Honey clinical applications in complementary medicine

Excerpt:


J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1040-1055, Nov-Dec 2024. DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres24.1870_12.6.1040 Review Honey clinical applications in complementary medicine: A critical review [Aplicaciones clínicas de la miel en la medicina complementaria: Una revisión crítica] Thai Hau Koo1, Andee Dzulkarnaen Zakaria2*, Mohd Zulkifli Mustafa3 1Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains … Continue reading Honey clinical applications in complementary medicine

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1040-1055, Nov-Dec 2024.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres24.1870_12.6.1040

Review

Honey clinical applications in complementary medicine: A critical review

[Aplicaciones clínicas de la miel en la medicina complementaria: Una revisión crítica]

Thai Hau Koo1, Andee Dzulkarnaen Zakaria2*, Mohd Zulkifli Mustafa3

1Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu, Malaysia.

2Department of Surgery, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu, Malaysia.

3Department of Neuroscience, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu, Malaysia.

*E-mail: andee@usm.my

Abstract

Context: Honey has been employed for its therapeutic attributes since ancient eras, with a history of medicinal utilization, and recent studies have highlighted its diverse clinical applications. The medicinal benefits of honey can be ascribed to various mechanisms, encompassing its osmotic and acidic characteristics, hydrogen peroxide generation, and particular bioactive compounds. While honey generally has a good safety profile, rare risks exist, particularly in infants under one year of age. More rigorous clinical trials and standardized protocols are needed to establish its optimal dosage, application methods, and specific indications. Economic considerations and regional variations in honey composition and quality should also be considered.

Aims: To provide an overview of the clinical uses of honey in the medical field, emphasizing its effectiveness and potential therapeutic benefits.

Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted to gather relevant studies on the clinical applications of honey. The search encompassed various databases and included studies published with the range from May 2001 to May 2023. The selected studies were critically reviewed to extract pertinent information for this critical review.

Results: Natural honey comes from two types of honey-producing bees: honeybees and stingless bees. Honey constitutes a multifaceted amalgamation of sugars, enzymes, minerals, vitamins, and bioactive compounds, all contributing to its therapeutic attributes. It exhibits antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, and antioxidant effects. In wound management, honey promotes healing, reduces infection rates, and minimizes scarring. It also shows promise in treating bacterial and fungal infections. Furthermore, honey has effectively alleviated symptoms associated with respiratory tract infections, gastrointestinal disorders, and dermatological conditions.

Conclusions: Honey possesses multifaceted clinical applications in the medical field. Its diverse therapeutic properties and minimal adverse effects make it an attractive option for various conditions. However, further research is necessary to solidify its role in evidence-based clinical practice, including conducting more rigorous clinical trials, establishing standardized protocols, and considering economic and regional factors.

Keywords: clinical application; Kelulut honey; Tualang honey.

PDF Download

Resumen

Contexto: La miel se ha empleado por sus atributos terapéuticos desde la antigüedad, con una historia de utilización medicinal, y estudios recientes han puesto de relieve sus diversas aplicaciones clínicas. Los beneficios medicinales de la miel pueden atribuirse a diversos mecanismos, que abarcan sus características osmóticas y ácidas, la generación de peróxido de hidrógeno y determinados compuestos bioactivos. Aunque en general la miel tiene un buen perfil de seguridad, existen riesgos poco frecuentes, sobre todo en lactantes menores de un año. Se necesitan ensayos clínicos más rigurosos y protocolos estandarizados para establecer su dosis óptima, métodos de aplicación e indicaciones específicas. También deben tenerse en cuenta las consideraciones económicas y las variaciones regionales en la composición y calidad de la miel.

Objetivos: Ofrecer una visión general de los usos clínicos de la miel en el ámbito médico, haciendo hincapié en su eficacia y sus posibles beneficios terapéuticos.

Métodos: Se realizó una exhaustiva búsqueda bibliográfica para recopilar estudios relevantes sobre las aplicaciones clínicas de la miel. La búsqueda abarcó varias bases de datos e incluyó estudios publicados con un intervalo entre mayo de 2001 y mayo de 2023. Los estudios seleccionados se revisaron críticamente para extraer información pertinente para esta revisión crítica.

