Phyllanthus emblica flavonoid glycosides against xanthine oxidase


J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1067-1078, Nov-Dec 2024. DOI: Original Article Antioxidant potential and xanthine oxidase inhibition of flavonol glycosides from Phyllanthus emblica L. leaves [Potencial antioxidante e inhibición de la xantina oxidasa de los glucósidos de flavonol de las hojas de Phyllanthus emblica L.] Husnunnisa1, Rika Hartati1, Rachmat Mauludin2, … Continue reading Phyllanthus emblica flavonoid glycosides against xanthine oxidase

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1067-1078, Nov-Dec 2024.


Original Article

Antioxidant potential and xanthine oxidase inhibition of flavonol glycosides from Phyllanthus emblica L. leaves

[Potencial antioxidante e inhibición de la xantina oxidasa de los glucósidos de flavonol de las hojas de Phyllanthus emblica L.]

Husnunnisa1, Rika Hartati1, Rachmat Mauludin2, Muhamad Insanu1*

1Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, School of Pharmacy, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jl. Ganesa No. 10 Bandung, West Java 40132, Indonesia.

2Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jl. Ganesa No. 10 Bandung, West Java 40132, Indonesia.



Context: Hyperuricemia is the cause of gout in the inflammatory joint condition. The xanthine oxidase enzyme is a therapeutic target for gout treatment because it plays a role in the generation of uric acid. Allopurinol is used to treat gout. It prevents the xanthine oxidase enzyme from producing as much uric acid. When selecting a medication, one must consider the various adverse effects of allopurinol. Phyllanthus emblica plants are among the medicinal plants that can be used as an alternative treatment for gout.

Aims: To evaluate isolated compounds from the Phyllanthus emblica as antihyperuricemia candidates.

Methods: The isolated compounds were characterized using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Analysis and Thin Layer Chromatography-Densitometry. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and cupric ion (CUPRAC) antioxidant capacity procedures were used to develop the antioxidant activity index. The ability to inhibit xanthine oxidase was determined using a spectrophotometer.

Results: Compound 1 was indicated as rutin having antioxidant capacity with an antioxidant activity index (AAI) DPPH value of 7.89 ± 0.03 and AAI CUPRAC value of 15.83 ± 0.04 stronger than compound 2 (quercitrin) with an AAI DPPH value of 3.72 ± 0.01 and AAI CUPRAC 3.24 ± 0.03. The IC50 for quercitrin's inhibition of xanthine oxidase is 23.85 ± 2.04, which was higher than rutin’s IC50 value of 32.77 ± 4.49 µg/mL.

Conclusions: Flavonol glycosides present in the ethanol extract of Phyllanthus emblica leaves gave potent xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity stronger than the extract. Quercitrin gave stronger xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity, but this compound has weaker antioxidant capacity compared to rutin.

Keywords: antioxidants; hyperuricemia; Phyllanthus emblica; xanthine oxidase.

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Contexto: La hiperuricemia es la causa de la gota, una enfermedad inflamatoria de las articulaciones. La enzima xantina oxidasa es una diana terapéutica para el tratamiento de la gota porque interviene en la generación de ácido úrico. El alopurinol se utiliza para tratar la gota. Impide que la enzima xantina oxidasa produzca tanto ácido úrico. A la hora de elegir un medicamento, hay que tener en cuenta los diversos efectos adversos del alopurinol. Las plantas de Phyllanthus emblica se encuentran entre las plantas medicinales que pueden utilizarse como tratamiento alternativo para la gota.

Objetivos: Evaluar compuestos aislados de Phyllanthus emblica como candidatos antihiperuricemiantes.

Métodos: Los compuestos aislados se caracterizaron mediante análisis de cromatografía líquida de alto rendimiento y cromatografía de capa fina-densitometría. Se utilizaron los procedimientos de capacidad antioxidante 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazilo (DPPH) e ion cúprico (CUPRAC) para desarrollar el índice de actividad antioxidante. La capacidad de inhibición de la xantina oxidasa se determinó con un espectrofotómetro.

Resultados: Se indicó que el compuesto 1 (rutina) tenía actividad antioxidante con un índice de actividad antioxidante (AAI) DPPH de 7,89 ± 0,03 y un valor AAI CUPRAC de 15,83 ± 0,04 más fuerte que el compuesto 2 (quercitrina) con un valor AAI DPPH de 3,72 ± 0,01 y un valor AAI CUPRAC de 3,24 ± 0,03. El IC50 para la inhibición de la xantina oxidasa por la quercitrina es de 23,85 ± 2,04, que fue superior al valor IC50 de la rutina de 32,77 ± 4,49 µg/mL.

Conclusiones: Los glucósidos de flavonol presentes en el extracto etanólico de las hojas de Phyllanthus emblica presentaron una potente actividad inhibidora de la xantina oxidasa, superior a la del extracto. La quercitrina presentó una actividad inhibidora de la xantina oxidasa más potente, pero este compuesto tiene una actividad antioxidante más débil en comparación con la rutina.

Palabras Clave: antioxidantes; hiperuricemia; Phyllanthus emblica; xantina oxidasa.

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Citation Format: Husnunnisa, Hartati R, Mauludin R, Insanu M (2024) Potential antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibition of flavonol glycosides from Phyllanthus emblica L. leaves. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 12(6): 1067–1078.

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