COVID-19 on mental health in Jordan people

Excerpt:


J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(2): 196-205, 2022. DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres21.1191_10.2.196 Original Article Evaluating the impact of COVID-19 on mental health of the public in Jordan: A cross-sectional study [Evaluación del impacto de COVID-19 en la salud mental del público en Jordania: Un estudio transversal] Yara A. Suleiman1, Derar H. Abdel-Qader1*, Bashar A. Suleiman2, Adel H. Suleiman3, Salim Hamadi1, … Continue reading COVID-19 on mental health in Jordan people



J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(2): 196-205, 2022.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres21.1191_10.2.196

Original Article

Evaluating the impact of COVID-19 on mental health of the public in Jordan: A cross-sectional study

[Evaluación del impacto de COVID-19 en la salud mental del público en Jordania: Un estudio transversal]

Yara A. Suleiman1, Derar H. Abdel-Qader1*, Bashar A. Suleiman2, Adel H. Suleiman3, Salim Hamadi1, Ahmad Z. Al Meslamani4

1Faculty of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of Petra, Amman, Jordan.

2Faculty of Pharmacy, The American University of Madaba, Madaba, Jordan.

3Dr. Sulaiman Al Habib Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

4 College of Pharmacy, Al Ain University of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

*E-mail: derar.balawi@uop.edu.jo

Abstract

Context: Although the COVID-19 pandemic was expected to have a significant impact on the mental health of the Jordanian population, there have been few studies to investigate the nature and magnitude of the impact.

Aims: To assess the potential psychiatric disorders induced by the current pandemic and evaluate the relevant risk factors.

Methods: A cross-sectional national survey-based study was conducted over 3 months (August to October, 2020) in 12 governorates in Jordan using random proportionate sampling; the questionnaire being answered in face-to-face interviews with a randomly selected sample of the adult population aged 18 years and older, to collect data from 1820 individuals. The modified Kessler scale was validated by a multidisciplinary committee. SPSS V26 was used for data analysis.

Results: Findings indicated that due to the COVID-19 pandemic, 11.4% (207/1820) of participants had severe mental disorders, 25.4% (462/1820) moderate mental disorders, while 34.7% (632/1820) were without any mental issues.  Predictors for severe mental disorder were: monthly income (<500 JOD) {OR: 3.6, 95%CI: 3.12-7.68, p = 0.01}, Employment status (unemployed) {OR: 2.4, 95%CI: 1.45-4.96, p = 0.001}, and those diagnosed with diabetes {OR: 1.9, 95%CI: 1.13-3.63, p = 0.03}.

Conclusions: COVID-19 pandemic had a notable impact on the mental health of people living in Jordan. People who had low monthly income (<500 JOD) or were unemployed were mostly affected as well as diabetes patients. These cases were recognized as significant risk factors for moderate and severe mental disorders. Appropriate psychiatric and economic interventions were recommended to improve the mental preparedness for pandemics among the population in Jordan.

Keywords: depression; anxiety; Kessler psychological distress scale; SARS-CoV-2 infection; social epidemiology.

Resumen

Contexto: Aunque se esperaba que la pandemia de COVID-19 tuviera un impacto significativo en la salud mental de la población jordana, se han realizado pocos estudios para investigar la naturaleza y la magnitud del impacto.

Objetivos: Evaluar los posibles trastornos psiquiátricos inducidos por la pandemia actual y evaluar los factores de riesgo relevantes.

Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal nacional basado en encuestas durante 3 meses (de agosto a octubre de 2020) en 12 municipios de Jordania utilizando un muestreo aleatorio proporcional; el cuestionario se respondió en entrevistas cara a cara con una muestra seleccionada al azar de la población adulta de 18 años o más, para recopilar datos de 1820 personas. La escala de Kessler modificada fue validada por un comité multidisciplinario. Se utilizó SPSS V26 para el análisis de datos.

Resultados: Nuestros hallazgos indicaron que debido a la pandemia de la COVID-19, el 11,4% (207/1820) de los participantes tenían trastornos mentales graves, el 25,4% (462/1820) trastornos mentales moderados, mientras que el 34,7% (632/1820) no tenían problemas mentales. Los predictores de trastorno mental severo fueron: ingreso mensual (<500 JOD) {OR: 3,6, IC del 95%: 3,12-7,68, p = 0,01}, Situación laboral (desempleado) {OR: 2.4, IC del 95%: 1,45-4,96, p = 0,001}, y los diagnosticados con diabetes {OR: 1,9, IC del 95%: 1,13-3,63, p = 0,03}.

Conclusiones: La pandemia de COVID-19 tuvo un impacto notable en la salud mental de las personas que viven en Jordania. Las personas que tenían ingresos mensuales bajos (<500 JOD) o estaban desempleadas fueron las más afectadas, así como los pacientes con diabetes, estos casos fueron reconocidos como factores de riesgo importantes para los trastornos mentales moderados y graves. Se recomendaron intervenciones psiquiátricas y económicas apropiadas para mejorar la preparación mental para las pandemias entre la población de Jordania.

Palabras Clave: ansiedad; depresión; epidemiología social; escala de angustia psicológica de Kessler; infección; SARS-CoV-2.

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Citation Format: Suleiman YA, Abdel-Qader DH, Suleiman BA, Suleiman AH, Hamadi S, Al Meslamani AZ (2022) Evaluating the impact of COVID-19 on mental health of the public in Jordan: A cross-sectional study. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(2): 196–205. https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres21.1191_10.2.196

© 2022 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

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