Resultados: La miel natural procede de dos tipos de abejas productoras de miel: las abejas melíferas y las abejas sin aguijón. La miel constituye una amalgama polifacética de azúcares, enzimas, minerales, vitaminas y compuestos bioactivos, que contribuyen a sus atributos terapéuticos. Tiene efectos antibacterianos, antiinflamatorios, cicatrizantes y antioxidantes. En el tratamiento de heridas, la miel favorece la cicatrización, reduce las tasas de infección y minimiza las cicatrices. También resulta prometedora en el tratamiento de infecciones bacterianas y fúngicas. Además, la miel ha aliviado eficazmente los síntomas asociados a infecciones de las vías respiratorias, trastornos gastrointestinales y afecciones dermatológicas.

Conclusiones: La miel posee aplicaciones clínicas polifacéticas en el campo de la medicina. Sus diversas propiedades terapéuticas y sus mínimos efectos adversos la convierten en una opción atractiva para diversas afecciones. Sin embargo, es necesario seguir investigando para consolidar su papel en la práctica clínica basada en la evidencia, incluyendo la realización de ensayos clínicos más rigurosos, el establecimiento de protocolos estandarizados y la consideración de factores económicos y regionales.

Palabras Clave: aplicación clínica; miel de Kelulut; miel de Tualang.

PDF Download
 
Citation Format: Koo TH, Zakaria AD, Mustafa MZ (2024) Honey clinical applications in complementary medicine: A critical review. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 12(6): 1040–1055. https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres24.1870_12.6.1040
References

Abuelgasim H, Albury C, Lee J (2021) Effectiveness of honey for symptomatic relief in upper respiratory tract infections: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Evid Based Med 26(2): 57–64. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjebm-2020-111336

Ahmed N, Sutcliffe A, Tipper C (2013) Feasibility study: Honey for treatment of cough in children. Pediatr Rep 5(2): 31–34. https://doi.org/10.4081/pr.2013.e8

Ahmed S, Othman NH (2013) Review of the medicinal effects of tualang honey and a comparison with manuka honey. Malays J Med Sci 20(3): 6–13. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc3743976/

Ahmed S, Sulaiman SA, Baig AA, Ibrahim M, Liaqat S, Fatima S, Jabeen S, Shamim N, Othman NH (2018) Honey as a potential natural antioxidant medicine: An insight into its molecular mechanisms of action. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2018: 8367846. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/8367846

Ajibola A (2015) Novel insights into the health importance of natural honey. Malays J Med Sci 22(5): 7–22. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc5295738/

Ajibola A, Chamunorwa JP, Erlwanger KH (2012) Nutraceutical values of natural honey and its contribution to human health and wealth. Nutr Metab (Lond) 9: 61. https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-7075-9-61

Akbar S (2020) Handbook of 200 medicinal plants. A comprehensive review of their traditional medical uses and scientific justifications. Switzerland AG: Springer Cham, pp. 2156. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-16807-0

Almasaudi S (2021) The antibacterial activities of honey. Saudi J Biol Sci 28(4): 2188–2196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.10.017

Asha'ari ZA, Ahmad MZ, Jihan WS, Che CM, Leman I (2013) Ingestion of honey improves the symptoms of allergic rhinitis: evidence from a randomized placebo-controlled trial in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Ann Saudi Med 33(5): 469–475. https://doi.org/10.5144/0256-4947.2013.469

Azman KF, Aziz CBA, Zakaria R, Ahmad AH, Shafin N, Ismail CAN (2021) Tualang honey: A decade of neurological research. Molecules 26(17): 5424. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26175424

Babacan S, Rand AG (2007) Characterization of honey amylase. J Food Sci 72(1): C050–C055. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2006.00215.x

Bett CK (2017) Factors influencing quality honey production. Int J Acad Res Bus Social Sci 7(11): 281–292. http://dx.doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i11/3458

