Ethnobotanical investigation in Soran district, Iraq

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J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1-32, January-February 2023. DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres22.1484_11.1.1 Original Article Medicinal plants used in Soran district Kurdistan region of Iraq, an ethnobotanicals study [Plantas medicinales utilizadas en el distrito de Soran, región del Kurdistán de Irak, un estudio etnobotánico] Samiaa J. Abdulwahid-Kurdi1*, Muhsin J. Abdulwahid2, Usman Magaji3, Zeiad A. Aghwan3, … Continue reading Ethnobotanical investigation in Soran district, Iraq

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1-32, January-February 2023.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres22.1484_11.1.1

Original Article

Medicinal plants used in Soran district Kurdistan region of Iraq, an ethnobotanicals study

[Plantas medicinales utilizadas en el distrito de Soran, región del Kurdistán de Irak, un estudio etnobotánico]

Samiaa J. Abdulwahid-Kurdi1*, Muhsin J. Abdulwahid2, Usman Magaji3, Zeiad A. Aghwan3, Rodziah Atan4,Kasrin A. Hamadamin1

1Department of General Sciences, Faculty of Education, Soran University, Kawa street, 44008 Soran, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

2Salahaddin University Research Center (SURC), Erbil, Kurdistan Region of Iraq.

3Department of Agronomy, Federal University of Kashere, Gombe, Gombe State, Nigeria.

4Department of Halalan Thayyiban Research Centre, University of Islam Sultan Sharif Ali, Brunei Darussalam.

*E-mail: samiaa.abdulwahid@soran.edu.iq, samiaa.abdulwahid@gmail.com

Abstract

Context: The current study, the first of its type, focuses on the ethnobotanical uses of 97 medicinal plant species by the inhabitants in the Soran area, Kurdistan region of Iraq.

Aims: To evaluate local knowledge of medicinal plants and provision of preliminary data on the user-benefit of the accessible plant species in the area.

Methods: Between October 2021 and May 2022, key informant interviews were conducted as part of an ethnobotanical survey. Information about a particular study through face-to-face interviews with 171 participants (98 males and 73 females) was collected. For the therapeutic plants considered in the study, quantitative indices such as use value (UV), family use value (FUV), the relative frequency of citation (RFC), fidelity level (FL), and informant consensus factor (ICF) were applied in addition to detailed notes on each plant species.

Results: The survey discovered 97 plant species and 41 plant families. Leaves were the plant portion that was used the most (44%), while seeds were the least (12%). The most popular three methods of preparation were decoction (52%), row (36%), and crushed (6%). The Olea europaea species had the highest use values (0.82), while Vitex agnus-castus had (0.005). Amaryllidaceae had the highest family use value (1.218), while Asteraceae had (0.005). According to the consensus index, Ficus carica and Datura stramonium had (140.84%) and (1.011%). The digestive tract disease category was shown to have the highest informant consensus factor value out of all disease categories (0.57), while the lowest value ICF was (0.0) for tooth pain.

Conclusions: As a result of the development of natural medicines, this study gives information on the indigenous medicinal plants utilized in the Soran district to treat common illnesses that are ready for additional pharmacological and phytochemical examination. For better use of natural resources, the traditional use of plants requires conservation methods and additional research.

Keywords: ethnobotany; food; medicinal plants; Soran district; traditional medicine.

Resumen

Contexto: El presente estudio se centra en los usos etnobotánicos de 97 especies de plantas medicinales por parte de los habitantes de la zona de Soran, en la región del Kurdistán iraquí.

Objetivos: Evaluar el conocimiento local de las plantas medicinales y aportar datos preliminares sobre el uso-beneficio de las especies vegetales accesibles en la zona.

Métodos: Entre octubre de 2021 y mayo de 2022, se realizaron entrevistas a informantes clave como parte de un estudio etnobotánico. Se recogió información sobre un estudio particular a través de entrevistas cara a cara con 171 participantes (98 hombres y 73 mujeres). Para las plantas terapéuticas consideradas en el estudio, se aplicaron índices cuantitativos como el valor de uso (UV), el valor de uso familiar (FUV), la frecuencia relativa de citación (RFC), el nivel de fidelidad (FL) y el factor de consenso del informante (ICF), además de notas detalladas sobre cada especie vegetal.

Resultados: La encuesta descubrió 97 especies de plantas y 41 familias de plantas. Las hojas fueron la parte de la planta que más se utilizó (44%) mientras que las semillas fueron las menos (12%). Los tres métodos de preparación más populares fueron la decocción (52%), crudo (36%) y el triturado (6%). La especie Olea europaea tuvo los valores de uso más altos (0,82), mientras que Vitex agnus-castus tuvo (0,005). La Amaryllidaceae tuvo el mayor valor de uso de la familia (1,218), mientras que la Asteraceae tuvo (0,005). Según el índice de consenso, Ficus carica y Datura stramonium tuvieron (140,84%) y (1,011%). La categoría de enfermedad del tracto digestivo mostró tener el valor más alto del factor de consenso del informante de todas las categorías de enfermedad (0,57), mientras que el valor más bajo del ICF fue (0,0) para el dolor de muelas.

Conclusiones: Como resultado del desarrollo de las medicinas naturales, este estudio ofrece información sobre las plantas medicinales indígenas utilizadas en el distrito de Soran para tratar enfermedades comunes que están listas para un examen farmacológico y fitoquímico adicional. Para un mejor uso de los recursos naturales, el uso tradicional de las plantas requiere métodos de conservación e investigación adicional.

Palabras Clave: alimentación; distrito de Soran; etnobotánica; medicina tradicional; plantas medicinales.

Citation Format: Abdulwahid-Kurdi SJ, Abdulwahid MJ, Magaji U, Aghwan ZA, Atan R, Hamadamin KA (2023) Medicinal plants used in Soran district Kurdistan region of Iraq, an ethnobotanicals study. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 11(1): 1–32. https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres22.1484_11.1.1
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