Category Archives: Pharmaceutical Science

Alendronate and platelet-rich plasma in sheep anterior cruciate ligament

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 526-538, May-Jun 2024.


Original Article

Effect of alendronate and platelet-rich plasma in tendon-bones integration in sheep anterior cruciate ligament surgery

[Efecto del alendronato y del plasma rico en plaquetas en la integración tendón-hueso en la cirugía del ligamento cruzado anterior ovino]

Tangkas Sibarani1*, Bambang Purwanto2, Ambar Mudigdo3, Brian Wasita3

1Doctoral Program, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Solo, Indonesia.

2Department of Internal Medicine, Dr. Moewardi Hospital/Faculty of Medicine UNS, Surakarta, Indonesia.

3Department of Anatomical Pathology, Dr. Moewardi Hospital/Faculty of Medicine UNS, Surakarta, Indonesia.



Context: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction often faces challenges due to poor integration of the tendon with bone.

Aims: To evaluate the potential benefits of alendronate and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in enhancing tendon-to-bone osteointegration in ACL surgery.

Methods: This was a post-test only control group experimental study with Ovis aries Linnaeus sheep as experimental animals. The sample was divided into four groups: the control group ACL reconstruction with calcaneal tendons given NaCl, the group given PRP, alendronate, and PRP and alendronate. Bone healing biomarkers (NF-kB, TNF-α, MMP-9, TGF-β1, and COL1A1) were examined through immunohistochemical analysis and histological studies to assess osteoblast counts and inflammatory tissue.

Results: There was a statistically significant (p<0.05) increase in MMP-9 and osteoblast count after alendronate and PRP administration. Administration of alendronate and PRP also increased other variables, namely TNF-α, COL1A1, and the level of inflammation, although not statistically significant (p>0.05). The intervention did not affect NF-kB and TGF-β1 (p> 0.05).

Conclusions: These results show that the administration of alendronate and PRP improves the healing of tendon-calcaneal ACL reconstruction surgery in sheep.

Keywords: alendronate; anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction; platelet-rich plasma.

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Contexto: La reconstrucción del ligamento cruzado anterior (LCA) a menudo se enfrenta a desafíos debido a la mala integración del tendón con el hueso.

Objetivos: Evaluar los beneficios potenciales del alendronato y el plasma rico en plaquetas (PRP) en la mejora de la osteointegración tendón-hueso en la cirugía del LCA.

Métodos: Se trató de un estudio experimental de grupo control sólo postest con ovejas Ovis aries Linnaeus como animales de experimentación. La muestra se dividió en cuatro grupos: el grupo de control de reconstrucción del LCA con tendones calcáneos al que se administró NaCl, el grupo al que se administró PRP, alendronato, y PRP y alendronato. Se examinaron los biomarcadores de curación ósea (NF-kB, TNF-α, MMP-9, TGF-β1 y COL1A1) mediante análisis inmunohistoquímicos y estudios histológicos para evaluar el recuento de osteoblastos y el tejido inflamatorio.

Resultados: Hubo un aumento estadísticamente significativo (p<0,05) de la MMP-9 y del recuento de osteoblastos tras la administración de alendronato y PRP. La administración de alendronato y PRP también aumentó otras variables, concretamente el TNF-α, COL1A1 y el nivel de inflamación, aunque no de forma estadísticamente significativa (p>0,05). La intervención no afectó al NF-kB ni al TGF-β1 (p>0,05).

Conclusiones: Estos resultados demuestran que la administración de alendronato y PRP mejora la cicatrización de la cirugía de reconstrucción del LCA tendinoso-calcáneo en ovejas.

Palabras Clave: alendronato; reconstrucción del ligamento cruzado anterior; plasma rico en plaquetas.

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Citation Format: Sibarani T, Purwanto B, Mudigdo A, Wasita B (2024) Effect of alendronate and platelet-rich plasma in tendon-bones integration in sheep anterior cruciate ligament surgery. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 12(3): 526–538.

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© 2024 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research

Brassicaceae selenium complexes versus SARS-COV-2 MAP4 and spike protein

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 514-525, May-Jun 2024.


Original Article

Antiviral potential of selenium complexes from Brassicaceae by inhibiting protein bond between MAP4 and the spike of SARS-CoV-2

[Potencial antiviral de complejos de selenio de Brassicaceae mediante la inhibición de la unión proteica entre MAP4 y la espiga de SARS-CoV-2]

Silvi Z. Ilmiyah1, Sharida Fakurazi2, Agustina T. Endharti3,4, Sofy Permana5*

1Master Program in Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya Malang, Indonesia.

2Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor Daru I Ehsan, Malaysia.

3Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia.

4Biomedical Central Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya Malang, Indonesia.

5Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia.



Context: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a highly contagious viral disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a worldwide pandemic. Selenium derived from the plants of the Brassicaceae family plays an important role in several biological functions, often as an antioxidant or antiviral. In particular, selenium can be used as an adjuvant in the treatment of various viral infections.

Aims: To determine the potential drug, as well as the affinity and the bond energy associated with chemical interaction bonds between the complex selenium compounds from Brassicaceae as inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and MAP4 through the use of in silico studies.

Methods: The methods used in this study consisted of receptor and ligand data collection, ADMET analysis, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics.

Results: The results of this study indicate that the selenium complex compounds have the potential to be used as a spike inhibitor drug for SARS-CoV-2, as they have passed the Lipinski test and showed promise in the pharmacokinetic analysis. The results of the bond docking show that several complex selenium compounds, such as ethaselen, selenomethionine, and selenocystine, have stronger binding affinity values than the controls. This is compared to the control MAP4, which yielded binding affinities of -6.1 kcal/mol and spike protein -7 kcal/mol, respectively. Controlled bisoxatin and estramustine are drugs with mechanisms targeted to MAP4 and spike protein, which are the usual standards used.