Bohr A, Memarzadeh K (2020) The rise of artificial intelligence in healthcare applications. In Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare. Academic Press, pp. 25–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-818438-7.00002-2

Burzyńska M, Piasecka-Kwiatkowska D (2021) A review of honeybee venom allergens and allergenicity. Int J Mol Sci 22(16): 8371. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22168371

Chen P, Vilorio NC, Dhatariya K, Jeffcoate W, Lobmann R, McIntosh C, Piaggesi A, Steinberg J, Vas P, Viswanathan V, Wu S, Game F (2020) Effectiveness of interventions to enhance healing of chronic foot ulcers in diabetes: A systematic review. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 40(3): e3786. https://doi.org/10.1002/dmrr.3786

Clark M, Adcock L (2019) Honey for wound management: A review of clinical effectiveness and guidelines. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK538361/

Combarros-Fuertes P, Fresno JM, Estevinho MM, Sousa-Pimenta M, Tornadijo ME, Estevinho LM (2020) Honey: Another alternative in the fight against antibiotic-resistant bacteria? Antibiotics 9(11): 774. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110774

Devasvaran K, Yong Y-K (2016) Anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties of Malaysia Tualang honey. Current Sci 110(1): 47–51.

Dinat S, Orchard A, Van Vuuren S (2023) A scoping review of African natural products against gastric ulcers and Helicobacter pylori. J Ethnopharmacol 301: 115698. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2022.115698

Ediriweera E, Premarathna N (2012) Medicinal and cosmetic uses of Bee's honey–A review. Ayu 33(2): 178–182. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3611628

Erejuwa OO, Sulaiman SA, Wahab MS, Sirajudeen KN, Salleh MS, Gurtu S (2010) Antioxidant protection of Malaysian tualang honey in pancreas of normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 71(4): 291–296. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ando.2010.03.003

Erejuwa OO, Sulaiman SA, Wahab MS, Sirajudeen KN, Salleh MS, Gurtu S (2011) Glibenclamide or metformin combined with honey improves glycemic control in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Int J Biol Sci 7(2): 244–252. https://doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.7.244

Esa NEF, Ansari MNM, Razak SIA, Ismail NI, Jusoh N, Zawawi NA, Jamaludin MI, Sagadevan S, Nayan NHM (2022) A review on recent progress of stingless bee honey and its hydrogel-based compound for wound care management. Molecules 27(10): 3080. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27103080

Eteraf-Oskouei, T, Najafi, M (2013) Traditional and modern uses of natural honey in human diseases: A review. Iran J Basic Med Sci 16(6): 731–742. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc3758027/

Firdaus A, Khalid J, Yong YK (2018) Malaysian Tualang honey and its potential anti-cancer properties: A review. Sains Malaysiana 47(11): 2705–2711. http://dx.doi.org/10.17576/jsm-2018-4711-14

Fletcher MT, Hungerford NL, Webber D, Carpinelli de Jesus M, Zhang J, Stone ISJ, Blanchfield JT, Zawawi N (2020) Stingless bee honey, a novel source of trehalulose: A biologically active disaccharide with health benefits. Sci Rep 10(1): 12128. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68940-0

Haddaway NR, Bethel A, Dicks LV, Koricheva J, Macura B, Petrokofsky G, Pullin AS, Savilaakso S, Stewart GB (2020) Eight problems with literature reviews and how to fix them. Nat Ecol Evol 4(12): 1582–1589. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-020-01295-x

Hassapidou M, Fotiadou E, Maglara E, Papadopoulou SK (2006) Energy intake, diet composition, energy expenditure, and body fatness of adolescents in northern Greece. Obesity 14(5): 855–862. https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2006.99

Hazirah H, Yasmin A, Norwahidah A (2019) Antioxidant properties of stingless bee honey and its effect on the viability of lymphoblastoid cell line. Med Health 14: 91–105. http://dx.doi.org/10.17576/MH.2019.1401.08

Hossain, ML, Lim, LY, Hammer, K, Hettiarachchi, D, Locher, C (2021) Honey-based medicinal formulations: A critical review. Appl. Sci 11(11): 5159. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11115159

Ibrahim MA, Berahim Z, Ahmad A, Taib H (2021) The effect of locally delivered Tualang honey on healing of periodontal tissues during non-surgical periodontal therapy. IIUM J Orofac Health Sci 2(2): 16–26.

