Oxidative stress in COVID-19 infection

Excerpt:


J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 63-75, January-February 2023. DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres22.1535_11.1.63 Original Article Oxidative stress in diverse clinical conditions of SARS-CoV-2 Cuban hospitalized patients [Estrés oxidativo en diferentes condiciones clínicas de pacientes cubanos hospitalizados con SARS-CoV-2] Lizette Gil-del Valle1*, Rosario Gravier-Hernández1, Mario M. Delgado-Guerra2, Joniel A. Sánchez-Márquez2, Olga E. López-Fernández2, Miguel A. Acosta-Suárez1, … Continue reading Oxidative stress in COVID-19 infection

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 63-75, January-February 2023.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres22.1535_11.1.63

Original Article

Oxidative stress in diverse clinical conditions of SARS-CoV-2 Cuban hospitalized patients

[Estrés oxidativo en diferentes condiciones clínicas de pacientes cubanos hospitalizados con SARS-CoV-2]

Lizette Gil-del Valle1*, Rosario Gravier-Hernández1, Mario M. Delgado-Guerra2, Joniel A. Sánchez-Márquez2, Olga E. López-Fernández2, Miguel A. Acosta-Suárez1, Teresa Rosell-Guerra1, Rodolfo Suárez-Iznaga3, Raiza Martínez-Casanueva3, Zullyt Zamora-Rodriguez4, Lidia A. Fernández-García4, Yusimit Bermudez-Alfonso1, María C. Hernández-Gonzalez-Abreu1, Gabino Garrido5**

1Institute “Pedro Kourí” (IPK), Havana, Cuba.

2Hospital Ernesto Guevara, University of Informatics’ Science, Havana, Cuba.

3Hospital Salvador Allende, Havana, Cuba.

4National Center of Scientific Research, BioCubaFarma, Havana, Cuba.

5Departamento de Ciencias Farmacéuticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Católica del Norte, Antofagasta, Chile.

*E-mail: *lgil@ipk.sld.cu, **gabino.garrido@ucn.cl

Abstract

Context: COVID-19 related to SARS-CoV-2 infection generates inflammation with increased reactive oxygen species production. Drug treatment and others factors could influence systemic oxidative stress during pathogenic insult.

Aims: To determine the redox status in COVID-19 patients with different clinical conditions and explore the relationship between redox and hematological hemochemical variables.

Methods: In this comparative longitudinal study, blood samples were drawn from 160 individuals divided into four groups: COVID-19 asymptomatic, COVID-19 symptomatic (low and moderate symptoms), COVID-19 convalescent, and presumable healthy subjects. Demographic, redox, hematological, and hemochemical indices were assessed. Statistical analyses compared the median values of each variable and explored individual, simultaneous indices, and multivariate alteration.

Results: Relative to the healthy group, acute COVID-19, and convalescent groups had significant differences in global damage indices and antioxidant status (p<0.05). The convalescent group showed significantly higher damage (malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, nitric oxide) and lower antioxidant enzymatic activities and glutathione concentration compared to other groups (p<0.05). Global modification of redox indices showed that more than 80% of studied individuals in acute conditions had simultaneous detrimental differences compared to a healthy status. The discriminant analysis permitted obtaining two canonical functions (p< 0.05) that reflect 98% of redox variables with 95% of variances with successful case classifications.

Conclusions: These results corroborate that oxidative stress occurred in different COVID-19 and post-acute conditions with different molecular alterations of redox indices. Redox diagnosis should be considered in early diagnosis and treatment of infection, which would be worthwhile to conduct a more comprehensive study and management of disease evolution.

Keywords: antioxidant status; COVID-19; oxidative stress; oxidative damage; SARS-CoV-2.

Resumen

Contexto: El COVID-19 relacionado con la infección por SARS-CoV-2 genera inflamación con aumento de la producción de especies reactivas del oxígeno. El tratamiento farmacológico y otros factores podrían influir en el estrés oxidativo sistémico durante el insulto patogénico.

Objetivos: Determinar el estado redox en pacientes con COVID-19 con diferentes condiciones clínicas y explorar la relación entre las variables redox y hemoquímicas.

Métodos: En este estudio longitudinal comparativo, se extrajeron muestras de sangre de 160 individuos divididos en cuatro grupos: COVID-19 asintomáticos, COVID-19 sintomáticos (síntomas bajos y moderados), COVID-19 convalecientes y sujetos presuntamente sanos. Se evaluaron los índices demográficos, redox, hematológicos y hemoquímicos. Los análisis estadísticos compararon los valores medios de cada variable y exploraron las alteraciones en los índices individuales, simultáneos y multivariadas.

Resultados: En relación con el grupo sano, los grupos COVID-19 agudo y convaleciente presentaron diferencias significativas en los índices de daño global y en el estado antioxidante (p<0,05). El grupo convaleciente mostró un daño significativamente mayor (malondialdehído, productos proteicos de oxidación avanzada, óxido nítrico) y menores actividades enzimáticas antioxidantes y concentración de glutatión en comparación con los otros grupos (p<0,05). La modificación global de los índices redox mostró que más del 80% de los individuos estudiados tenían diferencias perjudiciales simultáneas en comparación con el estado saludable. El análisis discriminante permitió obtener dos funciones canónicas (p< 0,05) que reflejan el 98% de las variables redox con el 95% de las varianzas con clasificaciones de casos acertadas.

Conclusiones: Estos resultados corroboran que el estrés oxidativo se presentó en diferentes COVID-19 y condiciones post-agudas con diferentes alteraciones moleculares de los índices redox. El diagnóstico redox debe ser considerado en el diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz de la infección, lo que valdría la pena para realizar un estudio y manejo más exhaustivo de la evolución de la enfermedad.

Palabras Clave: daño oxidativo; COVID-19; estado antioxidante; estrés oxidativo; SARS-CoV-2.

Citation Format: Gil-del Valle L, Gravier-Hernández R, Delgado-Guerra MM, Sánchez-Márquez JA, López-Fernández OE, Acosta-Suárez MA, Rosell-Guerra T, Suárez-Iznaga R, Martínez-Casanueva R, Zamora-Rodriguez Z, Fernández-García LA, Bermudez-Alfonso Y, Hernández-Gonzalez-Abreu MC, Garrido G (2023) Oxidative stress in diverse clinical conditions of SARS-CoV-2 Cuban hospitalized patients. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 11(1): 63–75. https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres22.1535_11.1.63
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