Conclusions: The similarity of sites, the binding of several amino acid residues dominated by hydrogen bonds, and the result of molecular dynamic results for the selenium compound derived from Brassicaceae showed a stable bond to the spike protein and MAP4 with low fluctuation levels.

Keywords: MAP4; SARS-CoV-2; selenium; spike protein.

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Contexto: La enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), una enfermedad vírica altamente contagiosa por coronavirus de tipo 2 causante del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo (SARS-CoV-2), se ha convertido en una pandemia mundial. El selenio derivado de las plantas de la familia Brassicaceae desempeña un papel importante en varias funciones biológicas, a menudo como antioxidante o antiviral. En particular, el selenio puede utilizarse como coadyuvante en el tratamiento de diversas infecciones virales.

Objetivos: Determinar el fármaco potencial, así como la afinidad y la energía de enlace asociada a los enlaces de interacción química entre los compuestos complejos de selenio de Brassicaceae como inhibidores de la proteína espiga del SARS-CoV-2 y MAP4 mediante el uso de estudios in silico.

Métodos: Los métodos utilizados en este estudio consistieron en la recopilación de datos de receptores y ligandos, análisis ADMET, docking molecular y dinámica molecular.

Resultados: Los resultados de este estudio indican que los compuestos del complejo de selenio tienen potencial para ser utilizados como fármaco inhibidor de picos para el SARS-CoV-2, ya que han superado el test de Lipinski y se han mostrado prometedores en el análisis farmacocinético. Los resultados del acoplamiento de enlaces muestran que varios compuestos complejos de selenio, como el etaseleno, la selenometionina y la selenocisteína, tienen valores de afinidad de enlace más fuertes que los controles. Esto se compara con el MAP4 de control, que arrojó afinidades de unión de -6,1 kcal/mol y proteína pico -7 kcal/mol, respectivamente. La bisoxatina y la estramustina controladas son fármacos con mecanismos dirigidos a MAP4 y spike protein, que son los patrones habituales utilizados.

Conclusiones: La similitud de los sitios, la unión de varios residuos de aminoácidos dominados por enlaces de hidrógeno, y el resultado de los resultados de dinámica molecular para el compuesto de selenio derivado de Brassicaceae mostraron una unión estable a la proteína espiga y MAP4 con bajos niveles de fluctuación.

Palabras Clave: MAP4; SARS-CoV-2; selenio; proteína espiga.

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Citation Format: Ilmiyah SZ, Fakurazi S, Endharti AT, Permana S (2024) Antiviral potential of selenium complexes from Brassicaceae by inhibiting protein bond between MAP4 and the spike of SARS-COV-2. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 12(3): 514–525.

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© 2024 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research

Andrographis paniculata and cardiovascular diseases

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 487-513, May-Jun 2024.



Andrographis paniculata: A potential supplementary therapy for cardiovascular diseases – A systematic review of its effects and molecular actions

[Andrographis paniculata: Una terapia suplementaria potencial para las enfermedades cardiovasculares – Una revisión sistemática de sus efectos y acciones moleculares]

Oluebube Magnificient Eziefule1, Wawaimuli Arozal2*, Septelia Inawati Wanandi3, Syarifah Dewi3, Nafrialdi2, Meilania Saraswati4, Melva Louisa2

1Master’s Program in Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Salemba, Central Jakarta 10430, Indonesia.

2Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, JI. Salemba, Raya No. 6, Jakarta 10430 Indonesia.

3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, JI. Salemba, Raya No. 6, Jakarta 10430 Indonesia.

4Department of Anatomical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, JI. Salemba, Raya No. 6, Jakarta 10430 Indonesia.



Context: Cardiovascular diseases claim the lives of an estimated 17.9 million people worldwide (report by the World Health Organization), yet the drug pipeline compared to some other life-threatening diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders, is low.

Aims: To investigate the potential of Andrographis paniculata as a supplementary therapy for cardiovascular diseases based on recent in vivo animal studies.

Methods: This study adopted a systematic review approach to analyze preclinical evidence from in vivo animal studies. Three databases (PubMed, Scopus, and Embase) were searched using the keywords “Andrographis paniculata”, “cardiovascular disease”, “CVD”, “heart disease”, “cardioprotective”, “cardio*”, “inflammation”, “oxidative stress”, “obesity”, “lipopolysaccharide”, “hypertension”, “arrhythmia” and “aortic disease”. The search period was from April 20th, 2023, to April 26th, 2023, and included studies published from 2013 to 2023. Only in vivo animal studies were appraised. In contrast, clinical studies, in vitro studies, in silico studies, and review papers were excluded. SYRCLE’s risk of bias tool was used to assess the risk of bias.

Results: Sixteen eligible in vivo animal studies showed that Andrographis paniculata extracts and isolated bioactive compounds have strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on cardiovascular diseases. These effects lead to lowering the risk of coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, easing the effects of bad cardiac remodeling, stopping cardiac hypertrophy, and improving diabetic cardiomyopathy. Although SYRCLE’s tool detected some bias, the studies were included since they met the inclusion criteria and had no conflicts of interest.

Conclusions: Andrographis paniculata may have the potential to be used as a supplementary therapy for cardiovascular diseases, but more animal studies and clinical trials should be done to establish these findings.

Keywords: Andrographis paniculata; animal models; cardiovascular diseases; herbal medicine; inflammation; oxidative stress.

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Contexto: Se calcula que las enfermedades cardiovasculares se cobran la vida de 17,9 millones de personas en todo el mundo (informe de la Organización Mundial de la Salud) y, sin embargo, el número de fármacos disponibles es bajo en comparación con otras enfermedades potencialmente mortales, como el cáncer y los trastornos neurológicos.

