Category Archives: Hepatoprotection

Effect of mouse sex on pharmacological investigations

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 569-579, November-December 2020.


Original Article

Effect of sex differences in antinociceptive, antipyretic, hypoglycemia, hepatoprotective and antidiarrheal activities in mice model

[Efecto de las diferencias sexuales en las actividades antinociceptiva, antipirética, hipoglucemia, hepatoprotectora y antidiarreica en modelo de ratones]

Irin Karim#, Roni Roy#, Md Rafiul Hoque, Sazzad Hosen, Tanaya Bhowmik, Israt Jahan Liya, Afroza Akter, Mohammad Anwarul Basher

Department of Pharmacy, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Sonapur, Noakhali-3814, Bangladesh.
#These two authors contributed equally.


Context: The use of animal models is a longstanding practice in biological research. Among different models, the mouse is the most widely used and accepted model. In designing the mouse model, a male mouse is generally preferred over a female to avoid the effect of changing hormonal state in females. However, it is not known whether mouse sex affects all experiments.

Aims: To determine the effect of mouse sex on pharmacological responses in antinociceptive, antipyretic, hypoglycemia, hepatoprotective and antidiarrheal experiments.

Methods: Antinociceptive study was performed by three different experiments. An antipyretic experiment was performed by yeast induced hyperthermia test. The effect on hypoglycemic response was assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test. The effect on the hepatoprotective study was evaluated by carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage. The antidiarrheal study was conducted by a castor oil-induced diarrhea test.

Results: Antinociceptive studies demonstrated mixed effects. Hot plate test showed significant differences; the licking test showed variation only in the late phase, while no significant variation was observed. In the antipyretic experiment, female mice showed higher body temperature in both control and standard that varied significantly with male mice. Hypoglycemia and hepatoprotective tests did not show significant variation between sexes; however, liver enzymes levels were found higher in males while the percentage liver weight was higher in females. In the antidiarrheal test, the male mouse was observed to have higher responses than the female.

Conclusions: Antinociceptive and antipyretic investigations should be performed separately on both male and female mice. On the other hand, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective and antidiarrheal tests can be conducted on any mouse sex, and findings on particular sex can be extrapolated to the opposite sex.

Keywords: drug discovery; sex dimorphism; Swiss albino mice.


Contexto: El uso de modelos animales es una práctica de larga data en la investigación biológica. Entre los diferentes modelos, el ratón es el modelo más utilizado y aceptado. Al diseñar el modelo de ratón, generalmente se prefiere un ratón macho a una hembra para evitar el efecto del cambio de estado hormonal en las hembras. Sin embargo, no se sabe si el sexo del ratón afecta a todos los experimentos.

Objetivos: Determinar el efecto del sexo del ratón sobre las respuestas farmacológicas en experimentos antinociceptivos, antipiréticos, hipoglucémicos, hepatoprotectores y antidiarreicos.

Métodos: Se realizaron experimentos para demostrar efectos anti-nociceptivo (tres experimentos diferentes), antipirético (hipertermia inducida por levaduras), hipoglucémico (prueba de tolerancia a la glucosa oral), hepatoprotector (daño hepático inducido por tetracloruro de carbono) y antidiarreico (diarrea inducida por aceite de ricino).

Resultados: Los estudios antinociceptivos demostraron efectos mixtos. La prueba de la placa caliente mostró diferencias significativas; la prueba de lamido mostró variación solo en la fase tardía, mientras que no se observó variación significativa. En el experimento antipirético, las hembras mostraron una temperatura corporal más alta tanto en el control como en el estándar que varió significativamente con los ratones machos. Las pruebas de hipoglucemia y hepatoprotección no mostraron variación significativa entre sexos; sin embargo, los niveles de enzimas hepáticas se encontraron más altos en los machos mientras que el porcentaje de peso del hígado fue más alto en las hembras. En la prueba antidiarreica, se observó que el ratón macho tenía respuestas más altas que la hembra.

Conclusiones: Las investigaciones antinociceptivas y antipiréticas debían realizarse por separado en ratones machos y hembras. Por otro lado, las pruebas hipoglucémicas, hepatoprotectoras y antidiarreicas podrían realizarse en cualquier sexo de ratón, y los hallazgos sobre un sexo particular se pueden extrapolar al sexo opuesto.

Palabras Clave: dimorfismo sexual; investigación en medicamento; ratones albinos suizos.

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Citation Format: Karim I, Roy R, Hoque MR, Hosen S, Bhowmik T, Liya IJ, Akter A, Basher MA (2020) Effect of sex differences in antinociceptive, antipyretic, hypoglycemia, hepatoprotective and antidiarrheal activities in mice model. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 8(6): 569–579. DOI:

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© 2020 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Hepatoprotective activity of Cordia sebestena fruit

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 8(4): 327-335, 2020.


