Cytoprotective activity of Adelia ricinella



J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 9(6): 892-904, 2021.

Original article

Cytoprotective activity of extracts from Adelia ricinella L. aerial parts

[Actividad citoprotectora de extractos de las partes aéreas de Adelia ricinella L.]

Clara A. Berenguer-Rivas1, Onel Fong Lores2, Julio C. Escalona-Arranz1, Jorge de la Vega-Acosta2, Diana J. Arro-Díaz2, Frenkel Guisado-Bourzac3, Gabriel Llauradó-Maury4, Humberto J. Morris-Quevedo4*

1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Natural and Exact Sciences, Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba 5, CP 90500, Cuba.

2 Center of Toxicology and Biomedicine (TOXIMED), Medical University of Santiago de Cuba, Santiago de Cuba 4, CP 90400, Cuba.

3Laboratory of Genetic and Applied Genomics. School of Marine Sciences. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile.

4Center of Studies for Industrial Biotechnology (CEBI), Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba 5, CP 90500, Cuba.

*E-mail: jquevedo@uo.edu.cu

Abstract

Context: Several factors can affect the erythrocyte cell membrane integrity targeting important hematological alterations that can be avoided by the cytoprotective effect offered by some plant extracts.

Aims: To evaluate the cytoprotective activity of Adelia ricinella L. extracts on red blood cells (RBCs) membrane after hypotonic and oxidative treatments.

Methods: Total phenols and flavonoid contents were spectrophotometrically determined in three extracts: AR1 (ethanol 95%), AR2 (ethanol 50%), and AR3 (aqueous extract). Luteolin and apigenin were quantified using HPLC-DAD techniques. Hypotonic erythrocyte membrane stabilizing activity of plant extracts, their antioxidant protective effect on H2O2-induced cell damage, and cytotoxicity on Vero cells were explored. Control cells were treated with sodium diclofenac or ascorbic acid.

Results: AR2 extract showed the highest values of total phenols/flavonoids, as well as, for luteolin and apigenin with 207.5 and 1.86 µg/mL respectively. The extracts did not exert spontaneous hemolysis following the INVITOX protocol, presumably by the protective effect of high flavonoid content. A concentration-dependent pattern was observed on the hypotonic erythrocyte membrane stabilizing assay, in which both ethanol extracts but mainly AR1 (IC50 = 16.46 µg/mL) showed a significant activity with lower IC50 values than diclofenac-control group. On the other hand, AR2 (IC50 = 17.49 µg/mL) displayed the most potent cytoprotective effect on RBCs after H2O2-induced cell damage. Adelia ricinella extracts were not cytotoxic to mammalian Vero cells (IC50 > 256 μg/mL).

Conclusions: The study suggests that Adelia ricinella extracts can promote erythrocyte cytoprotection by protecting both membrane layers, thus preventing potential hematological alterations induced by oxidizing damage and probably, in inflammation-related diseases.

Keywords: Adelia ricinella; antioxidant; cytoprotection; flavonoids; red blood cells.

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Resumen

Contexto: Varios factores afectan la integridad de la membrana eritrocitiaria, provocando alteraciones hematológicas, que pueden evitarse mediante el efecto citoprotector de extractos vegetales.

Objetivos: Evaluar la actividad citoprotectora de extractos de Adelia ricinella L. sobre la membrana eritrocitaria luego de tratamientos hipotónicos y oxidativos.

Métodos: El contenido de fenoles y flavonoides totales se determinó espectrofotométricamente en tres extractos: AR1 (etanol 95%), AR2 (etanol 50%) y AR3 (acuoso); la luteolina y apigenina se estimaron mediante HPLC-DAD. Se evaluó el efecto estabilizador de los extractos en membranas sometidas a tratamiento hipotónico, la actividad antioxidante ante el daño inducido por H2O2, y la citotoxicidad en células Vero. El diclofenaco de sodio y el ácido ascórbico se emplearon como controles.

Resultados: AR2 mostró valores superiores de fenoles totales/flavonoides, y de luteolina y apigenina con 207,5 y 1,86 µg/mL, respectivamente. Los extractos no causaron hemólisis espontánea en el protocolo INVITOX, probablemente debido al efecto protector de los flavonoides. Se observó un comportamiento dependiente de la concentración en el ensayo de estabilización de la membrana en solución hipotónica, en el que ambos extractos etanólicos (principalmente AR1, IC50 = 16,46 µg/mL), evidenciaron una actividad significativa con valores de IC50 menores al control con diclofenaco. AR2 (IC50 = 17,49 µg/mL) mostró el efecto citoprotector más potente frente al daño inducido por H2O2. Los extractos no resultaron citotóxicos en células Vero (IC50 > 256 μg/mL).

Conclusiones: Los extractos de Adelia ricinella L. pueden promover la citoprotección eritrocitaria en ambas superficies, y así prevenir posibles alteraciones hematológicas inducidas por daño oxidativo y presumiblemente, por enfermedades inflamatorias.

Palabras Clave: Adelia ricinella; antioxidante; citoprotección; flavonoides; glóbulos rojos.

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Citation Format: Berenguer CA, Fong O, Escalona JC, de la Vega J, Arro DJ, Guisado F, Llauradó G, Morris HJ (2021) Cytoprotective activity of extracts from Adelia ricinella L. aerial parts. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 9(6): 892–904.

© 2021 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)