Objetivos: Investigar el potencial de Andrographis paniculata como terapia complementaria para enfermedades cardiovasculares basándonos en estudios recientes in vivo en animales.

Métodos: Este estudio adoptó un enfoque de revisión sistemática para analizar la evidencia preclínica de estudios in vivo en animales. Se realizaron búsquedas en tres bases de datos (PubMed, Scopus y Embase) utilizando las palabras clave “Andrographis paniculata“, “cardiovascular disease”, “CVD”, “heart disease”, “cardioprotective”, “cardio*”, “inflammation”, “oxidative stress”, “obesity”, “lipopolysaccharide”, “hypertension”, “arrhythmia” y “aortic disease”. El periodo de búsqueda fue del 20 de abril de 2023 al 26 de abril de 2023, e incluyó estudios publicados entre 2013 y 2023. Sólo se valoraron estudios in vivo en animales. Por el contrario, se excluyeron los estudios clínicos, los estudios in vitro, los estudios in silico y los artículos de revisión. Se utilizó la herramienta de riesgo de sesgo de SYRCLE para evaluar el riesgo de sesgo.

Resultados: Dieciséis estudios in vivo con animales demostraron que los extractos de Andrographis paniculata y los compuestos bioactivos aislados tienen potentes efectos antiinflamatorios y antioxidantes sobre las enfermedades cardiovasculares. Estos efectos conducen a la reducción del riesgo de enfermedad coronaria e infarto de miocardio, el alivio de los efectos de la mala remodelación cardiaca, la detención de la hipertrofia cardiaca y la mejora de la cardiomiopatía diabética. Aunque la herramienta SYRCLE detectó cierto sesgo, los estudios se incluyeron ya que cumplían los criterios de inclusión y no presentaban conflictos de intereses.

Conclusiones: Andrographis paniculata puede tener potencial para ser utilizada como terapia complementaria en enfermedades cardiovasculares, pero deben realizarse más estudios en animales y ensayos clínicos para establecer estos hallazgos.

Palabras Clave: Andrographis paniculata; modelos animales; enfermedades cardiovasculares; fitoterapia; inflamación; estrés oxidativo.

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Citation Format: Eziefule OM, Arozal W, Wanandi SI, Dewi S, Nafrialdi, Saraswati M, Louisa M (2024) Andrographis paniculata: A potential supplementary therapy for cardiovascular diseases - A systematic review of its effects and molecular actions. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 12(3): 487–513.

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© 2024 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research

Facial skin and bakuchiol oil or encapsulated bakuchiol

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 477-486, May-Jun 2024.


Original Article

Comparative efficacy of bakuchiol oil and encapsulated bakuchiol cream on facial skin quality: A 28-day pilot study

[Eficacia comparativa del aceite de bakuchiol y la crema de bakuchiol encapsulado en la calidad de la piel facial: Un estudio piloto de 28 días]

Mediana Hadiwidjaja1,2, Eliza Romadhona1, Yulianto1, Novenia A. Chauwito2, Meva Gustina E. Sidauruk2, Rey Kardiono2, Christina Avanti1*

1Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Surabaya, Surabaya, 60293, Indonesia.

2Research and Development Lab, Infinisia Sumber Semesta, Jakarta, 11840, Indonesia.



Context: Along with the rapid growth of the beauty product industry, the community highly favors the use of plants as beauty ingredients and facial treatments. Bakuchiol, a lipid-soluble compound derived from Psoralea corylifolia is a gentle alternative to retinol in anti-aging skincare. To enhance its penetration into the skin, bakuchiol is formulated in liposomes through encapsulation technology.

Aims: To compare the efficacy of 0.5% bakuchiol oil and encapsulated 0.5% bakuchiol cream formula on facial skin quality.

Methods: The subjects consisted of 17 respondents, aged 25-45 years, with various skin types. Two creams, 0.5% bakuchiol oil cream and encapsulated 0.5% bakuchiol cream, were applied twice daily in the split face for 28 days. The study utilized the A-One Tab Skin Analyzer device to measure facial skin quality by scanning facial moisture, pores, sebum, and wrinkles levels on days 0, 14, and 28. Data obtained in the form of numerical values were analyzed using a comparative method employing both parametric and non-parametric methods with the aid of the SPSS software.

Results: The study results indicated that both creams enhanced skin moisture, reduced pore size, and improved wrinkle scores. However, the encapsulated bakuchiol cream performed better in minimizing pore size, sebum levels, and wrinkle scores.

Conclusions: The study findings imply that the use of encapsulated 0.5% bakuchiol cream formulation had a more pronounced effect on improving facial skin quality compared to the 0.5% bakuchiol oil cream formulation, signifying the superior efficacy of the former.

Keywords: anti-aging; bakuchiol oil; encapsulated; skin quality.

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Contexto: Junto con el rápido crecimiento de la industria de productos de belleza, la comunidad está muy a favor del uso de plantas como ingredientes de belleza y tratamientos faciales. El bakuchiol, un compuesto liposoluble derivado de la Psoralea corylifolia, es una alternativa suave al retinol en el cuidado antienvejecimiento de la piel. Para mejorar su penetración en la piel, el bakuchiol se formula en liposomas mediante tecnología de encapsulación.

Objetivos: Comparar la eficacia del aceite de bakuchiol al 0,5% y la fórmula en crema de bakuchiol encapsulado al 0,5% en la calidad de la piel del rostro.

Métodos: Los sujetos fueron 17 encuestados, de entre 25 y 45 años, con diversos tipos de piel. Se aplicaron dos cremas, crema de aceite de bakuchiol al 0,5% y crema de bakuchiol encapsulado al 0,5%, dos veces al día en la cara dividida durante 28 días. El estudio utilizó el dispositivo A-One Tab Skin Analyzer para medir la calidad de la piel del rostro mediante el escaneado de los niveles de humedad, poros, sebo y arrugas en los días 0, 14 y 28. Los datos obtenidos en forma de valores numéricos se analizaron mediante un método comparativo que empleaba métodos paramétricos y no paramétricos con ayuda del programa informático SPSS.

