GC-MS/antihypertensive evaluations of P. dactylifera L.

Excerpt:


J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 8(5): 475-490, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres20.838_8.5.475 Original Article Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and in vitro inhibitory effects of Phoenix dactylifera L. on key enzymes implicated in hypertension [Análisis de cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas y efectos inhibitorios in vitro de Phoenix dactylifera L. sobre enzimas clave implicadas en la hipertensión] Okukwe C. Obode1,2, Abiodun … Continue reading GC-MS/antihypertensive evaluations of P. dactylifera L.

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 8(5): 475-490, 2020.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres20.838_8.5.475

Original Article

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and in vitro inhibitory effects of Phoenix dactylifera L. on key enzymes implicated in hypertension

[Análisis de cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas y efectos inhibitorios in vitro de Phoenix dactylifera L. sobre enzimas clave implicadas en la hipertensión]

Okukwe C. Obode1,2, Abiodun H. Adebayo1*, Chunyang Li3

1Department of Biochemistry, College of Science and Technology, Covenant University Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria.
2Nutrition and Toxicology Division, Food Technology Department, Federal Institute of Industrial Research Oshodi, Lagos, Nigeria.
3Institute of Agro-Products Processing, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.
Abstract

Context: Phoenix dactylifera (PD) is a medicinal plant reportedly used in folklore for hypertension management. Scientific validation for its use as an antihypertensive agent is scanty.

Aims: To investigate the bioactive compounds present in extract and differential solvent fractions, and the in vitro inhibitory effect of PD on the activities of key enzymes associated with hypertension.

Methods: Ethanol and differential solvent (ethyl acetate, butanol and water) fractions of PD were prepared using established methods and were thereafter used for the enzyme inhibition assays, which includes: angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5), adenosine deaminase (ADA) and arginase. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to evaluate bioactive compounds present in the extracts and fractions.

Results: Preliminary phytochemical evaluations revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, betacyanins and phenols in all solvent fractions. Some of the compounds detected in P. dactylifera that have been implicated in hypertension management include squalene, lauric acid, palmitic acid, caprate, stearate, vitamin E, β-sitosterol, phytol, linolenic acid, isosorbide, coumarins and taurine. Furthermore, all except the aqueous fraction exerted significantly (p<0.05) higher ACE inhibition than the control drug (lisinopril). Also, the ethanol, butanol, and aqueous fractions exerted significantly (p<0.05) higher inhibition of PDE-5 than the control drug (sildenafil). However, the aqueous fraction exhibited the highest PDE-5 and AChE inhibition at 86.99 ± 0.10 and 91.81 ± 1.20%, respectively. Also, the aqueous fraction had the highest inhibitory effect on ADA (82.87 ± 4.32%).

Conclusions: These findings, therefore, justify the use of P. dactylifera as an antihypertensive agent in the folklore medicine.

Keywords: angiotensin-converting enzyme; arginase; hypertension; Phoenix dactylifera; phosphodiesterase-5; phytochemicals.

Resumen

Contexto: Phoenix dactylifera (PD) es una planta medicinal utilizada en el folklore para el manejo de la hipertensión. La validación científica para su uso como agente antihipertensivo es escasa.

Objetivos: Investigar los compuestos bioactivos presentes en el extracto y las fracciones de solvente diferencial, y el efecto inhibidor in vitro de la PD sobre las actividades de las enzimas clave asociadas con la hipertensión.

Métodos: Las fracciones de etanol y disolvente diferencial (acetato de etilo, butanol y agua) de PD se prepararon utilizando métodos establecidos y posteriormente se usaron para los ensayos de inhibición enzimática que incluyeron: enzima convertidora de angiotensina (ACE), acetilcolinesterasa (AChE), fosfodiesterasa-5 (PDE-5), adenosina desaminasa (ADA) y arginasa. La cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas se utilizó para evaluar los compuestos bioactivos presentes en los extractos y fracciones.

Resultados: Las evaluaciones fitoquímicas preliminares revelaron la presencia de taninos, flavonoides, betacianinas y fenoles en todas las fracciones de solventes. Algunos de los compuestos detectados en P. dactylifera que han sido implicados en el manejo de la hipertensión incluyen escualeno, ácido láurico, ácido palmítico, caprato, estearato, vitamina E, β-sitosterol, fitol, ácido linolénico, isosorbida, cumarinas y taurina. Además, todos excepto la fracción acuosa ejerció una inhibición de la ECA significativamente mayor (p<0.05) que el fármaco de control (lisinopril). Además, las fracciones etanólica, butanólica y acuosa ejercieron una inhibición significativamente mayor (p<0.05) sobre PDE-5 que el fármaco control (sildenafil). Sin embargo, la fracción acuosa exhibió la inhibición más alta de PDE-5 y AChE a 86.99 ± 0.10 y 91.81 ± 1.20%, respectivamente. Además, la fracción acuosa tuvo el mayor efecto inhibidor sobre ADA (82.87 ± 4.32%).

Conclusiones: Estos hallazgos, por lo tanto, justifican el uso de P. dactylifera como agente antihipertensivo en la medicina popular.

Palabras Clave: arginasa; enzima convertidora de angiotensina; fitoquímicos; fosfodiesterasa-5; hipertensión; Phoenix dactylifera.

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Citation Format: Obode OC, Adebayo AH, Li C (2020) Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and in vitro inhibitory effects of Phoenix dactylifera L. on key enzymes implicated in hypertension. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 8(5): 475–490. DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres20.838_8.5.475

© 2020 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

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