E, Bendezú MR, García JA, Loja B, Muñoz AM, Alvarado AT (2021) In vivo bronchodilator evaluation of the ethanolic extract of the stems of Jatropha macrantha Müll.Arg. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 9(6): 937–946. https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres21.1109_9.6.937

De Feo V, Urrunaga Soria E, Urrunaga Soria R, Senatore F (2003) Chemical composition of essential oils of Senecio nutans Sch.-Bip. (Asteraceae). Flavour Fragr J 18(3): 234–236. https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1204

De Zoysa MHN, Rathnayake H, Hewawasam RP, Wijayaratne WMD (2019) Determination of in vitro antimicrobial activity of five Sri Lankan medicinal plants against selected human pathogenic bacteria. Int J Microbiol 2019: 7431439. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/7431439

Galvez CE, Jimenez CM, Gomez ALA, Lizarraga EF, Sampietro DA (2020) Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils from Senecio nutans, Senecio viridis, Tagetes terniflora and Aloysia gratissima against toxigenic Aspergillus and Fusarium species. Nat Prod Res 34(10): 1442–1445. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2018.1511555

Gallegos M (2016) Las plantas medicinales: principal alternativa para el cuidado de la salud, en la población rural de Babahoyo, Ecuador. An Fac Med 77(4): 327–332. https://doi.org/10.15381/anales.v77i4.12647

Gómez-Duarte O (2014) Enfermedad diarreica aguda por Escherichia coli enteropatógenas en Colombia. Rev Chilena Infectol 31(5): 577–586. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0716-10182014000500010

Holetz FB, Pessini GL, Sanches NR, Cortez DA, Nakamura CV, Filho BP (2002) Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 97(7): 1027–1031. https://doi.org/10.1590/s0074-02762002000700017

Hossain ML, Lim LY, Hammer K, Hettiarachchi D, Locher C (2022) A review of commonly used methodologies for assessing the antibacterial activity of honey and honey products. Antibiotics (Basel) 11(7): 975. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11070975

Jaberian H, Piri K, Nazari J (2013) Phytochemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of some medicinal plants. Food Chem 136: 237–244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.07.084 

Joshi BC, Kumar V, Chandra B, Kandpal ND (2019) Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil of Senecio graciliflorus. J Drug Deliv Ther 9: 98–100. https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v9i1-s.2265

Juarez A, Guerriero J, De Martino L, Senatore F, De Feo V (2007) Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Senecio nutans essential oil. J Essent Oil-Bear Plants 10(4): 332–338. https://doi.org/10.1080/0972060X.2007.10643564

Kowalska-Krochmal B, Dudek-Wicher R (2021) The minimum inhibitory concentration of antibiotics: Methods, interpretation, clinical relevance. Pathogens 10(2): 165. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10020165

Liu M, Seidel V, Katerere DR, Gray AI (2007) Colorimetric broth microdilution method for the antifungal screening of plant extracts against yeasts. Methods 42(4): 325–329. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymeth.2007.02.013

Loja B, Alvarado A, Salazar A, Ramos E, Jurado B (2017) Cribado fitoquímico del Baccharis latifolia (R&P.) Pers. (chilca). Rev Cubana Plant Med 22(1): 1–7.

Lopez S, Lima B, Agüero MB, M.L. Lopez ML, Hadad M, Zygadlo J, Caballero D, Stariolo R, Suero E, Feresin GE, Tapia A (2018) Chemical composition, antibacterial and repellent activities of Azorella trifurcata, Senecio pogonias, and Senecio oreophyton essential oils. Arab J Chem 11: 181–187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2014.11.022

Maungchanburi S, Rattanaburee T, Sukpondma Y, Tedasen A, Tipmanee V, Graidist P (2022) Anticancer activity of Piper cubeba L. extract on triple negative breast cancer MDA-MB-23. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(1): 39–51. https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres21.1160_10.1.39

Mishra D, Joshi S, Sah SP, Dev A, Bisht G (2011) Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Senecio rufinervis DC. (Asteraceae). Indian J Nat Prod Res 2: 44–47.