Resultados: Los resultados del estudio indicaron que ambas cremas mejoraron la hidratación de la piel, redujeron el tamaño de los poros y mejoraron la puntuación de las arrugas. Sin embargo, la crema de bakuchiol encapsulado obtuvo mejores resultados en la reducción del tamaño de los poros, los niveles de sebo y las puntuaciones de las arrugas.

Conclusiones: Los resultados del estudio implican que el uso de la formulación en crema de bakuchiol encapsulado al 0,5% tuvo un efecto más pronunciado en la mejora de la calidad de la piel facial en comparación con la formulación en crema de aceite de bakuchiol al 0,5%, lo que significa la eficacia superior de la primera.

Palabras Clave: antienvejecimiento; aceite de bakuchiol; encapsulado; calidad de la piel.

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Citation Format: Hadiwidjaja M, Romadhona E, Yulianto, Chauwito NA, Sidauruk MGE, Kardiono R, Avanti C (2024) Comparative efficacy of bakuchiol oil and encapsulated bakuchiol cream on facial skin quality: A 28-day pilot study. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 12(3): 477–486.

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© 2024 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research

Xylocarpus moluccensis potential as anti-hyperglycemic

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 453-476, May-Jun 2024.


Original Article

Two tetrahydroxyterpenoids and a flavonoid from Xylocarpus moluccensis M.Roem. and their α-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant capacity

[Dos tetrahidroxiterpenoides y un flavonoide de Xylocarpus moluccensis M.Roem. y su capacidad inhibidora y antioxidante de la α-glucosidasa]

Berna Elya1*, Fitri S. Budiarso1, Muhammad Hanafi2, Maria A. Gani3, Pekik W. Prasetyaningrum4

1Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia.

2Research Center for Pharmaceutical Ingredients and Traditional Medicine, National Research and Innovation Agency, Serpong, Indonesia.

3School of Pharmacy, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia.

4Research Center for Genetic Engineering, National Research and Innovation Agency, Cibinong, Indonesia.



Context: Scientific verification of the anti-hyperglycemic potential of Kayu sarampa (Xylocarpus moluccensis), which is popularly used for diabetic medication in North Sulawesi, Indonesia, is strongly important to conduct to avoid inappropriate medication that might cause worse conditions.

Aims: To investigate the anti-hyperglycemic potential of X. moluccensis stem bark ethyl acetate extract and isolated compounds through the α-glucosidase enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant capacity determination.

Methods: The active compound was isolated from ethyl acetate extract of X. moluccensis stem bark. The structures of those compounds were elucidated by infrared spectroscopy, liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies. To discover the anti-hyperglycemic potency, α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition assay, antioxidant assay (DPPH and FRAP), and in silico study were performed.

Results: Three isolated compounds were obtained and characterized as two tetrahydroxyterpenoids compounds, namely xyloccensin E (1) and ruageanin D (2), and one flavonoid compound, namely 3,5,7,3ʹ,4ʹ-pentahidroxyflavan (catechin) (3). Compounds 1 and 3 inhibited the α-glucosidase enzyme with IC50 values of 118.60 and 55.19 µg/mL, respectively, with a competitive inhibition mechanism. This is also in line with in silico findings, and both compounds showed good binding affinity of α-glucosidase protein, which indicated their anti-hyperglycemic activity potential by inhibiting α-glucosidase enzyme. Moreover, compounds 1 and 3 showed antioxidant capacity through the DPPH method with an IC50 value of 54.69 and 2.87 µg/mL. In addition, 100 µg/mL of compounds 1 and 3 also exhibited antioxidant capacity through the FRAP method with values of 66.35 and 213.82 µmol Fe2+/g, respectively.

Conclusions: The X. moluccensis stem bark ethyl acetate extract, and isolated compounds exhibit α-glucosidase enzyme inhibitory activity and antioxidant capacity, which confirms its potency as an alternative medication for hyperglycemia issues.

Keywords: anti-hyperglycemia; α-glucosidase; antioxidant; natural products.

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Contexto: La verificación científica del potencial anti-hiperglucémico de Kayu sarampa (Xylocarpus moluccensis), que se utiliza popularmente para la medicación de los diabéticos en el norte de Sulawesi, Indonesia, es muy importante para evitar una medicación inadecuada que podría causar peores condiciones.

Objetivos: Investigar el potencial anti-hiperglucémico del extracto de acetato de etilo de la corteza del tallo de X. moluccensis y de los compuestos aislados mediante la determinación de la capacidad antioxidante e inhibidora de la enzima α-glucosidasa.

Métodos: Se aislaron los compuestos activos del extracto de acetato de etilo de la corteza del tallo de X. moluccensis. Las estructuras de esos compuestos se dilucidaron mediante espectroscopía infrarroja, cromatografía líquida-espectrometría de masas y espectroscopía de resonancia magnética nuclear. Para descubrir la potencia anti-hiperglucémica, fueron realizados un ensayo de inhibición de la enzima α-glucosidasa, un ensayo antioxidante (DPPH y FRAP) y un estudio in silico.

