Cytotoxicity and apoptosis activities of passion fruit seed extract

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J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 659-672, Jul-Aug 2024. DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres23.1798_12.4.659 Original Article Cytotoxicity and apoptosis activities of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) seed extract on HSC-2, HSC-3, MCF-7, and HaCaT cell lines [Citotoxicidad y actividades apoptóticas del extracto de semilla de fruta de la pasión (Passiflora edulis Sims) en las líneas … Continue reading Cytotoxicity and apoptosis activities of passion fruit seed extract

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 659-672, Jul-Aug 2024.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres23.1798_12.4.659

Original Article

Cytotoxicity and apoptosis activities of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) seed extract on HSC-2, HSC-3, MCF-7, and HaCaT cell lines

[Citotoxicidad y actividades apoptóticas del extracto de semilla de fruta de la pasión (Passiflora edulis Sims) en las líneas celulares HSC-2, HSC-3, MCF-7 y HaCaT]

Liza Meutia Sari1*, Dina Keumala Sari2, Arleni Bustami3, Achmad Danny Gazali3, Elza Ibrahim Auerkari4

1Department of Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh, 23111, Indonesia.

2Department of Tropical Disease and Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatra Utara, Medan, 20155, Indonesia.

3Cell, Tissue Culture, and Bio-imaging Division, Integrated Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, 10430, Indonesia.

4Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, 10430, Indonesia.

*E-mail: lizameutiasari@usk.ac.id

Abstract

Context: Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) is a well-known plant in the tropical islands, especially in North Sumatra, Indonesia, because of its sweet and refreshing taste. Although the fruit is often used as a syrup and sweetener, the efficacy of P. edulis fruit seed extract for anticancer activity has not been widely studied.

Aims: To evaluate the ability of P. edulis fruit seed extract to induce cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HSC-2, HSC-3, MCF-7, and HaCaT cell lines.

Methods: P. edulis fruit seed extract was extracted by using 96% ethanol. The cytotoxicity activity was measured by using an MTT assay for 48 hours. Apoptosis was examined using a TUNEL assay, and the morphology of the apoptosis bodies was analyzed using electron microscopy.

Results: The IC50 values of P. edulis fruit seed extract were 572.79 µg/mL and 439.54 µg/mL for HSC-3 and MCF-7, respectively. The seed did not show cytotoxic activity on the HSC-2 cell line, but it induced proliferation of the HaCaT cell line in the maximum dose. The P. edulis fruit seed extract induced apoptosis activity in HSC-3, MCF-7, and HaCaT cell lines. Most DNA fragments were found in the cytosol of HSC-3 cells and the nucleus of MCF-7 cells.

Conclusions: The P. edulis fruit seed extract has cytotoxicity and apoptosis activities in oral cancer (HSC-3 cells) and breast cancer (MCF-7 cells), as well as being safe in normal human keratinocytes (HaCaT cell line). The P. edulis fruit seed extract can be considered an adjuvant agent in cancer treatment.

Keywords: apoptosis; breast cancer; cytotoxicity; oral cancer; passion fruit seed.

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Resumen

Contexto: La fruta de la pasión (Passiflora edulis Sims) es una planta muy conocida en las islas tropicales, especialmente en el norte de Sumatra, Indonesia, por su sabor dulce y refrescante. Aunque el fruto se utiliza a menudo como jarabe y edulcorante, la eficacia del extracto de semilla del fruto de P. edulis para la actividad anticancerígena no se ha estudiado ampliamente.

Objetivos: Evaluar la capacidad del extracto de semilla de P. edulis para inducir citotoxicidad y apoptosis en las líneas celulares HSC-2, HSC-3, MCF-7 y HaCaT.

Métodos: El extracto de semilla de P. edulis se extrajo utilizando etanol al 96%. La actividad citotóxica se midió mediante un ensayo MTT durante 48 horas. La apoptosis se examinó mediante un ensayo TUNEL, y la morfología de los cuerpos de apoptosis se analizó mediante microscopía electrónica.

Resultados: Los valores IC50 del extracto de semilla del fruto de P. edulis fueron 572,79 µg/mL y 439,54 µg/mL para HSC-3 y MCF-7, respectivamente. La semilla no mostró actividad citotóxica en la línea celular HSC-2, pero indujo la proliferación de la línea celular HaCaT en la dosis máxima. El extracto de semilla del fruto de P. edulis indujo la actividad de apoptosis en las líneas celulares HSC-3, MCF-7 y HaCaT. La mayoría de los fragmentos de ADN se encontraron en el citosol de las células HSC-3 y en el núcleo de las células MCF-7.

Conclusiones: El extracto de semilla de fruto de P. edulis tiene actividades de citotoxicidad y apoptosis en cáncer oral (células HSC-3) y cáncer de mama (células MCF-7), además de ser seguro en queratinocitos humanos normales (línea celular HaCaT). El extracto de semilla del fruto de P. edulis puede considerarse un agente adyuvante en el tratamiento del cáncer.

Palabras Clave: apoptosis; cáncer de mama; citotoxicidad; cáncer oral; semilla de fruta de la pasión.

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Citation Format: Sari LM, Sari DK, Bustami A, Gazali AD, Auerkari EI (2024) Cytotoxicity and apoptosis activity of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) seed extract on HSC-2, HSC-3, MCF-7, and HaCaT cell lines. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 12(4): 659–672. https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres23.1798_12.4.659
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