Jaganathan SK, Balaji A, Vellayappan MV, Asokan MK, Subramanian AP, John AA, Supriyanto E, Razak SI, Marvibaigi M (2015) A review on antiproliferative and apoptotic activities of natural honey. Anticancer Agents Med Chem 15(1): 48–56. https://doi.org/10.2174/1871520614666140722084747

Kek SP, Chin NL, Yusof YA, Tan SW, Chua LS (2014) Total phenolic contents and colour intensity of Malaysian honeys from the Apis spp. and Trigona spp. bees. Agric Agric Sci Procedia 2: 150–155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aaspro.2014.11.022

Khan SU, Anjum SI, Rahman K, Ansari MJ, Khan WU, Kamal S, Khattak B, Muhammad A, Khan HU (2018) Honey: Single food stuff comprises many drugs. Saudi J Biol Sci 25(2): 320–325. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2017.08.004

Khoo YT, Halim AS, Singh KK, Mohamad NA (2010) Wound contraction effects and antibacterial properties of Tualang honey on full-thickness burn wounds in rats in comparison to hydrofibre. BMC Complement Altern Med 10: 48. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-10-48

Main EN, Bowlin GL (2022) Potential for Manuka honey‐inspired therapeutics to improve the host–biomaterial response. MedComm – Biomater Appl 1(1): e18. https://doi.org/10.1002/mba2.18

Mandal MD, Mandal S (2011) Honey: Its medicinal property and antibacterial activity. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 1(2): 154–160. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2221-1691(11)60016-6

Marimuthu MP, Makhtar A, Abd Rashid N, Faheem NAN, Haseeb A (2023) Potential of Malaysian stingless bee Kelulut honey in wound healing. Eur Chem Bull 12(Special Issue 4): 5217–5223.

Martinez-Armenta C, Camacho-Rea MC, Martínez-Nava GA, Espinosa-Velázquez R, Pineda C, Gomez-Quiroz LE, López-Reyes A (2021) Therapeutic potential of bioactive compounds in honey for treating osteoarthritis. Front Pharmacol 12: 642836. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.642836

McLoone P, Oluwadun A, Warnock M, Fyfe L (2016) Honey: A therapeutic agent for disorders of the skin. Cent Asian J Glob Health 5(1): 241. https://doi.org/10.5195/cajgh.2016.241

Minden-Birkenmaier BA, Bowlin GL (2018) Honey-based templates in wound healing and tissue engineering. Bioengineering 5(2): 46. https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5020046

Mohamed HK, Mobasher MA, Ebiya RA, Hassen MT, Hagag HM, El-Sayed R, Abdel-Ghany S, Said MM, Awad NS (2022) Anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and antioxidant roles of honey, royal jelly, and propolis in suppressing nephrotoxicity induced by doxorubicin in male albino rats. Antioxidants 11(5): 1029. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11051029

Mohd Kamal DA, Ibrahim SF, Kamal H, Kashim MIAM, Mokhtar MH (2021) Physicochemical and medicinal properties of Tualang, Gelam and Kelulut honeys: A comprehensive review. Nutrients 13(1): 197. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010197

Nasir NA, Halim AS, Singh KK, Dorai AA, Haneef MN (2010) Antibacterial properties of Tualang honey and its effect in burn wound management: a comparative study. BMC Complement Altern Med 10: 31. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-10-31

Ng WJ, Sit NW, Ooi PA, Ee KY, Lim TM (2020) The antibacterial potential of honeydew honey produced by stingless bee (Heterotrigona itama) against antibiotic resistant bacteria. Antibiotics 9(12): 871. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9120871

Nikhat S, Fazil M (2022) History, phytochemistry, experimental pharmacology and clinical uses of honey: A comprehensive review with special reference to Unani medicine. J Ethnopharmacol 282: 114614. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114614