Resultados: Se obtuvieron y caracterizaron tres compuestos aislados: dos compuestos tetrahidroxiterpenoides, a saber, xiloccensina E (1) y ruageanina D (2), y un compuesto flavonoide, a saber, 3,5,7,3ʹ,4ʹ-pentahidroxiflavano (catequina) (3). Los compuestos 1 y 3 inhibieron la enzima α-glucosidasa con valores de IC50 de 118,60 y 55,19 µg/mL, respectivamente, con un mecanismo de inhibición competitiva. Esto también coincide con los hallazgos in silico, y ambos compuestos mostraron una buena afinidad de unión con la proteína α-glucosidasa, lo que indica su potencial actividad anti-hiperglucémica mediante la inhibición de la enzima α-glucosidasa. Además, los compuestos 1 y 3 mostraron capacidad antioxidante mediante el método DPPH con un valor IC50 de 54,69 y 2,87 µg/mL. Además, 100 µg/mL de los compuestos 1 y 3 también mostraron capacidad antioxidante mediante el método FRAP con valores de 66,35 y 213,82 µmol Fe2+/g, respectivamente.

Conclusiones: El extracto de acetato de etilo de corteza de tallo de X. moluccensis y los compuestos aislados exhiben actividad inhibidora de la enzima α-glucosidasa y capacidad antioxidante, lo que confirma su potencia como medicamento alternativo para problemas de hiperglucemia.

Palabras Clave: anti-hiperglucemia; antioxidante; α-glucosidasa; productos naturales.

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Citation Format: Elya B, Budiarso FS, Hanafi M, Gani MA, Prasetyaningrum PW (2024) Two tetrahydroxyterpenoids and a flavonoid from Xylocarpus moluccensis M.Roem. and their α-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant capacity. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 12(3): 453–476.

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© 2024 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research

Justicia gendarussa potential for osteoporosis prevention

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 439-452, May-Jun 2024.


Original Article

In silico approaches of gandarusa (Justicia gendarussa Burm. f.) potential for osteoporosis prevention via EGF pathway

[Enfoques in silico del potencial de gandarusa (Justicia gendarussa Burm. f.) para la prevención de la osteoporosis vía EGF]

Sri Dinengsih1,2*, Nurdiana3, Sri Winarsih4, Bambang Raharjo5, Agustina Tri Endharti3

1Doctoral Program of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang 65145, Indonesia.

2Midwifery Program, Faculty of Health Sciences Universitas Nasional, Jakarta, Indonesia.

3Department of Medical, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang 65145, Indonesia.

4Department of Pharmacology, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang 65145, Indonesia.

5Department of Obstetric Gynecology, Public Hospital of Saiful Anwar, Malang, Indonesia.



Context: On a cellular level, osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease caused by osteoclastic bone resorption that is not offset by osteoblastic bone synthesis. This increases the risk of fractures by making bones weak and brittle. The selective inactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in osteoblast lineage cells demonstrated that EGFR promotes bone formation by increasing the number of mesenchymal progenitors. Active compounds of gandarusa (Justicia gendarussa Burm. f.) are potentially playing crucial roles in EGFR activation.

Aims: To evaluate the potential of J. gendarussa for osteoporosis prevention via EGF pathway in silico.

Methods: A GC-MS approach was used to screen the active compounds from 70 and 95% methanol extraction, which was continued with molecular docking analysis by PyRx v0.8. The visualization and amino acid interactions were also revealed using Discovery Studio software R17. ADME analysis was performed using the SwissADME webserver to consider whether the best compound could be classified as a drug following Lipinsky rule’s of five.

Results: The top five compounds with high binding affinity were selected from a total of 33 active compounds detected. One compound, namely eslicarbazepine, has a -6.7 kcal/mol affinity score and passes the threshold for drugs bioavailability, supported by the data of MW compounds 254.28 kDa, low rotatable bonds 1 bond, hydrogen bond acceptors and donors (2), high GI absorption, and ability to permeant to blood-brain barrier system.

Conclusions: This finding added new insight into J. gendarussa extract potential as anti-osteoporosis in humans. Nevertheless, in vitro and in vivo experiments are necessary to confirm the potential.

Keywords: activation; ADME; bone formation; leaf extract; molecular docking.



Contexto: A nivel celular, la osteoporosis es una enfermedad ósea metabólica causada por una resorción ósea osteoclástica que no se ve compensada por la síntesis ósea osteoblástica. Esto aumenta el riesgo de fracturas al hacer que los huesos se vuelvan débiles y quebradizos. La inactivación selectiva del receptor del factor de crecimiento epidérmico (EGFR) en células del linaje de los osteoblastos demostró que el EGFR favorece la formación ósea al aumentar el número de progenitores mesenquimales. Los compuestos activos de la gandarusa (Justicia gendarussa Burm. f.) desempeñan potencialmente papeles cruciales en la activación del EGFR.

Objetivos: Evaluar el potencial de J. gendarussa para la prevención de la osteoporosis a través de la vía EGF in silico.

Métodos: Se utilizó un enfoque GC-MS para cribado de los compuestos activos de 70 y 95% de extracción de metanol, que se continuó con el análisis de acoplamiento molecular por PyRx v0.8. La visualización y las interacciones de aminoácidos también se revelaron mediante el software Discovery Studio R17. El análisis ADME se realizó utilizando el servidor web SwissADME para considerar si el mejor compuesto podía clasificarse como fármaco siguiendo la regla de los cinco de Lipinsky.

Resultados: Se seleccionaron los cinco compuestos con mayor afinidad de unión de un total de 33 compuestos activos detectados. Un compuesto, a saber, la eslicarbazepina, tiene una puntuación de afinidad de -6,7 kcal/mol y supera el umbral de biodisponibilidad de los fármacos, apoyado por los datos de compuestos con un MW de 254,28 kDa, bajo enlace rotatorio 1, aceptores y donantes de enlaces de hidrógeno (2), alta absorción GI y capacidad de permeabilidad al sistema de barrera hematoencefálica.

Conclusiones: Este hallazgo añade nuevos conocimientos sobre el potencial del extracto de J. gendarussa como antiosteoporosis en humanos. No obstante, son necesarios experimentos in vitro e in vivo para confirmar dicho potencial.

