Miliusa velutina as potential plant for acne treatment


J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 243-254, Mar-Apr 2024. DOI: Original Article Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial activities against acne-causing bacteria of Miliusa velutina (A.DC.) Hook.f. & Thomson extracts [Actividad antioxidante, antiinflamatoria y antibacteriana contra las bacterias causantes del acné de los extractos de Miliusa velutina (A.DC.) Hook.f. & Thomson] Phornphan Phrompanya1,2, … Continue reading Miliusa velutina as potential plant for acne treatment

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 243-254, Mar-Apr 2024.


Original Article

Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial activities against acne-causing bacteria of Miliusa velutina (A.DC.) Hook.f. & Thomson extracts

[Actividad antioxidante, antiinflamatoria y antibacteriana contra las bacterias causantes del acné de los extractos de Miliusa velutina (A.DC.) Hook.f. & Thomson]

Phornphan Phrompanya1,2, Wararut Buncharoen1, Yingmanee Tragoolpua1, Kanokporn Saenphet1*

1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand

2Ph.D.’s Degree Program in Biology (International Program), Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.



Context: Acne is often associated with bacterial infection, inflammation, and oxidative stress. In Thailand, Miliusa velutina has traditionally been used to relieve pain and to heal wounds. Given its biological properties, M. velutina extracts may represent an alternative approach to treat acne.

Aims: To characterise M. velutina extracts regarding their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and antibacterial activity against acne-causing bacteria.

Methods: We prepared crude methanolic and aqueous extracts of M. velutina leaves and stem bark by maceration. We evaluated the antioxidant activity of the extracts by using four in vitro methods and determined the total phenolic and flavonoid contents. We tested the anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts by examining their ability to inhibit nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. We tested the antibacterial activity against acne-causing bacteria by using the agar diffusion method and by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC).

Results: The methanolic bark extract showed potent antioxidant properties, denoted by its ability to scavenge the ABTS and DPPH radicals and its iron-reducing power and total antioxidant activity. The methanolic leaf extract presented the best ability to inhibit nitric oxide production, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 7.20 ± 1.92 µg/mL. Additionally, M. velutina extracts exhibited antibacterial activity against Cutibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with the MIC and MBC ranging from 0.49 to 62.50 mg/mL.

Conclusions: These findings indicate that M. velutina extract can be used as a novel therapeutic agent for acne treatment owing to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties.

Keywords: antioxidant; Cutibacterium acnes; nitric oxide; plant extract; RAW 264.7 cell.



Contexto: El acné se asocia a menudo con infección bacteriana, inflamación y estrés oxidativo. En Tailandia, la Miliusa velutina se ha utilizado tradicionalmente para aliviar el dolor y curar heridas. Dadas sus propiedades biológicas, los extractos de M. velutina pueden representar un enfoque alternativo para tratar el acné.

Objetivos: Caracterizar los extractos de M. velutina en cuanto a sus propiedades antioxidantes y antiinflamatorias y su actividad antibacteriana contra las bacterias causantes del acné.

Métodos: Se prepararon extractos acuosos y metanólicos crudos de hojas y corteza del tallo de M. velutina por maceración. Evaluamos la actividad antioxidante de los extractos mediante cuatro métodos in vitro y determinamos el contenido total de fenoles y flavonoides. Probamos la actividad antiinflamatoria de los extractos examinando su capacidad para inhibir la producción de óxido nítrico en macrófagos RAW 264.7. Probamos la actividad antibacteriana contra las bacterias causantes del acné utilizando el método de difusión en agar y determinando la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM) y la concentración bactericida mínima (CBM).

Resultados: El extracto metanólico de corteza mostró potentes propiedades antioxidantes, denotadas por su capacidad para eliminar los radicales ABTS y DPPH y su poder reductor del hierro y actividad antioxidante total. El extracto metanólico de hoja presentó la mejor capacidad para inhibir la producción de óxido nítrico, con una concentración inhibitoria media máxima (IC50) de 7,20 ± 1,92 µg/mL. Además, los extractos de M. velutina mostraron actividad antibacteriana contra Cutibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, S. aureus resistente a la meticilina y Pseudomonas aeruginosa, con una CMI y una CBM que oscilaron entre 0,49 y 62,50 mg/mL.

Conclusiones: Estos resultados indican que el extracto de M. velutina puede utilizarse como un nuevo agente terapéutico para el tratamiento del acné debido a sus propiedades antioxidantes, anti-inflamatorias y antibacterianas.

Palabras Clave: antioxidante; célula RAW 264.7; Cutibacterium acnes; extracto vegetal; óxido nítrico.

Citation Format: Phrompanya P, Buncharoen W, Tragoolpua Y, Saenphet K (2024) Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial activities against acne-causing bacteria of Miliusa velutina (A.DC.) Hook.f. & Thomson extracts. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 12(2): 243–254.

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