Effects of swim exercise on the pubic cartilage

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 406-417, May-June 2022

Original Article

Effects of swimming exercise and RLN2 induction on relaxin levels, MMP-13, TGFβ expression in the pubic cartilage of pregnant rats

[Efectos del ejercicio de natación y la inducción de RLN2 sobre los niveles de relaxina, MMP-13, expresión de TGFβ en el cartílago púbico de ratas preñadas]

Ika Oktaviani1,2*, Titin Andri Wihastuti3, Bambang Rahardjo4,5, Endang Sri Wahyuni4, Bilqisthi Ari Putra6

1Doctoral Program in Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia.

2Midwifery Study Program, Tanjungkarang Ministry of Health Polytechnic, Lampung, Indonesia.

3Department of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia.

4Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia.

5Department Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Syaiful Anwar Hospital, Malang, Indonesia.

6Veterinary Pathology Division, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia.

*E-mail: ikaoktaviani@poltekkes-tjk.ac.id, ika.oktaviani@gmail.com


Context: Swimming exercises can be used as an intervention to maintain the stability of the synthesis of the pubic symphysis cartilage.

Aims: To evaluate the effects of swimming exercise on relaxin levels, MMP-13, TGFβ expression in pubic cartilage at pregnant rats with induction of RLN2 gene.

Methods: Thirty-six female Wistar rats (six in each group) were impregnated with 24 male rats (1:1). Three groups had swimming exercises for 60 min per day, and the other groups were treated as the control group. Two groups were given subcutaneous RLN2 gene. Relaxin plasma was collected from the sinus retro-orbital and performed twice on the eighth day and the 20th of pregnancy. The pubic symphysis of the rats was collected on the 20th day of pregnancy, and the decalcification process was carried out before making histological preparations.

Results: There was an increase in the amount of relaxin in the relaxin-induced group after 24 h induction (p=0.000). Relaxin levels of pregnant rats on the 20th day correlated with the expression of MMP-13, p=0.029; R2=0.447. In the treatment group, relaxin levels and MMP-13 expression were lower than the non-treatment group, p=0.005 and p=0.000, respectively. In contrast, there was a higher expression of TGFβ in the treatment group, p=0.000.

Conclusions: Relaxin plasma levels have a significant correlation with the expression of MMP-13, and swimming exercise increases the expression of TGFβ and decreases relaxin levels and MMP-13 expression in the pubic cartilage.

Keywords: MMP-13; pregnant rat; pubic cartilage; relaxin; swimming exercise; TGFβ.


Contexto: Los ejercicios de natación pueden ser utilizados como intervención para mantener la estabilidad de la síntesis del cartílago de la sínfisis púbica.

Objetivos: Evaluar los efectos del ejercicio de natación sobre los niveles de relaxina, MMP-13, expresión de TGFβ en cartílago púbico en ratas preñadas con inducción del gen RLN2.

Métodos: Treinta y seis ratas Wistar hembras (seis en cada grupo) fueron aparejadas con 24 ratas macho (1:1). Tres grupos realizaron ejercicios de natación durante 60 min por día, y los otros grupos fueron tratados como grupo de control. A dos grupos se les administró el gen RLN2 por vía subcutánea. El plasma de relaxina se recogió, del seno retroorbitario, el octavo día y el vigésimo día del embarazo. La sínfisis púbica de las ratas se recolectó el día 20 de gestación y se realizó el proceso de descalcificación antes de realizar las preparaciones histológicas.

Resultados: Hubo un aumento en la cantidad de relaxina en el grupo inducido por relaxina después de 24 h de inducción (p=0,000). Los niveles de relaxina de ratas preñadas en el día 20 se correlacionaron con la expresión de MMP-13, p=0,029; R2=0,447. En el grupo de tratamiento, los niveles de relaxina y la expresión de MMP-13 fueron más bajos que en el grupo sin tratamiento, p=0,005 y p=0,000, respectivamente. Por el contrario, hubo una mayor expresión de TGFβ en el grupo de tratamiento, p=0,000.

Conclusiones: Los niveles plasmáticos de relaxina tienen una correlación significativa con la expresión de MMP-13, y el ejercicio de natación aumenta la expresión de TGFβ y disminuye los niveles de relaxina y la expresión de MMP-13 en el cartílago púbico.

Palabras Clave: cartílago púbico; ejercicio de natación; MMP-13; rata preñada; relaxina; TGFβ.

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Citation Format: Oktaviani I, Wihastuti TA, Rahardjo B, Wahyuni ES, Putra BA (2022) Effects of swimming exercise and RLN2 induction on relaxin levels, MMP-13, TGFβ expression in the pubic cartilage of pregnant rats. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(3): 406–417.

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