Original Article

Hepatoprotective response of Cordia sebestena L. fruit against simvastatin induced hepatotoxicity

[Respuesta hepatoprotectora de la fruta de Cordia sebestena contra la hepatotoxicidad inducida por simvastatina]

Sachin Chaudhary1*, Ramesh Kumar Gupta3, Mandeep Kumar Gupta3, Harish Chandra Verma3, Hitesh Kumar3, Amit Kumar4, Sudhansu Ranjan Swain3, Abdel-Nasser El-Shorbagi1,2

1Department of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, University of Sharjah, Sharjah-27272, United Arab Emirates.
2Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Assiut, Assiut-71526, Egypt.
3Moradabad Educational Trust, Group of Institutions, Faculty of Pharmacy, Moradabad-244001, Uttar Pradesh, India.
4School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, IIMT University, Meerut-250002, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Context: Cordia sebestena fruits are traditionally used to treat wounds, boils, tumors, gout, ulcer, flu, fever, asthma, menstrual cramps, dysentery, diarrhea, headache, snakebite and liver disorders. However, information on hepatoprotective potential of Cordia sebestena fruit has not been reported in the research.

Aims: To evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of the ethanolic extract of Cordia sebestena fruit (CSFE) against simvastatin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

Methods: After authentication of fruit, its ethanolic extract was collected. Hepatotoxicity was induced by simvastatin in rodents. Hepatoprotective potential of CSFE was evaluated at 200 and 400 mg/kg, body weight by determining the altered levels of biochemical parameters like serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), cholesterol, bilirubin, urea, albumin, total protein and hematological indices including red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), hemoglobin (Hb), platelets, and lymphocytes along with the impact on body and liver weight of treated rats.

Results: The treatment with CSFE at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, significantly at (p<0.05, p<0.001) and dose-dependently reversed simvastatin-induced altered level of SGOT, SGPT, cholesterol, urea, total bilirubin and restored the total protein and albumin level in rodents. Hematological indices also were significantly ameliorated at both the doses of CSFE. Histopathological study revealed the regeneration of hepatocytes.

Conclusions: The Cordia sebestena fruit extract (CSFE) at dose of 400 mg/kg reversed liver deteriorations induced by simvastatin in rats, therefore manifesting its traditional use as hepatoprotector. Future studies should be performed for isolating biologically active phytoconstituents.

Keywords: cholesterol; Cordia sebestena; hepatotoxicity; serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase; serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase; simvastatin.


Contexto: Las frutas de Cordia sebestena se utilizan tradicionalmente para tratar heridas, forúnculos, tumores, gota, úlcera, gripe, fiebre, asma, calambres menstruales, disentería, diarrea, dolor de cabeza, mordedura de serpiente y trastornos hepáticos. Sin embargo, no se ha investigado sobre el potencial hepatoprotector de esta fruta.

Objetivos: Evaluar el efecto hepatoprotector del extracto etanólico de fruta de Cordia sebestena (CSFE) contra la hepatotoxicidad inducida por simvastatina en ratas.

Métodos: Después de la autenticación de la fruta, se realizó su extracto etanólico. La hepatotoxicidad fue inducida por simvastatina en roedores. El potencial hepatoprotector de CSFE se evaluó a 200 y 400 mg/kg, peso corporal determinando los niveles alterados de parámetros bioquímicos como transaminasa oxaloacética glutámica sérica (SGOT), transaminasa piruvica glutámica sérica (SGPT), colesterol, bilirrubina, urea, albúmina, proteína total e índices hematológicos, incluidos los glóbulos rojos (RBC), glóbulos blancos (WBC), hemoglobina (Hb), plaquetas y linfocitos, junto con el impacto en el peso corporal y hepático de las ratas tratadas.

Resultados: El tratamiento con CSFE a 200 mg/kg y 400 mg/kg, revertió significativamente, y de manera dependiente de la dosis, los niveles alterados de SGOT, SGPT, colesterol, urea, bilirrubina total inducidos por simvastatina, restaurado los niveles totales de proteína y albúmina en roedores. Los índices hematológicos también mejoraron significativamente (p<0.05, p<0.001) en ambas dosis de CSFE. El estudio histopatológico reveló la regeneración de los hepatocitos.

Conclusiones: El extracto de fruta de Cordia sebestena (CSFE) a una dosis de 400 mg/kg protegió del deterioro hepático inducido por simvastatina en ratas, manifestando así su uso tradicional como hepatoprotector. Se deben realizar estudios futuros para aislar fitoconstituyentes biológicamente activos.

Palabras Clave: colesterol; Cordia sebestena; hepatotoxicidad; transaminasa glutámica oxaloacética sérica; simvastatina; transaminasa pirúvica glutámica sérica.

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Citation Format: Chaudhary S, Gupta RK, Gupta MK, Verma HC, Kumar H, Kumar A, Swain SR, El-Shorbagi AN (2020) Hepatoprotective response of Cordia sebestena L. fruit against simvastatin induced hepatotoxicity. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 8(4): 327–335. DOI:

© 2020 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Pleurotus restores liver function in malnutrition

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 8(1): 32-42, 2020.


Original Article

Restoration of liver function in malnourished mice orally administered with Pleurotus ostreatus fruiting bodies extract

[Restablecimiento de la función hepática en ratones malnutridos administrados oralmente con un extracto de cuerpos fructíferos de Pleurotus ostreatus]

Gabriel Llauradó1*, Yaixa Beltrán1, Humberto J. Morris1, Ebert Marcos2, Usnavia Díaz3, Jane Marcos2, Jesús García4, Dunilka Disotuar4, Paul Cos5

1Centre of Studies for Industrial Biotechnology (CEBI), Universidad de Oriente, Ave. Patricio Lumumba s/n, Reparto Jiménez, Santiago de Cuba 5, CP 90500, Cuba.
2Centre of Toxicology and Biomedicine, Medical University of Santiago de Cuba, Autopista Nacional km 1 1/2. Apdo Postal 4033. Santiago de Cuba, Cuba.
3Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Santiago de Cuba, CP 90400, Santiago de Cuba 4, Cuba.
4Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Natural and Exact Sciences, University of Oriente, Ave. Patricio Lumumba s/n, Reparto Jiménez, Santiago de Cuba 5, CP 90500, Cuba.
5Laboratory for Microbiology, Parasitology and Hygiene (LMPH), Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerp, Belgium.

