Caesalpinia sappan and Ochna integerrima: Time-kill kinetic and mechanism of action



J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 9(6): 813-823, 2021.

Original article

Time-kill kinetics and mechanism of action of Caesalpinia sappan L. and Ochna integerrima (Lour.) Merr. water extractsagainst pathogenic bacteria

[Cinética de tiempo de muerte y mecanismo de acción de extractos acuosos de Caesalpinia sappan L. y Ochna integerrima (Lour.) Merr. contra bacterias patógenas]

Prapairat Seephonkai1*, Sutthira Sedlak2, Komgrit Wongpakam2, Kusavadee Sangdee3, Aphidech Sangdee3

1Nanotechnology Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahasarakham University, Khamriang, Kantarawichai, Maha Sarakham, 44150, Thailand and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry (PERCH-CIC).

2Walairukhavej Botanical Research Institute, Mahasarakham University, Thailand.

3Microbiology Group, Biomedical Sciences Research Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Mahasarakham University, Thailand.

4Microbiology and Applied Microbiology Research Unit, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mahasarakham University, Thailand.

*E-mail: prapairat.s@msu.ac.th

Abstract

Context: Caesalpinia sappan and Ochna integerrima are two native plants of Thailand and distributed widely throughout the country. Recently, water extracts from the stem bark of C. sappan and O. integerrima were found to exhibit potently antibacterial property but the antibacterial mechanism of action toward target bacteria has not been investigated yet.

Aims: To study time-kill kinetic and the mechanism of action of C. sappan and O. integerrima waterextracts toward target bacteria.

Methods: The time-kill kinetic study of bacteriostatic or bactericidal activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria within 24 h experiment was conducted and the mechanism of action on cell morphology of the target bacteria by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were investigated.

Results: Both of the C. sappan and O. integerrima water extracts possessed bacteriostatic or bactericidal activity toward six tested pathogenic bacteria. The bacteriostatic or bactericidal activity depending on bacterial strains and the test concentrations (0.5, 1 and 2 × MIC) of these two extracts to the tested bacteria were observed. The bactericidal activity against all of the tested bacterial was evinced at 2 × MIC. The morphological alterations of the target bacterial cells of changing the cell size (decreased and increased), cell lysis and having cell cavity were detected by SEM after the treatment with C. sappan and O. integerrima water extracts.

Conclusions: The water extracts from the stem bark of C. sappan and O. integerrima exhibited bactericidal activity by changing the cell size, cell lysis and cell cavity of the tested bacteria cell morphology.

Keywords: antibacterial activity; Caesalpinia sappan; mechanism of action; Ochna integerrima; time-kill kinetic.

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Resumen

Contexto: Caesalpinia sappan y Ochna integerrima son dos plantas nativas de Tailandia y se distribuyen ampliamente por todo el país. Recientemente, se descubrió que los extractos de agua de la corteza del tallo de C. sappan y O. integerrima exhiben propiedades antibacterianas potentes, pero aún no se ha investigado el mecanismo de acción antibacteriano hacia las bacterias diana.

Objetivos: Estudiar la cinética de tiempo de muerte y el mecanismo de acción de los extractos de agua de C. sappan y O. integerrima sobre las bacterias objetivo.

Métodos: Se realizó el estudio cinético de tiempo de muerte de la actividad bacteriostática o bactericida contra bacterias patógenas Gram-positivas y Gram-negativas dentro de las 24 horas del experimento y se investigó el mecanismo de acción sobre la morfología celular de las bacterias diana mediante el uso de microscopio electrónico de barrido (SEM).

Resultados: Los extractos acuosos de C. sappan y O. integerrima exhibieron actividad bacteriostática o bactericida hacia seis bacterias patógenas probadas. Se observó la actividad bacteriostática o bactericida dependiendo de las cepas bacterianas y las concentraciones de prueba (0,5; 1 y 2 × MIC) de estos dos extractos en las bacterias probadas, mientras que la actividad bactericida contra todas las bacterias probadas se evidenció a 2 × MIC. Las alteraciones morfológicas de las células bacterianas diana de cambio de tamaño celular (disminución y aumento), lisis celular y cavidad celular fueron detectadas por SEM después del tratamiento con extractos de agua de C. sappan y O. integerrima.

Conclusiones: Los extractos acuosos de la corteza del tallo de C. sappan y O. integerrima exhibieron actividad bactericida al cambiar el tamaño celular, la lisis celular y la cavidad celular de la morfología celular de las bacterias probadas.

Palabras Clave: actividad antibacteriana; Caesalpinia sappan; cinética de tiempo de muerte; mecanismo de acción; Ochna integerrima.

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Citation Format: Seephonkai P, Sedlak S, Wongpakam K, Sangdee K, Sangdee A (2021) Time-kill kinetics and mechanism of action of Caesalpinia sappan L. and Ochna integerrima (Lour.) Merr. water extracts against pathogenic bacteria. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 9(6): 813–823.

© 2021 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)