Page M, McKenzie J, Bossuyt P, Boutron I, Hoffmann T, Mulrow C, Shamseer L, Tetzlaff J, Akl E, Brennan S, Chou R, Glanville J, Grimshaw J, Hrobjartsson A, Lalu M, Li T, Loder E, MayoWilson E, McDonald S, McGuinness L, Moher D (2021) The PRISMA 2020 statement: an updated guideline for reporting systematic reviews. Int J Surg 88: 105906. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2021.105906

Pasupuleti VR, Sammugam L, Ramesh N, Gan SH (2017) Honey, propolis, and royal jelly: a comprehensive review of their biological actions and health benefits. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2017: 1259510. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1259510

Pataca LC, Borges Neto W, Marcucci MC, Poppi RJ (2007) Determination of apparent reducing sugars, moisture and acidity in honey by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Talanta 71(5): 1926–1931. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2006.08.028

Pleeging CC, Wagener FA, De Rooster H, Cremers NA (2022) Revolutionizing non-conventional wound healing using honey by simultaneously targeting multiple molecular mechanisms. Drug Resist Updat 62: 100834. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drup.2022.100834

Ramli NZ, Chin K-Y, Zarkasi KA, Ahmad F (2019) The beneficial effects of stingless bee honey from Heterotrigona itama against metabolic changes in rats fed with high-carbohydrate and high-fat diet. Int J Environ Res Public Health 16(24): 4987. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16244987

Ranneh Y, Akim AM, Hamid HA, Khazaai H, Fadel A, Zakaria, ZA, Bakar MFA (2021) Honey and its nutritional and anti-inflammatory value. BMC Complement Med Ther 21(1): 30. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-020-03170-5

Ranneh Y, Ali F, Zarei M, Akim AM, Abd Hamid H, Khazaai H (2018) Malaysian stingless bee and Tualang honeys: A comparative characterization of total antioxidant capacity and phenolic profile using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. LWT 89: 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2017.10.020

Rao PV, Krishnan KT, Salleh N, Gan SH (2016) Biological and therapeutic effects of honey produced by honey bees and stingless bees: a comparative review. Rev Bras Farmacogn 26: 657–664. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2016.01.012

Rashid MR, Nor Aripin KN, Syed Mohideen FB, Baharom N, Omar K, Md Taujuddin NMS, Mohd Yusof HH, Addnan FH (2019) The effect of Kelulut honey on fasting blood glucose and metabolic parameters in patients with impaired fasting glucose. J Nutr Metab 2019: 3176018. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/3176018

Samarghandian S, Farkhondeh T, Samini F (2017) Honey and health: A review of recent clinical research. Pharmacogn Res 9(2): 121–127. https://doi.org/10.4103/0974-8490.204647

Schell KR, Fernandes KE, Shanahan E, Wilson I, Blair SE, Carter DA, Cokcetin NN (2022) The potential of honey as a prebiotic food to re-engineer the gut microbiome toward a healthy state. Front Nutr 9: 957932. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.957932

Tashkandi H (2021) Honey in wound healing: An updated review. Open Life Sci 16(1): 1091–1100. https://doi.org/10.1515/biol-2021-0084

Verkuijl SJ, Friedmacher F, Harter PN, Rolle U, Broens PM (2021) Persistent bowel dysfunction after surgery for Hirschsprung's disease: A neuropathological perspective. World J Gastrointest Surg 13(8): 822–833. https://doi.org/10.4240/wjgs.v13.i8.822

Visavadia BG, Honeysett J, Danford MH (2008) Manuka honey dressing: An effective treatment for chronic wound infections. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 46(1): 55–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjoms.2006.09.013

Vogt NA, Vriezen E, Nwosu A, Sargeant JM (2021) A scoping review of the evidence for the medicinal use of natural honey in animals. Front Vet Sci 7: 618301. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.618301

Wang C, Guo M, Zhang N, Wang G (2019) Effectiveness of honey dressing in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Complement Ther Clin Pract 34: 123–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2018.09.004