Context: Malnutrition is considered worldwide as an important burden because it provokes serious damage in several physiological and metabolic mechanisms, among them the hepatic function. Currently, natural products are being used to reduce the negative impact of some pathological disorders in liver. Pleurotus genus of edible mushrooms has shown a wide spectrum of medicinal effects, but its role in the management of liver complications associated to malnutrition is not clear.

Aims: To evaluate the restoration of hepatic function in BALB/c malnourished mice, orally administered with a crude water extract (CW-P) from Pleurotus ostreatus fruiting bodies.

Methods: Animals (8-week old female BALB/c mice) were  starved  for  3  days  and  then  refed  with  commercial  diet  supplemented  with  or  without CW-P (100 mg/kg) for 8 days. Serum ALP, GGT and amylase activities, hepatic enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, GGT), and liver histological examination were assayed.

Results: CW-P (34.3 % proteins, 42.6 % carbohydrates and 3.8 g/ 100 g of phenolics) administered to malnourished mice: (i) increased total serum proteins concentration that was correlated with the stimulation in liver protein anabolism, (ii) alleviated hepatic damage markers such as decrease serum ALP levels as well as, in ALP, GGT y AST activities in liver samples, and (iii) improved liver histological architecture similar to control group with decreased lipid accumulation.

Conclusions: CW-P supplementation favored liver restoration in malnourished mice. Nutritional interventions with this mushroom extract may be suggested to prevent liver complications associated to malnutrition.

Keywords: liver restoration; Pleurotus ostreatus; protein-energy malnutrition.


Contexto: La malnutrición se considera un importante problema al provocar daños en varios mecanismos fisiológicos y metabólicos, entre ellos, la función hepática. Los productos naturales son utilizados para reducir el impacto negativo de ciertas patologías en el hígado. Las setas Pleurotus exhiben un amplio espectro de efectos medicinales; sin embargo, no está dilucidado su papel en el tratamiento de trastornos hepáticos asociados a la malnutrición.

Objetivos: Evaluar el restablecimiento de la función hepática en ratones malnutridos y administrados por vía oral con un extracto crudo de cuerpos fructíferos de Pleurotus ostreatus (CW-P).

Métodos: Ratones BALB/c hembras de 8 semanas fueron mantenidos en ayuno durante 3 días, y posteriormente alimentados por 8 días con dieta comercial suplementada o no con CW-P (100 mg/kg). Se evaluó la actividad de las enzimas ALP, GGT y amilasa en suero, de ALT, AST, ALP, LDH y GGT en hígado, y se realizó, además, el examen histológico del órgano.

Resultados: CW-P (proteínas: 34.3%, carbohidratos: 42.6% y fenoles totales: 3.8 g/100 g) administrado a ratones malnutridos: (i) incrementó la concentración de proteínas séricas, correlacionado con la estimulación del anabolismo proteico, (ii) redujo el daño hepático, evidenciado por la disminución de actividad ALP en suero, y ALP, GGT y AST en hígado, y (iii) regeneró la arquitectura histológica del hígado, similar al grupo control, con una disminución de la acumulación de lípidos.

Conclusiones: La suplementación con CW-P favoreció la restauración hepática en ratones malnutridos. La intervención nutricional con dicho extracto podría prevenir complicaciones hepáticas asociadas a la malnutrición.

Palabras Clave: malnutrición proteico-energética; Pleurotus ostreatus; recuperación hepática.

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Citation Format: Llauradó G, Beltrán Y, Morris HJ, Marcos E, Díaz U, Jane Marcos, García J, Disotuar D, Cos P (2020) Restoration of liver function in malnourished mice orally administered with Pleurotus ostreatus fruiting bodies extract. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 8(1): 32–42. DOI:

© 2020 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Curcumin enhances effects of acetylsalicylic acid

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 7(5): 310-322, 2019.


Original Article

Exploration of anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effect of curcumin on co-administration with acetylsalicylic acid

[Exploración del efecto antiinflamatorio y hepatoprotector de la curcumina sobre la administración conjunta con ácido acetilsalicílico]

Tapas Kumar Mohapatra, Reena Rani Nayak, Bharat Bhusan Subudhi

Drug Development and Analysis Laboratory, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Siksha O Anusandhan, Bhubaneswar, 751029, India.

Context: Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) has been repositioned against different inflammatory disease conditions. However, on long-term use, ASA is reported to cause hepatotoxicity by compromising the antioxidant status. Curcumin is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action. Accordingly, co-use of curcumin can be expected to enhance the anti-inflammatory effects of ASA while minimizing its hepatotoxicity.

Aims: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of curcumin when co-administered with ASA.

Methods: To evaluate anti-inflammatory activity carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet induced granuloma models were used. Hepatotoxicity was induced by administration of ASA (100 mg/kg/day) for 28 continuous days. Antioxidant effects were determined by malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione assay of liver tissue.