Palabras Clave: acoplamiento molecular; activación; ADME; extracto de hoja; formación ósea.



Citation Format: Dinengsih S, Nurdiana, Winarsih S, Raharjo B, Endharti AT (2024) In silico approaches of gandarusa (Justicia gendarussa Burm. f.) potential for osteoporosis prevention via EGF pathway. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 12(3): 439–452.

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© 2024 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research

α-Mangostin metal complex as anticancer candidate

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 423-438, May-Jun 2024.


Original Article

Synthesis and computational study of metal complex of α-mangostin as an anticancer candidate

[Síntesis y estudio computacional de un complejo metálico de α-mangostin como un candidato anticancerígeno]

Richa Mardianingrum1, Srie Rezeki Nur Endah1, Isti Daruwati2,3, Muchtaridi Muchtaridi3,4, Ruswanto Ruswanto5*

1Pharmacy Program, Faculty of Health Science, Universitas Perjuangan, Tasikmalaya 46115, West Java, Indonesia.

2Research Center for Radioisotope, Radiopharmaceutical, and Biodosimetry Technology, Research Organization for Nuclear Energy, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Jl Puspiptek – Kota Tangerang Selatan, Indonesia.

3Research Collaboration Center for Theranostic Radiopharmaceuticals, Jl Ir. Soekarno KM 21, Jatinangor 45363, Indonesia.

4Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Medicinal Chemistry Faculty of Pharmacy, Padjadjaran University, Jatinangor, Sumedang 45363, West Java, Indonesia.

5Pharmacy Program, Universitas Bakti Tunas Husada, Tasikmalaya 46115, West Java, Indonesia.



Context: The number of breast cancer patients from year to year is increasing, accompanied by an increase in global mortality; the position in Indonesia has reached 60-70% with end-stage conditions. ERα antiproliferative activity exists in α-mangostin compounds, but this compound still has several physicochemical problems, including its solubility. Therefore, efforts are needed to increase the activity of α-mangostin and its affinity as an alpha estrogen receptor antagonist through a structure-based design method.

Aims: To obtain new compounds derived from α-mangostin in the form of a metal complex with cobalt (AM-Co), platinum (AM-Pt), and iron (AM-Fe) as medicinal ingredients that can be used as breast cancer therapeutic agents.

Methods: The research methods include in silico studies (pharmacokinetic and toxicity prediction, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics), semi-synthesis to form a complex compound, and testing cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 and T-47D human breast cancer cells.

Results: From the in vitro test results, it can be seen that the AM-Pt compound showed the best anticancer activity on MCF-7 cells compared to others from IC50 and SI values; this was supported by the results of in silico studies either through molecular docking or molecular dynamics, where this compound was more effective.

Conclusions: Furthermore, it can be used as an anticancer candidate; particularly, its activity is predicted to be more potent as an ERa antagonist than a-mangostin and cisplatin.

Keywords: cobalt; iron; a-mangostin; metal complex; platinum.



Contexto: El número de pacientes con cáncer de mama aumenta de año en año, acompañado de un aumento de la mortalidad global; la situación en Indonesia ha alcanzado el 60-70% con estados terminales. ERα existe actividad antiproliferativa en los compuestos de α-mangostin, pero este compuesto sigue presentando varios problemas fisicoquímicos, entre ellos su solubilidad. Por lo tanto, es necesario esforzarse por aumentar la actividad de α-mangostin y su afinidad como antagonista del receptor alfa de estrógenos mediante un método de diseño basado en la estructura.

Objetivos: Obtener nuevos compuestos derivados de α-mangostin en forma de complejo metálico con cobalto (AM-Co), platino (AM-Pt) y hierro (AM-Fe) como ingredientes medicinales que puedan utilizarse como agentes terapéuticos del cáncer de mama.

Métodos: Los métodos de investigación incluyen estudios in silico (predicción farmacocinética y de toxicidad, acoplamiento molecular y dinámica molecular), semisíntesis para formar un compuesto complejo y ensayo de la actividad citotóxica frente a células humanas de cáncer de mama MCF-7 y T-47D.

Resultados: A partir de los resultados de las pruebas in vitro, se puede observar que el compuesto AM-Pt mostró la mejor actividad anticancerígena sobre células MCF-7 en comparación con otros a partir de los valores de IC50 y SI; esto fue apoyado por los resultados de los estudios in silico ya sea a través de docking molecular o dinámica molecular, donde este compuesto fue más eficaz.

Conclusiones: Además, puede utilizarse como candidato anticancerígeno; en particular, se prevé que su actividad sea más potente como antagonista de ERα que α-mangostin y el cisplatino.

Palabras Clave: cobalto; complejo metálico; hierro; α-mangostin; platino.



Citation Format: Mardianingrum R, Endah SRN, Daruwati I, Muchtaridi M, Ruswanto R (2024) Synthesis and computational study of metal complex of α-mangostin as an anticancer candidate. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 12(3): 423–438.

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Yoga impact in pre-eclampsia

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 414-422, May-Jun 2024.


Original Article

The impact of yoga in pregnancy on placental growth factor levels and mean arterial pressure in pre-eclampsia: A randomized controlled trial

[El impacto del yoga en el embarazo sobre los niveles del factor de crecimiento placentario y la presión arterial media en la pre-eclampsia: un ensayo controlado aleatorizado]

Zakkiyatus Zainiyah*, Eny Susanti, Novita Wulandari

Ngudia Husada Madura High School of Health Sciences, Madura, Indonesia.



Context: Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy-related condition characterized by hypertension, proteinuria, and edema occurring after 20 weeks of pregnancy or during the postpartum period. Several markers are often assessed to determine the suitable option for confirming pre-eclampsia diagnosis, one of which is the examination of placental growth factor (PlGF) as a placental ischemia indicator.