Yaghoobi R, Kazerouni A, Kazerouni O (2013) Evidence for clinical use of honey in wound healing as an antibacterial, anti-inflammatory antioxidant and anti-viral agent: A review. Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod 8(3): 100–104. https://doi.org/10.17795/jjnpp-9487

Yazan LS, Zainal NA, Ali RM, Muhamad Zali MFS, Sze OY, Sim TY, Gopalsamy B, Ling VF, Sapuan S, Esa N, Haron AS, Ansar FHZ, Mokhtar AMA, Alwi SSS (2018) Antiulcer properties of Kelulut honey against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer. Pertanika J Sci Technol 26(1): 121–132.

Yong PYA, Islam F, Harith HH, Israf DA, Tan JW, Tham CL (2021) The Potential use of honey as a remedy for allergic diseases: A minireview. Front Pharmacol 11: 599080. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.599080

Young G-WZ, Blundell R (2023) A review on the phytochemical composition and health applications of honey. Heliyon 9(2): e12507. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e12507

Yupanqui Mieles J, Vyas C, Aslan E, Humphreys G, Diver C, Bartolo P (2022) Honey: An advanced antimicrobial and wound healing biomaterial for tissue engineering applications. Pharmaceutics 14(8): 1663. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14081663

Zainol MI, Mohd Yusoff K, Mohd Yusof MY (2013) Antibacterial activity of selected Malaysian honey. BMC Complement Altern Med 13: 129. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-13-129

Zulkhairi Amin FA, Sabri S, Mohammad SM, Ismail M, Chan KW, Ismail N, Norhaizan ME, Zawawi N (2018) Therapeutic properties of stingless bee honey in comparison with European bee honey. Adv Pharmacol Sci 2018: 6179596. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/6179596

Zulkhairi Amin FA, Sabri S, Mohammad SM, Ismail M, Chan KW, Ismail N, Zawawi N (2018) Therapeutic properties of stingless bee honey in comparison with European bee honey. Adv Pharmacol Sci 2018: 6179596. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/6179596

Zumla A, Lulat A (1989) Honey - A remedy rediscovered J R Soc Med 82(7): 384–385. https://doi.org/10.1177/014107688908200704

© 2024 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research

Periodontal disease in people with HIV infection
J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 27-45, Jan-Feb 2025. DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres24.1941_13.1.27 Review Research trends in periodontal disease in people with HIV infection: A bibliometric analysis [Tendencias de investigación en enfermedad periodontal en personas con infección por VIH: Un análisis bibliométrico] Roberto Ojeda-Gómez1*, Julio C. Romero-Gamboa1, Melissa Pineda-Vega1, Pablo A. Millones-Gómez1, John E. … Continue reading Periodontal disease in people with HIV infection
Anti-dormant mycobacterial of marine-derived fungi
J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 16-26, Jan-Feb 2025. DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres24.1953_13.1.16 Original Article Activity of ethyl acetate extracts of marine-derived fungi against active and hypoxia-induced dormant Mycobacterium [Actividad de extractos de acetato de etilo de hongos de origen marino contra Mycobacterium latente activa e inducida por hipoxia] Muhammad Azhari1, Atik Pereztia Litanjuasari1, … Continue reading Anti-dormant mycobacterial of marine-derived fungi
Rift Valley fever virus RdRp inhibition by RNA polymerase inhibitors
J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 1-15, Jan-Feb 2025. DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres24.1967_13.1.1 Original Article In silico study of RNA polymerase inhibitor drugs for Rift Valley fever virus using RdRp protein as the target [Estudio in silico de fármacos inhibidores de la ARN polimerasa para el virus de la fiebre del valle del Rift … Continue reading Rift Valley fever virus RdRp inhibition by RNA polymerase inhibitors

© 2013-2020 by the authors; licensee JPPRes, Antofagasta, Chile. This journal is an open-access journal distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license-Non Commercial 4.0 international. The content on this site is intended for health professionals. If you are not a health professional, please talk to your doctor about any doubts or concerns regarding your health

Made with ♥ by AVAGAX Studio