Results: Co-treatment with curcumin and ASA significantly (p<0.001) reduced (57.92%) the paw edema induced by carrageenan. The effect was higher than that of the ASA (45.51%) and curcumin (36.87%). Further, the combination showed higher (57.67%) inhibition of granuloma formation compared to that of ASA (34.22%) and curcumin (28.39%). Co-use of curcumin with ASA lowered the malondialdehyde level while relatively increasing the superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione compared to ASA and curcumin. The histological findings showed protection against ASA induced hepatotoxicity.

Conclusions: Curcumin showed additive effects with ASA against inflammatory granuloma formation in rats. It also showed positive interaction against carrageenan-induced inflammation. With relatively higher antioxidant capacity, the co-use of curcumin showed protection against ASA induced hepatotoxicity.

Keywords: acetylsalicylic acid; anti-inflammatory; antioxidant; curcumin; hepatoprotective.


Contexto: El ácido acetilsalicílico (ASA) se ha reposicionado contra diferentes enfermedades inflamatorias. Sin embargo, en el uso a largo plazo, se informa que el ASA causa hepatotoxicidad al comprometer el estado antioxidante. La curcumina es conocida por su acción antioxidante y antiinflamatoria. Por consiguiente, se puede esperar que el uso conjunto de curcumina aumente los efectos antiinflamatorios del ASA y minimice su hepatotoxicidad.

Objetivos: Evaluar los efectos antiinflamatorios y hepatoprotectores de la curcumina cuando se administra de forma conjunta con ASA.

Métodos: Para evaluar la actividad antiinflamatoria, se usaron modelos de edema de pata inducida por carragenina y granuloma inducido por pellets de algodón. La hepatotoxicidad se indujo mediante la administración de ASA (100 mg/kg/día) durante 28 días continuos. Los efectos antioxidantes se determinaron por malondialdehído, superóxido dismutasa y ensayo reducido de glutatión del tejido hepático.

Resultados: El tratamiento conjunto con curcumina y ASA redujo significativamente (p<0,001) (57,92%) el edema de la pata inducido por la carragenina. El efecto fue mayor que el del ASA (45,51%) y la curcumina (36,87%). Además, la combinación mostró una inhibición más alta (57,67%) de la formación de granuloma en comparación con la de ASA (34,22%) y curcumina (28,39%). El uso concomitante de curcumina con ASA redujo el nivel de malondialdehído, mientras que aumentó relativamente la superóxido dismutasa y redujo el glutatión en comparación con el ASA y la curcumina. Los hallazgos histológicos mostraron protección contra la hepatotoxicidad inducida por ASA.

Conclusiones: La curcumina mostró efectos aditivos con ASA contra la formación de granuloma inflamatorio en ratas. También mostró una interacción positiva contra la inflamación inducida por carragenina. Con una capacidad antioxidante relativamente mayor, el uso conjunto de la curcumina mostró protección contra la hepatotoxicidad inducida por ASA.

Palabras Clave: ácido acetilsalicílico; antiinflamatorio; antioxidante; curcumina; hepatoprotector.

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Citation Format: Mohapatra TK, Nayak RR, Subudhi BB (2019) Exploration of anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effect of curcumin on co-administration with acetylsalicylic acid. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 7(5): 310–322. DOI:

© 2019 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Hepatoprotective effects of Talinum portulacifolium and 2-piperidone

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 7(4): 234-245, 2019.


Original Article

Hepatoprotective activity of 2-piperidone isolated from leaf extracts of Talinum portulacifolium (Forssk.) Asch. ex Schweinf in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity

[Actividad hepatoprotectora de 2-piperidona aislada de extractos de hojas de Talinum portulacifolium (Forssk.) Asch. ex Schweinf en hepatotoxicidad inducida por tetracloruro de carbono]

Vani Mamillapalli1,2*, Abdul Rahaman Shaik3, Prameela Rani Avula4

1Department of Pharmacy, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kakinada, Pin code 533003, East Godavari (Dt.), Andhra Pradesh, India.
2Department of Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry, Vijaya Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences for Women, Enikepadu, Pin code 521108, Vijayawada, Krishna (Dt.), Andhra Pradesh, India.
3Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Nirmala College of Pharmacy, Atmakur, Mangalagiri, Pin code 522503, Guntur (Dt.), Andhra Pradesh, India.
4Department of Pharmaceutics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar, Pin code 522510, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India.



Context: Liver disorders have become a common problem worldwide. The drugs available currently for the treatment are few with serious side effects. Since phytochemicals have proven to be potential therapeutic agents, an attempt has been made to screen novel hepatoprotective agents from the leaves of the medicinally ignored plant Talinum portulacifolium.

Aims: To evaluate the phytoconstituents of Talinum portulacifolium responsible for hepatoprotective activity in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity models both in vitro and in vivo.

Methods: The hepatic damage was assessed in vitro by serum marker enzymes alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase followed by in vivo histopathological examination.

Results: The results of the study indicate that the plant hydroalcoholic and acetone extracts at 500 mg/kg and compound 2-piperidone at 0.5 mg/kg exhibited equipotent results in the reduction of biochemical marker enzymes (p<0.01. p<0.05 and p<0.001) significantly compared to standard drug silymarin. The histopathological studies further supported that compound 2-piperidone showed better regeneration of damaged hepatocytes compared to standard. The possible mechanism of action may be due to inhibition of cytochrome P450 2E induced endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress.