Ouchbani T, Ouchbani S, Bouhfid R, Merghoub N, Guessous AR, Mzibri ME, Essassi EM (2013) Chemical composition and antiproliferative activity of Senecio leucanthemifolius Poiret essential oil. J Essen Oil Bearing Plants 14: 815–819. https://doi.org/10.1080/0972060X.2011.10644010

Palacios J, Paredes A, Catalán MA, Nwokocha CR, Cifuentes F (2022) Novel oxime synthesized from a natural product of Senecio nutans SCh. Bip. (Asteraceae) enhances vascular relaxation in rats by an endothelium-independent mechanism. Molecules 27: 3333. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27103333

Paredes A, Leyton Y, Riquelme C, Morales G (2016) A plant from the altiplano of Northern Chile Senecio nutans, inhibits the Vibrio cholerae pathogen. Springerplus 5(1): 1788. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40064-016-3469-6

Parra C, Soto E, Leon G, Salas CO, Heinrich M, Echiburu-Chau C (2018) Nutritional composition, antioxidant activity and isolation of scopoletin from Senecio nutans: Support of ancestral and new uses. Nat Prod Res 32(6): 719–722. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2017.1335726

Ramos-Escudero F, Muñoz AM, Alvarado-Ortíz C, Alvarado A, Yáñez JA (2012) Purple corn (Zea mays L.) phenolic compounds profile and its assessment as an agent against oxidative stress in isolated mouse organs. J Med Food 15: 206–215. https://doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2010.0342

Riveros M, Ochoa TJ (2015) Enteropatógenos de importancia en salud pública. Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica 32(1): 157–164.

Santander J, Otto C, Lowry D, Cuellar M, Mellado M, Salas C, Rothhammer F, Echiburu-Chau C (2015) Specific Gram-positive antibacterial activity of 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl) acetophenone isolated from Senecio graveolens. Microbiol Res J Int 5(2): 94–106. https://doi.org/10.9734/BMRJ/2015/11934

Sarmiento GM, Gutiérrez YI, Delgado R, Burbano Z, Soledispa PA, Jaramillo ND, Vargas LA (2022) Phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of the aqueous extracts of Malva sylvestris L. and Malva pseudolavatera Webb & Berthel. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(3): 551–561. https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres22.1342_10.3.551

Singh R, Ahluwalia V, Singh P, Kumar N, Prakash Sati O, Sati N (2016) Antifungal and phytotoxic activity of essential oil from root of Senecio amplexicaulis Kunth. (Asteraceae) growing wild in high altitude-Himalayan region. Nat Prod Res 30: 1875–1879. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2015.1079910

Soberón JR, Lizarraga EF, Sgariglia MA, Carrasco Juárez MB, Sampietro DA, Ben Altabef A, Catalán CA, Vattuone MA (2015) Antifungal activity of 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)acetophenone against Candida albicans: evidence for the antifungal mode of action. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 108(5): 1047–1057. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10482-015-0559-3

Tenorio-Abreu A, Gil J, Bratos MA, de la Iglesia A, Borrás M, Ortiz R, Ávila A, Colomina J, Pérez JA, Saavedra JM, Márquez A, Domínguez A, de la Iglesia M (2015) Estudio multicéntrico sobre la actividad in vitro de ceftarolina frente a Staphylococcus aureus aislados en España. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 33(2): 101–104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eimc.2014.02.009

Valdivieso-Ugarte M, Gomez-Llorente C, Plaza-Díaz J, Gil A (2019) Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory properties of essential oils: A systematic review. Nutrients 11: 2786. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112786

Zhang Y, Tang H, Zheng Y, Li J, Pan L (2019) Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of poly-phenols from Ajuga ciliata Bunge and evaluation of antioxidant activities in vitro. Heliyon 5(10): e02733. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02733

© 2022 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)