Lysozyme and early childhood caries

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 652-659, July-August 2022.

Original Article

Lysozyme quantity and quality in relation with early childhood caries: A longitudinal study

[Cantidad y calidad de lisozima en relación con las caries de la primera infancia: Un estudio longitudinal]

Essie Octiara1*, Heriandi Sutadi2,Yahwardiah Siregar3, Ameta Primasari4

1Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia.

2Departement of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.

3Departement of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia,

4Departement of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia.

*E-mail: essie.octiara@usu.ac.id, eoctiara@gmail.com

Abstract

Context: Several studies have reported the relationship between lysozyme quantity (concentration) and quality (activity) with early childhood caries (ECC), but the results remain controversial. These are controversial, probably due to the cross-sectional design used in previous studies.

Aims: To analyze the relation between lysozyme quantity and quality with ECC in two years old children.

Methods: An observational analytic with a cohort study for nine months, with a total sample of 68 caries-free children aged 9-24 months old, selected by purposive sampling from Integrated Healthcare Center in Medan, Indonesia. The subject must have at least two primary upper incisors that have erupted. Lysozyme examination was carried out three times, at the beginning of the month, the third and the ninth month. ECC examination was assessed using the American Association of Pediatric Dentistry criteria. Lysozyme concentration was measured using a competitive ELISA method with human lysozyme C (Fine Test). Then lysozyme reading was done at an absorbance of 450 nm using a microplate reader. Lysozyme activity was assessed using the Lysozyme Detection Kit (Sigma-Aldrich and ready by spectrophotometer. Data analysis was processed with an unpaired t-test, Mann-Whitney test, and longitudinal analysis using a generalized estimating equation (linear) test with a significant value, p<0.05.

Results: This showed that there was not any relationship found between lysozyme concentration and ECC (p>0.05). However, there was a relationship between lysozyme activity and ECC (p=o.oo8).

Conclusions: ECC children had higher lysozyme activity when compared to caries-free children.

Keywords: early childhood caries; longitudinal study; lysozyme activity; lysozyme concentration.

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Resumen

Contexto: Varios estudios han informado la relación de la cantidad (concentración) y la calidad (actividad) de lisozima con las caries de la primera infancia (ECC), pero los resultados siguen siendo controvertidos. Estos son controvertidos probablemente debido al diseño transversal utilizado en estudios previos.

Objetivos: Analizar longitudinalmente la relación entre la cantidad y calidad de lisozima con la ECC en niños de dos años.

Métodos: Un análisis observacional con un estudio de cohorte durante nueve meses, con una muestra total de 68 niños sin caries de 9 a 24 meses de edad, seleccionados mediante un muestreo intencional del Centro de Salud Integrado en Medan, Indonesia. Los sujetos debieron tener al menos dos incisivos superiores primarios que hayan erupcionado. Examen de lisozima fue realizado tres veces, al mes inicial, al tercero y al noveno mes. El examen de ECC se evaluó utilizando los criterios de la Asociación Estadounidense de Odontología Pediátrica. La concentración de lisozima se midió utilizando un método ELISA competitivo con lisozima C humana (prueba fina). Luego se realizó la lectura de lisozima a una absorbancia de 450 nm utilizando un lector de microplacas. La actividad de la lisozima se evaluó utilizando el kit de detección de lisozima (Sigma-Aldrich y leido por espectrofotómetro. El análisis de datos se procesó con la prueba t no pareada, la prueba de Mann-Whitney y el análisis longitudinal utilizando una prueba de ecuación de estimación generalizada (lineal) con valor significativo, p<0.05.

Resultados: Esto mostró que no se encontró relación entre la concentración de lisozima y la ECC (p>0.05). Sin embargo, hubo una relación entre la actividad de la lisozima y la ECC (p=o.oo8).

Conclusiones: Los niños con ECC presentaron mayor actividad de lisozima en comparación con los niños sin caries.

Palabras Clave: actividad de lisozima; caries de la primera infancia; concentración de lisozima; estudio longitudinal.

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Citation Format: Octiara E, Heriandi S, Yahwardiah S, Ameta P (2022) Lysozyme quantity and quality in relation with early childhood caries: A longitudinal study. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(4): 652–659.
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