Conclusions: The present study reveals that the hepatoprotective activity of leaf hydroalcoholic and acetone extracts may be due to the presence of 2-piperidone. As it showed equipotent potential to standard drug silymarin, it can be further developed as a hepatoprotective drug.

Keywords: hepatoprotective; 2-piperidone; Talinum portulacifolium.


Contexto: Los trastornos hepáticos se han convertido en un problema común en todo el mundo. Los medicamentos disponibles actualmente para el tratamiento son pocos con efectos secundarios graves. Dado que los fitoquímicos han demostrado ser agentes terapéuticos potenciales, se ha intentado seleccionar nuevos agentes hepatoprotectores de las hojas de Talinum portulacifolium.

Objetivos: Evaluar los fitoconstituyentes de Talinum portulacifolium responsables de la actividad hepatoprotectora en modelos de hepatotoxicidad inducida por tetracloruro de carbono tanto in vitro como in vivo.

Métodos: El daño hepático se evaluó in vitro mediante las enzimas marcadoras séricas alanina aminotransferasa, aspartato amino-transferasa y fosfatasa alcalina, seguido de un examen histopatológico in vivo.

Resultados: Los resultados del estudio indican que los extractos hidroalcohólicos y de acetona de la planta a 500 mg/kg y el compuesto 2-piperidona a 0,5 mg/kg mostraron resultados significativos (p<0,01. p<0,05 y p<0,001) equipotentes en la reducción de las enzimas marcadoras bioquímicas en comparación con la droga estándar de silimarina. Los estudios histopatológicos respaldaron además que el compuesto 2-piperidona mostró una mejor regeneración de hepatocitos dañados en comparación con el estándar. El posible mecanismo de acción puede deberse a la inhibición del retículo endoplásmico inducido por el citocromo P450 2E y al estrés oxidativo.

Conclusiones: El presente estudio revela que la actividad hepatoprotectora de los extractos hidroalcohólicos y de acetona de las hojas puede deberse a la presencia de 2-piperidona. Como mostró un potencial equipotente a la silimarina estándar, pudiera desarrollarse como un fármaco hepatoprotector.

Palabras Clave: hepatoprotector; 2-piperidona; Talinum portulacifolium.

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Citation Format: Mamillapalli V, Shaik AR, Avula PR (2019) Hepatoprotective activity of 2-piperidone isolated from leaf extracts of Talinum portulacifolium (Forssk.) Asch. ex Schweinf in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 7(4): 234–245. DOI:

© 2019 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Liver protective effects of quercetin

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 7(3): 200-212, 2019.


Original Article

Quercetin through mitigation of inflammatory response and oxidative stress exerts protective effects in rat model of diclofenac-induced liver toxicity

[Efectos protectores de quercetina mediante la mitigación de la respuesta inflamatoria y el estrés oxidativo sobre la toxicidad hepática inducida por diclofenaco en ratas]

Ali Nouri1, Esfandiar Heidarian1, Hossein Amini-khoei2, Saber Abbaszadeh3,4, Gholam Basati5*

1Clinical Biochemistry Research Center, Basic Health Sciences Institute, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran.
2Medical Plants Research Center, Basic Health Sciences Institute, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran.
3Student Research Committee, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.
4Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.
5Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran.



Context: Diclofenac (DIC) is known for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties but liver toxicity is one of the main targets to use this drug. Previous studies have demonstrated that quercetin may decrease the toxicity of synthetic drugs.

Aim: To assess the protective effect of quercetin against DIC-induced liver toxicity in rats.

Methods: The rats exposed to DIC (50 mg/kg; i.p.) were treated with different doses of quercetin (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg). The levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), intracellular glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) in the liver tissue were assessed.

Results: Results indicated a significant decline in above-mentioned factors in DIC-alone treated group compared to the control group. Also, levels of the triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), nitrite content, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), malondialdehyde (MDA), serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), serum interleukin-1β (IL-1β),  aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and inflammatory cytokines were evaluated and results indicted remarkable elevation in these factors in DIC-alone treated group compared to the  control group. Treatment with quercetin caused a significant elevation in GPx, SOD, GSH, CAT and a significant reduction in levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, total bilirubin, ALP, nitrite content, ALT, MDA, serum TNF-α, serum IL-1β, AST and inflammatory cytokines in DIC-alone treated group compared to the  control group (p<0.05). Histopathological alterations were also improved following quercetin administration.

Conclusions: Quercetin may exert a protective effect against DIC-induced liver toxicity in rats through mitigation of oxidative stress and inflammatory response.

Keywords: diclofenac; IL-1β; liver toxicity; oxidative stress; quercetin; TNF-α.


Contexto: El diclofenaco (DIC) posee propiedades antiinflamatorias y analgésicas, pero produce toxicidad hepática. Estudios anteriores han demostrado que la quercetina (Q) puede disminuir la toxicidad de los fármacos sintéticos.

Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto protector de la Q contra la toxicidad hepática inducida por DIC en ratas.