Aims: To evaluate the impact of prenatal yoga on PlGF and mean arterial pressure (MAP) levels in pre-eclampsia within the Madura region.

Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted on fifty subjects that were randomly allocated to the experimental group with pre-post control groups consisting of 50 participants, namely 25 pregnant women with pre-eclampsia and 25 healthy individuals. The selection was conducted based on the following inclusion criteria: belonging to Madura ethnicity spanning three generations, exhibiting pregnancy duration >20 weeks, maternal ages ranging from 20–35 years, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) >25, a history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), kidney disorders, pre-eclampsia, chronic hypertension, or family history of chronic high blood pressure and pre-eclampsia among those at risk. PlGF levels were estimated using an ELISA kit, while blood pressure was measured with an Omron brand sphygmomanometer.

Results: Statistical analysis performed with the Wilcoxon sign test and T-test indicated significant differences (p<0.005) in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and MAP between the groups. Furthermore, a significant difference was observed in PlGF levels before and after engaging in prenatal yoga practice (p<0.05).

Conclusions: The results showed that prenatal yoga contributed to the elevation of PlGF levels in women with pre-eclampsia, compared to their healthy counterparts.

Keywords: mean arterial pressure; placental growth factor; pre-eclampsia; pregnancy; yoga.



Contexto: La pre-eclampsia es una afección relacionada con el embarazo caracterizada por hipertensión, proteinuria y edema que se presenta después de las 20 semanas de embarazo o durante el puerperio. A menudo se evalúan varios marcadores para determinar la opción adecuada para confirmar el diagnóstico de pre-eclampsia, uno de los cuales es el examen del factor de crecimiento placentario (PlGF) como indicador de isquemia placentaria.

Objetivos: Evaluar el impacto del yoga prenatal sobre el PlGF y los niveles de presión arterial media (PAM) en la pre-eclampsia dentro de la región de Madura.

Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un ensayo controlado aleatorio en cincuenta sujetos que fueron asignados al azar al grupo experimental con grupos de control pre-post compuesto por 50 participantes, a saber, 25 mujeres embarazadas con pre-eclampsia y 25 individuos sanos. La selección se basó en los siguientes criterios de inclusión: pertenencia a la etnia madura durante tres generaciones, duración del embarazo superior a 20 semanas, edad materna entre 20 y 35 años, índice de masa corporal (IMC) previo al embarazo >25, antecedentes de hipertensión, diabetes mellitus (DM), trastornos renales, pre-eclampsia, hipertensión crónica o antecedentes familiares de hipertensión crónica y pre-eclampsia entre las personas de riesgo. Los niveles de PlGF se estimaron mediante un kit ELISA, mientras que la presión arterial se midió con un esfigmomanómetro de la marca Omron.

Resultados: El análisis estadístico realizado con la prueba de signos de Wilcoxon y la prueba T indicó diferencias significativas (p<0,005) en la presión arterial sistólica, la presión arterial diastólica y la PAM entre los grupos. Además, se observó una diferencia significativa en los niveles de PlGF antes y después de practicar yoga prenatal (p<0,05).

Conclusiones: Los resultados mostraron que el yoga prenatal contribuyó a la elevación de los niveles de PlGF en mujeres con pre-eclampsia, en comparación con sus homólogas sanas.

Palabras Clave: embarazo; factor de crecimiento placentario; pre-eclampsia; presión arterial media; yoga.

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© 2024 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research

Efficacy and safety analysis of Morinda citrifolia fruit

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 391-413, May-Jun 2024.



An evidence-based review of Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae) fruits on animal models, human studies, and case reports

[Una revisión basada en la evidencia de los frutos de Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae) en modelos animales, estudios en humanos e informes de casos]

Asman Sadino1,2*, Jutti Levita3*, Nyi Mekar Saptarini4, Adryan Fristiohady5

1Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Garut University, Garut 44112, Indonesia.

2Student at the Doctoral Program in Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Padjadjaran University, Sumedang 45363, Indonesia.

3Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Padjadjaran University, Sumedang 45363, Indonesia.

4Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Padjadjaran University, Sumedang 45363, Indonesia.

5Faculty of Pharmacy, Halu Oleo University, Kendari 93132, Indonesia.



Context: Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae), commonly known as noni, is widely used as a complementary and alternative therapy in many countries due to its numerous beneficial effects on health.

Aims: To thoroughly analyze the efficacy and safety of M. citrifolia fruit across all reported areas.

Methods: The articles were explored on the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases using a combination of keywords: Morinda citrifolia AND human studies; Morinda citrifolia AND pharmacological activities using PRISMA guidelines.

Results: Studies in animal models revealed its activity as anti-dyslipidemia, anti-lipogenesis, anti‑fungal, hepatoprotective, hypotensive, immunostimulatory, anti-alopecia, photoprotective, antitumor, antiviral, anticancer, antidopaminergic, and antimicrobial. Based on the clinical and efficacy evidence, it is apparent that M. citrifolia is a potentially valuable medicinal plant whose status should be upgraded from laboratory bench to bedside. The safety of M. citrifolia has been confirmed and proven by no occurrence of AEs or only mild gastrointestinal discomforts. However, five cases of male and female patients aged from 14 to 63 years old reported different symptoms, such as fatigue, headache, vomiting, pigmentation, or acute hepatitis, after a high-dose daily use of this supplement.

Conclusions: Taking everything into consideration, M. citrifolia, despite its mild adverse events, has a beneficial efficacy and safety as an antioxidant; nevertheless, caution and therapy drug monitoring is required if this plant is to be taken in a long-term period.

Keywords: adjunctive therapy; antioxidants; Morinda citrifolia; noni fruit; plant-based therapy.



