Category Archives: Contraindications

Toxicological study of Pithecellobium dulce stem bark

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 5(5): 310-319, 2017.

Original Article | Artículo Original

Acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. stem bark hydroalcoholic extract on Wistar rats

[Toxicidad aguda y subaguda del extracto hidroalcohólico de la corteza del tallo de Pithecellobium dulce en ratas Wistar]

Gérard A. Toudji1, Kossivi Dosseh2, Simplice D. Karou1,3*, Yao Adjrah1, Kokou Anani1, Yaovi Ameyapoh1, Jacques Simpore3

1Ecole Supérieure des Techniques Biologiques et Alimentaires (ESTBA-UL), Université de Lomé, B.P. 1515 Lomé, Togo.
2Laboratoire de Physiologie/Pharmacologie, FDS-UL, Université de Lomé, Togo.
3Centre de Recherche Biomoléculaire Pietro Annigoni (CERBA/LABIOGENE), Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.



Context: Pithecellobium dulce (PD) is an annual herbaceous plant commonly used in African traditional medicine as a purgative, antipyretic, anti-ulcer and wound dressing agent.

Aims: To evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of P. dulce stem bark hydroethanolic extract in Wistar rats.

Methods: In the acute test, a single dose of 5 g/kg body weight was administered to Wistar rats afterwards they were observed individually 4 hours post-dosing, and at least once daily for 14 consecutive days. The sub-acute toxicity was evaluated by daily oral administration of 0.5 and 1 g/kg extract, for 28 days. Biochemical and hematological parameters assessment as well as body and organ weights of the rats were carried out.

Results: The limit dose of 5 g/kg did not cause any mortality or signs of acute toxicity on the rats during the experimentation period. In the sub-acute test, uterus-ovary-trompe (UOT) weight decreased dose-dependently: Control group (0.82 ± 0.03 g); Extract 0.5 g/kg (0.57 ± 0.06 g); Extract 1g/kg (0.48 ± 0.01 g) (p ˂ 0.01). Extract lowered urea values in female group treated with 1 g/kg (p < 0.01). Lymphocytes percentage was dose dependently increased in treated male groups: Control group (53.00 ± 0.58%); extract 0.5 g/kg (58.67 ± 0.67%) and extract 1 g/kg (60.67 ± 2.41%).

Conclusions: These findings suggest that PD is relatively safe when administered orally in rats but is slightly atrophic for female reproductive organs.

Keywords: animal model; medicinal plants; pharmacology; toxicology.


Contexto: Pithecellobium dulce (PD) es una planta herbácea anual comúnmente utilizada en la medicina tradicional africana como purgante, antipirético, anti-ulceroso y cicatrizante.

Objetivos: Evaluar la toxicidad aguda y subaguda del extracto hidroetanolico de la corteza del tallo de P. dulce en ratas Wistar.

Métodos: En el ensayo agudo se administró una dosis única de 5 g/kg de peso corporal a ratas Wistar, que se observaron individualmente 4 horas después de la dosificación y, al menos, una vez al día durante 14 días consecutivos. La toxicidad subaguda se evaluó mediante administración oral diaria de 0,5 y 1 g/kg de extracto, durante 28 días. Se realizó la evaluación de los parámetros bioquímicos y hematológicos, así como los pesos de órganos y órganos de las ratas.

Resultados: La dosis límite de 5 g/kg no causó muerte o signos de toxicidad aguda en las ratas durante el período de experimentación. En la prueba subaguda, el peso del útero-ovario-trompa (UOT) disminuyó dependiendo de la dosis: Grupo control (0,82 ± 0,03 g); Extracto 0,5 g/kg (0,57 ± 0,06 g); Extracto 1 g/kg (0,48 ± 0,01 g) (p ˂ 0,01). El extracto disminuyó los valores de urea en el grupo de las hembras tratado con 1 g/kg (p <0,01). El porcentaje de linfocitos aumentó de forma dependiente de la dosis en los grupos masculinos: Grupo control (53,00 ± 0,58%); Extracto 0,5 g/kg (58,67 ± 0,67%) y Extracto 1 g/kg (60,67 ± 2,41%).

Conclusiones: Estos hallazgos sugieren que P. dulce es relativamente segura cuando se administra oralmente en ratas, pero es ligeramente atrófica para los órganos reproductores femeninos.

Palabras Clave: farmacología; modelo animal; plantas medicinales; toxicología.

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Citation Format: Toudji GA, Dosseh K, Karou SD, Adjrah Y, Anani K, Ameyapoh Y, Simpore J (2017) Acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. stem bark hydroalcoholic extract on Wistar rats. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 5(5): 310–319.

© 2017 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)


J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 2(Suppl. 1): S34, 2014

Special supplement with the abstract book of LATINFARMA 2013



Fornaini C, Merigo E.

Dental School, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Italy.

Introduction: The first laser device was constructed in 1960 by Maiman and, some years after, this technology began to be used also in medicine. Since 1967 Mester performed several studies reporting that laser irradiation, at extremely low power (mJ), caused several changes in the target tissues determining at macroscopic level, for example, a better and faster healing of skin burns or ulcerative lesions.

Material and methods: A literature metanalysis demonstrated that these effects, invisible to the naked eye, lead essentially to two types of results: the so-called “biostimulation” or, according to newer definitions, “biomodulation” which, exploiting the action of the beam on the mitochondria, through the increase of ATP production and the proliferation and differentiation of fibroblasts, accelerates the healing of tissues decreasing, at the same time, the inflammatory reactions, and the analgesic effect caused by the change of the electric potential at membrane level (theory of the gate).

Results: Mechanisms of laser action on the tissues in LLLT protocols are described in this work by showing several and different clinical cases with a medium-long term follow-up until the gain of clinical result. Laser parameters are analysed in order to give well-defined and reproducible protocols for the clinical practice.

Conclusion: These photochemical effects, caused by the action of laser on tissues and commonly known under the name of LLLT (Low Level Laser Therapy) have countless fields of application but must be administered according to very precise rules and parameters to achieve maximum results.