Métodos: Las ratas expuestas a DIC (50 mg/kg; i.p.) se trataron con diferentes dosis de Q (20, 40 y 80 mg/kg). Se evaluaron los niveles de glutatión peroxidasa (GPx), superóxido dismutasa (SOD), glutatión intracelular (GSH) y catalasa (CAT) en el tejido hepático.

Resultados: Se detectó una disminución significativa en los factores mencionados anteriormente en el grupo tratado con DIC solo en comparación con el grupo control. Además, los niveles de triglicéridos (TG), colesterol total (TC), lipoproteínas de baja densidad (LDL-C), lipoproteínas de muy baja densidad (VLDL-C), bilirrubina total, fosfatasa alcalina (ALP), contenido de nitritos, alanina aminotransferasa (ALT), malondialdehído (MDA), factor de necrosis tumoral sérica (TNF-α), interleucina-1β (IL-1β) sérica, aspartato aminotransferasa (AST) y citocinas inflamatorias fueron evaluadas y los resultados indicaron una notable elevación en estas factores en el grupo tratado con DIC en comparación con el grupo control. El tratamiento con Q causó una elevación significativa en GPx, SOD, GSH, CAT y una reducción significativa en los niveles de TG, TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, bilirrubina total, ALP, contenido de nitrito, ALT, MDA, suero TNF-α, IL-1β en suero, AST y citocinas inflamatorias en el grupo tratado con DIC solo en comparación con el grupo control (p<0.05). Las alteraciones histopatológicas también mejoraron después de la administración de Q.

Conclusiones: La Q ejerce un efecto protector contra la toxicidad hepática inducida por DIC en ratas mediante la mitigación del estrés oxidativo y la respuesta inflamatoria.

Palabras Clave: diclofenaco; estrés oxidativo; IL-1β; quercetina; TNF-α; toxicidad hepática.

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Citation Format: Nouri A, Heidarian E, Amini-Khoei H, Abbaszadeh S, Basati G (2019) Quercetin through mitigation of inflammatory response and oxidative stress exerts protective effects in rat model of diclofenac-induced liver toxicity. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 7(3): 200–212. DOI:

© 2019 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Hepatoprotection of Bryothamnion triquetrum in rats

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 7(1): 31-46, 2019.


Original Article

Hepatoprotective properties from the seaweed Bryothamnion triquetrum (S.G.Gmelin) M.A.Howe against CCl4-induced oxidative damage in rats

[Propiedades hepatoprotectoras del alga Bryothamnion triquetrum (S.G.Gmelin) M.A.Howe contra el estrés oxidativo en ratas inducido por CCl4]

Alexis de J. Vidal Novoa1*, Ana M. de Oliveira e Silva2*, Dalva A. Portari Mancini3, Daylín Díaz Gutiérrez1, Jorge Mancini-Filho2

1Facultad de Biología, Universidad de La Habana, Calle 25 # 455 e/ J e I, Vedado, CP 14 000, La Habana, Cuba.
2Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes # 580, Bloco 14, CEP 05508-900, São Paulo-SP, Brasil.
3Laboratorio de Virologia, Instituto Butantã, Ave Vital Brasil # 1500, Butantã, CEP 05503-900, São Paulo, Brasil.



Context: Seaweeds are seen as a traditional food and folk medicine by different coastal countries. The red seaweed Bryothamnion triquetrum is a widely distributed species that grows in shallow waters, and different authors have demonstrated a possible application of the seaweeds as a source of natural antioxidants and relative diseases.

Aims: To evaluate the hepatoprotective properties on CCl4-induced oxidative stress in rats that were associated with the antioxidant activity from the polyphenol-rich fractions of the red seaweed Bryothamnion triquetrum.

Methods: Polyphenols were determined by Folin-Cioacalteu. Antioxidant activity from phenolic compounds-rich fractions was measured by different assays (DPPH, Reducing power, β-Carotene/linoleic acid assay and Inhibition of lipoperoxidation). Aqueous extract from B. triquetrum was administered during 20 days to rats and submitted CCl4-Induced oxidative damage. The peroxidation and hepatic damage (TBARS, ASAT and ALAT), antioxidant metabolite and enzymes (glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase) were evaluated. Also, it was evaluated the expression of antioxidant enzymes by RT-PCR.

Results: The antioxidant activity determined by different assays with polyphenolic fractions. Free Phenolic Acid was more active: DPPH, 20 µg 87%; Reducing power OD = 0.490, 20 µg ; β-carotene/linoleic acid 1 µg 53%, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation 0.250 µg 100%. Rats treated displayed lower liver TBARS, ASAT and ALAT than CCl4-treated group and catalase activity was increased. It was demonstrated expression of catalase.

Conclusions: Data suggest that Bryothamnion triquetrum protects the liver against oxidative stress by modulating its antioxidant enzymes and oxidative status with potential use as phytodrug or functional food.

Keywords: antioxidant; Bryothamnion triquetum; hepatoprotection; seaweeds.


Contexto: Las algas marinas son consideradas como alimentos tradicionales y fitofármacos en determinados países. El alga marina Bryothamnion triquetrum es una especie ampliamente distribuida en aguas poco profundas. Diferentes autores han demostrado su posible aplicación como antioxidante natural.

Objetivos: Evaluar las propiedades hepatoprotectoras y protectoras del estrés oxidativo inducido por CCl4 asociadas con la actividad antioxidante de las fracciones ricas en polifenoles del alga Bryothamnion triquetrum.