Contexto: La Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae), comúnmente conocida como noni, se utiliza ampliamente como terapia complementaria y alternativa en muchos países debido a sus numerosos efectos beneficiosos para la salud.

Objetivos: Analizar exhaustivamente la eficacia y seguridad del fruto de M. citrifolia en todas las áreas reportadas.

Métodos: Los artículos se exploraron en las bases de datos PubMed y Cochrane Library utilizando una combinación de palabras clave: Morinda citrifolia AND human studies; Morinda citrifolia AND pharmacological activities utilizando las guías de PRISMA.

Resultados: Los estudios en modelos animales revelaron su actividad como antidislipidémica, antilipogénica, antifúngica, hepatoprotectora, hipotensora, inmunoestimuladora, antialopecia, fotoprotectora, antitumoral, antiviral, anticancerígena, antidopaminérgica y antimicrobiana. Basándose en las pruebas clínicas y de eficacia, es evidente que la M. citrifolia es una planta medicinal potencialmente valiosa cuyo estatus debería elevarse de la mesa de laboratorio a la cabecera del enfermo. La inocuidad de la M. citrifolia ha sido confirmada y demostrada por la ausencia de EA o por la aparición de molestias gastrointestinales leves. Sin embargo, cinco casos de pacientes de ambos sexos con edades comprendidas entre los 14 y los 63 años informaron de diferentes síntomas, como fatiga, dolor de cabeza, vómitos, pigmentación o hepatitis aguda, tras el uso diario de este suplemento en dosis altas.

Conclusiones: Tomando todo en consideración, la M. citrifolia, a pesar de sus leves efectos adversos, tiene una eficacia y seguridad beneficiosas como antioxidante; no obstante, se requiere precaución y seguimiento farmacológico de la terapia si se va a tomar esta planta a largo plazo.

Palabras Clave: antioxidantes; fruto del noni; Morinda citrifolia; terapia basada en plantas; terapia coadyuvante.



Citation Format: Sadino A, Levita J, Saptarini NM, Fristiohady A (2024) An evidence-based review of Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae) fruits on animal models, human studies, and case reports. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 12(3): 391–413.

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Artocarpus altilis and antiarthritic efficacy

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 382-390, Mar-Apr 2024.


Original Article

Effectiveness of Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson ex F.A.Zorn) Fosberg ethanol extract in suppressing inflammation and cartilage degeneration in animal models of osteoarthritis

[Eficacia del extracto etanólico de Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson ex F.A.Zorn) Fosberg en la supresión de la inflamación y la degeneración del cartílago en modelos animales de osteoartritis]

Fitrya1,2*, Muharni3, Fatma Sri Wahyuni4, Annisa Amriani1,2

1Doctoral Program, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Sriwijaya, South Sumatera, Indonesia.

2Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Sriwijaya, South Sumatera, Indonesia.

3Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Sriwijaya, South Sumatera, Indonesia.

4Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Andalas, West Sumatera, Indonesia.



Context: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease characterized by an inflammatory reaction and cartilage degradation. Artocarpus altilis is a well-known traditional medicine with various phenolic and flavonoid content. Several pharmacological properties of A. altilis extract (AAE) have been reported, but its effectiveness in osteoarthritis is unknown.

Aims: To investigate the potential of AAE as an anti-osteoarthritis.

Methods: The Wistar rats induced OA with mono-iodoacetate (MIA). The OA model rats were treated with AAE with three dose levels (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) for 28 days. As a positive control used Na-diclofenac (20 mg/kg). Serum IL-1β, IL-10, MMP-3, and MMP-13 levels and histopathological profiles were compared to the MIA group and normal control (5% Na-CMC).

Results: The experimental results showed that AAE could significantly suppress the production of inflammatory mediator factor IL-1β, matrix-degrading proteinase MMP-3, MMP-13, and cartilage degeneration. In addition, AAE increased the production of the anti-inflammatory mediator IL-10, improved synovial inflammation, and increased cartilage thickness.

Conclusions: A. altilis extract has the potential to be developed as an anti-osteoarthritis therapeutic agent from natural medicine.

Keywords: Artocarpus altilis; cartilage degeneration; inflammatory; mono-iodoacetate; osteoarthritis.



Contexto: La osteoartritis (OA) es una enfermedad degenerativa de las articulaciones caracterizada por una reacción inflamatoria y la degradación del cartílago. El Artocarpus altilis es una medicina tradicional muy conocida por su contenido en diversos fenoles y flavonoides. Se han descrito varias propiedades farmacológicas del extracto de A. altilis (AAE), pero se desconoce su eficacia en la osteoartritis.

Objetivos: Investigar el potencial del AAE como antiosteoartrítico.

Métodos: A las ratas Wistar se les indujo OA con mono-iodoacetato (MIA). Las ratas modelo de OA fueron tratadas con AAE con tres niveles de dosis (100, 200 y 400 mg/kg) durante 28 días. Como control positivo se utilizó Na-diclofenaco (20 mg/kg). Se compararon los niveles séricos de IL-1β, IL-10, MMP-3 y MMP-13 y los perfiles histopatológicos con el grupo MIA y el control normal (5% Na-CMC).

Resultados: Los resultados experimentales mostraron que AAE podría suprimir significativamente la producción del factor mediador inflamatorio IL-1β, la proteinasa degradadora de la matriz MMP-3, MMP-13, y la degeneración del cartílago. Además, la AAE aumentó la producción del mediador anti-inflamatorio IL-10, mejoró la inflamación sinovial y aumentó el grosor del cartílago.

Conclusiones: El extracto de A. altilis tiene potencial para ser desarrollado como agente terapéutico anti-osteoartritis desde la medicina natural.

Palabras Clave: Artocarpus altilis; degeneración del cartílago; inflamatorio; monoyodoacetato; osteoartritis.



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