Phenolic fraction concentrate of Phoenix dactylifera seeds



J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 9(6): 921-936, 2021.

Original article

Phenolic fraction concentrate of Phoenix dactylifera L. seeds: A promising antioxidant and glucose regulator

[Concentrado de fracción fenólica de semillas de Phoenix dactylifera L.: Un prometedor antioxidante y regulador de glucosa]

Samir Bikri1*, Youssef Aboussaleh1, Nermeen Abuelezz2, Hajar Benmhammed1, Assia Berrani3, Ismail Louragli1, Ahmed Omar Touhami Ahami1

1Laboratory of Biology and Health, Biology Department, Faculty of Sciences, Ibn Tofail University, Kenitra, Morocco.

2Biochemistry Department, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Manufacturing, Misr University for Science and Technology, Giza, Egypt.

3Laboratory of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Biology Department, Faculty of Sciences, Ibn Tofail University, Kenitra, Morocco.

*E-mail: samir.bikri@uit.ac.ma, samir-bikri@outlook.fr

Abstract

Context: The beneficial effects of natural polyphenolic compounds are increasingly emerging as powerful antioxidants and digestive boosters. Phoenix dactylifera seeds are recently identified as a healthy functional food with rich amounts of phenolic compounds.

Aims: To analyzing the phenolic profile obtained from Moroccan variety of date seeds and evaluating the inhibitory capacity against digestive enzymes and the antioxidant potential of phenolic fraction concentrate (PFC) of date seeds as a promising antihyperglycemic agent.

Methods: Lineweaver–Burk plot analysis was performed to evaluate PFC inhibitory effect against digestive enzyme activity in the presence of different doses of a substrate. Wistar rats were recruited to determine the acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of PFC. Finally, the optimal dose of PFC was selected and its effects on metabolic, hematological and biochemical parameters were determined.

Results: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that PFC contains abundant amounts of phenolic acid: Caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and 3-hydroxybenzoic acid. PFC showed powerful antioxidant activity as determined by scavenging and reducing assays. PFC significantly inhibited alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase enzymes by 87.3% and 78.7%, respectively, via mixed manipulation of Km and Vmax. Acute toxicity examinations revealed PFC to be practically non-toxic with LD50 > 5000mg PFC/kg for both sexes of rats. The no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) and lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) for oral administration of PFC were 1000 and 2500 mg/kg for both sexes. Finally, the sub-acute study showed that a PFC dose of 50 mg/kg did not cause any changes in metabolic, biochemical and hematological parameters and was considered to be the optimal healthy dose for rats. Consequently, it induces improvement in glucose concentration in rats.

Conclusions: The rational use of phenolic date seeds fraction presents powerful antioxidant and blood glucose regulating nutraceutical that could aid in diabetes mellitus management.

Keywords: acute and sub-acute toxicity; antioxidant activity; digestive enzyme; Moroccan date seeds; phenolic fraction concentrates; Wistar rats.

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Resumen

Contexto: Las semillas de Phoenix dactylifera se identificaron recientemente como un alimento funcional saludable con grandes cantidades de compuestos fenólicos.

Objetivos: Analizar el perfil fenólico de la variedad marroquí de semillas de dátiles y evaluar la capacidad inhibidora frente a las enzimas digestivas y el potencial antioxidante del concentrado de la fracción fenólica (PFC) como agente antihiperglucémico prometedor.

Métodos: Se realizó un análisis del diagrama de Lineweaver-Burk para evaluar el efecto inhibidor de la PFC contra la actividad de las enzimas digestivas en presencia de diferentes dosis de sustrato. Se reclutaron ratas Wistar para determinar la toxicidad oral aguda y subaguda de la PFC. Finalmente, se seleccionó la dosis óptima de PFC y se determinaron sus efectos sobre parámetros metabólicos, hematológicos y bioquímicos.

Resultados: El análisis de cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (HPLC) reveló que el PFC contiene abundantes cantidades de ácido fenólico: ácido cafeico, ácido clorogénico, ácido 3,4-dihidroxibenzoico, ácido p-hidroxibenzoico y ácido 3-hidroxibenzoico. El PFC mostró una potente actividad antioxidante determinada mediante ensayos de eliminación y reducción. PFC inhibió significativamente las enzimas alfa-amilasa y alfa-glucosidasa en 87,3 y 78,7%, respectivamente mediante la manipulación mixta de Km y Vmax. Los exámenes de toxicidad aguda revelaron que el PFC fue prácticamente no tóxico con LD50 > 5000 mg PFC/kg para ambos sexos de rata. El nivel sin efectos adversos observados (NOAEL) y el nivel mínimo de efectos adversos observados (NOAEL) para la administración oral de PFC fueron respectivamente 1000 y 2500 mg/kg para ambos sexos. Finalmente, el estudio sub-agudo mostró que la dosis de PFC 50 mg/kg no provocó ningún cambio en los parámetros metabólicos, bioquímicos y hematológicos y se consideró la dosis óptima en ratas. En consecuencia, induce una mejora en la concentración de glucosa en ratas.

Conclusiones: El uso racional de fracción fenólica de semillas de dátiles presenta un potente nutracéutico antioxidante y regulador de la glucosa en sangre que podría ayudar en el manejo de la diabetes mellitus.

Palabras Clave: actividad antioxidante; concentrado fracción fenólica; enzima digestiva; ratas Wistar; semilla dátiles marroquíes; toxicidad aguda y subaguda.

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Citation Format: Samir B, Aboussaleh Y, Abuelezz N, Benmhammed H, Berrani A, Louragli I, Ahami A (2021) Phenolic fraction concentrate of Phoenix dactylifera L. seeds: A promising antioxidant and glucose regulator. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 9(6): 921–936.

© 2021 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)