Métodos: Los polifenoles fueron determinados por Folin-Cioacalteu. La actividad antioxidante de fracciones ricas en polifenoles se midió mediante: DPPH, capacidad reductora, ensayo de β-caroteno/ácido linoleico e inhibición de la lipoperoxidación. Se administró un extracto acuoso de B. triquetrum durante 20 días a ratas y se sometieron a daño oxidativo inducido por CCl4. Se evaluaron la peroxidación y el daño hepático (TBARS, ASAT y ALAT), metabolitos y enzimas antioxidantes (glutatión, catalasa y superóxido dismutasa). También se evaluó la expresión de enzimas antioxidantes mediante la técnica de RT-PCR.

Resultados: La fracción de ácidos fenólicos libres (FPA) resultó la más activa: DPPH, 20 μg 87%; capacidad reductora DO = 0,490 20 μg; β-caroteno/ácido linoleico 1 μg 53% e inhibición de la lipoperoxidación 0,250 μg 100%. Las ratas tratadas mostraron niveles más bajos de TBARS hepáticos, ASAT y ALAT que el grupo tratado con CCl4 y aumentó la actividad de catalasa. Se demostró la sobre-expresión de la catalasa.

Conclusiones: Los datos sugieren que Bryothamnion triquetrum protege al hígado contra el estrés oxidativo al modular sus enzimas antioxidantes y su estado oxidativo con su posible uso como fitofármaco o alimento funcional.

Palabras Clave: algas marinas; antioxidante; Bryothamnion triquetum; hepatoprotección.

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Citation Format: Vidal Novoa AJ, de Oliveira e Silva AM, Portari Mancini DA, Díaz Gutiérrez D, Mancini-Filho J (2019) Hepatoprotective properties from the seaweed Bryothamnion triquetrum (S.G.Gmelin) M.A.Howe against CCl4-induced oxidative damage in rats. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 7(1): 31–46. DOI:

© 2019 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L.

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 6(3): 205-215, 2018.


Original Article

Hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. leaves against antitubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity

[Potencial hepatoprotector y antioxidante de hojas de Nyctanthes Arbor-tristis L. contra la hepatotoxicidad inducida por fármacos antituberculosos]

Sachin Chaudhary1, 2*, Ramesh K. Gupta2, 3, Amit Kumar4, Hamadeh Tarazi1

1College of Pharmacy, University of Sharjah, Sharjah-27272, United Arab Emirates.
2Moradabad Educational Trust Group of Institutions, Faculty of Pharmacy, Moradabad-244001, Uttar Pradesh, India.
3Sherwood College of Pharmacy, Barabanki-225001, Uttar Pradesh, India.
4College of Pharmacy, Neelkanth Group of Institutions, Meerut-250110, Uttar Pradesh, India.



Context: Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. (Oleaceae) leaf are used in treatment of malaria, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic fever and enlargement of spleen; however, there is paucity of information on its hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential.

Aims: To evaluate hepatoprotective and antioxidant potentials of ethanolic leaf extract of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L.

Methods: After collection and authentication of the vegetal material, ethanolic extract was collected. The combination of antitubercular drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin and pyrazinamide) was used to induce hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. Hepatoprotective effect was evaluated at doses 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg, body weight by estimating the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and levels of total bilirubin (TBL). The effects on lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) were estimated. Docking study was conducted to anticipate the probable biological targets associated with its hepatoprotective effect.

Results: The plant extract dose of 500 mg/kg, body weight significantly declined the levels of AST, ALT, ALP and TBL at (p < 0.001), which is approximately corresponding to the dose of reference compound silymarin and reversed the levels of LPO, GSH, SOD, CAT as compared to silymarin dose. Histopathological studies revealed regeneration of hepatocytes. The docking results suggested that some active constituents of plant leaves potentially interact with human pregnane X receptor, human constitutive androstane receptor and the farnesoid X receptor.

Conclusions: The extract of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. remarkably possesses hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect and evinced its traditional claim. Future studies should be done to isolate active phytoconstituents for use in drug discovery.

Keywords: antioxidant; docking; hepatoprotective; Nyctanthes arbor-tristis.


Contexto: Las hojas de Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. (Oleaceae) se utilizan en el tratamiento de la malaria, artritis reumatoide, la fiebre crónica y el bazo agrandado; sin embargo, existe escasez de información sobre su potencial hepatoprotector y antioxidante.

Objetivos: Evaluar el potencial hepatoprotector y antioxidante del extracto etanol de hoja de Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L.

Métodos: Después de la colección y la autenticación del material vegetal fue realizado el extracto etanólico. La combinación de fármacos antituberculosos (isoniacida, rifampicina y pirazinamida) fue utilizada para inducir hepatotoxicidad en ratas de Wistar. El efecto hepatoprotector se evaluó en dosis 125, 250 y 500 mg/kg de peso corporal mediante la estimación de la actividad de alanina aminotransferasa (ALT), aspartato aminotransferasa (AST), fosfatasa alcalina (ALP) y los niveles de bilirrubina total (TBL). Se estimaron los efectos sobre la peroxidación lipídica (LPO), glutatión reducido (GSH), catalasa (CAT), y superóxido dismutasa (SOD). Además, se llevó a cabo un estudio de acoplamiento para anticipar los probables blancos biológicos asociados con su efecto hepatoprotector.

Resultados: La dosis de 500 mg/kg de extracto de planta disminuyó significativamente los niveles de AST, ALT, ALP y TBL (p < 0.001), que se corresponde aproximadamente a la dosis del compuesto referencia silimarina y revertió los niveles de LPO, GSH, SOD, CAT, en comparación con la dosis de silimarina. Los estudios histopatológicos revelaron regeneración de hepatocitos. Los resultados del acoplamiento sugirieron que algunos componentes activos de las hojas de la planta potencialmente interactuarán con el receptor X de pregnano humano, el receptor androstane constitutivo humano y el receptor de farnesoid X.

Conclusiones: El extracto de Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. posee efecto hepatoprotector y antioxidante notable y valida su uso tradicional. Estudios futuros deben llevarse a cabo para aislar fitoconstituyentes activos para su uso en el descubrimiento de medicamentos.

Palabras Clave: antioxidantes; antituberculosos; hepatoprotector; Nyctanthes arbor-tristis.

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Citation Format: Chaudhary S, Gupta RK, Kumar A, Tarazi H (2018) Hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. leaves against antitubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 6(3): 205–215. DOI:

© 2018 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Nephroprotective effects of Tribulus terrestris

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 4(4): 144-152, 2016.


Original Article

Nephroprotective and hepatoprotective effects of Tribulus terrestris L. growing in Saudi Arabia

[Efectos nefroprotector y hepatoprotector de Tribulus terrestris L. que crece en Arabia Saudita]

Maged S. Abdel-Kader1,6*­­­, Abdullah Al-Qutaym­2, Abdulaziz S. Bin Saeedan­3, Abubaker M. Hamad4, Khalid M. Alkharfy­5

1Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy; 2Undergraduate Student, College of Pharmacy; 3Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy; 4Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences; 5Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 173, Al-Kharj 11942, Saudi Arabia.
6Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21215, Egypt.



Context: Tribulus terrestris (Zygophyllaceae) is a popular leafy prostrate branching herb used in folk medicine as a diuretic and urinary antiseptic.

Aims: To evaluate the hepatoprotective and nephroprotective activities of the ethanolic plant extract and petroleum ether, dichloromethane and aqueous methanol fractions against CCl4 induced toxicity in adult Wistar rats.

Methods: The total 95% ethanol extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg and petroleum ether, dichloromethane and aqueous methanol at 200 mg/kg was administered p.o. for seven days followed by one dose of CCl4 (1.25 mL/kg, p.o.) at day six. Serum and tissue parameters for both liver and kidney functions were measured. Histopathological study of both tissues was conducted. Results were compared with normal rats, negative controls receiving only CCl4 and positive controls treated with silymarin (10 mg/kg, p.o.).

Results: Effect of the total 95% ethanol extract at 400 mg/kg on serum and tissue liver parameters were weak. However, protective effect on kidney was promising. The best effect was observed on the urea and creatinine levels. Both malondialdehyde and non-protein sulfhydryl groups in kidney tissues were improved to levels comparable with those obtained by silymarin.

Conclusions: The current study confirmed the positive effect of the plant on the kidney tissues and function. The activity was trapped to the dichloromethane fraction that could provide pure active compounds.

Keywords: Biochemical parameters; creatinine; ethanol extract; rats; urea.


Contexto: Tribulus terrestris (Zygophyllaceae) es una hierba rastrera frondosa ramificada que se usa en la etnomedicina como diurético y antiséptico urinario.

Objetivos: Evaluar las actividades hepatoprotectora y nefroprotectora del extracto etanólico de la planta y las fracciones de éter de petróleo, diclorometano y metanol acuoso contra la toxicidad inducida por CCl4 en ratas Wistar adultas.

Métodos: El extracto total en etanol 95% a 200 y 400 mg/kg y las fracciones de éter de petróleo, diclorometano y metanol acuoso a 200 mg/kg fueron administradas p.o. por siete días seguidas por una dosis de CCl4 (1.25 mL/kg, p.o.) en el día seis. Se midieron los parámetros séricos y tisulares para las funciones hepáticas y renales. Se realizó el estudio histopatológico de ambos tejidos. Los resultados se compararon con ratas normales, los controles negativos recibieron sólo CCl4 y los controles positivos se trataron con silimarina (10 mg/kg, p.o.).

Resultados: El efecto del extracto total de etanol 95% (400 mg/kg) sobre los parámetros séricos y tisulares del hígado fue débil. Sin embargo, el efecto protector renal fue superior. El mejor efecto se observó en las concentraciones de urea y creatinina. Tanto los grupos sulfhidrilo no proteicos como malondialdehído en los tejidos renales mejoraron a niveles comparables con los obtenidos por la silimarina.

Conclusiones: El presente estudio confirma el efecto positivo de la planta en el tejido y la función renal. La actividad se atribuye a la fracción de diclorometano que podría proporcionar compuestos activos puros.

Palabras Clave: Creatinina; extracto etanólico; parámetros bioquímicos; ratas; urea.

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Citation Format: Abdel-Kader MS, Al-Qutaym­ A, Bin Saeedan AS­, Hamad AM, Alkharfy KM (2016) Nephroprotective and hepatoprotective effects of Tribulus terrestris L. growing in Saudi Arabia. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 4(4): 144-152. DOI:
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© 2016 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)