Rhodomyrtus tomentosa and HIF1α-VEGF expressions in placental

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 1076-1086, November-December 2022.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres22.1517_10.6.1076

Original Article

Effect of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa Hassk. on HIF1α and VEGF expressions on hypertension placental

[Efecto de Rhodomyrtus tomentosa Hassk. sobre las expresiones de HIF1α y VEGF sobre la hipertensión placentaria]

Putri Cahaya Situmorang1*, Syafruddin Ilyas1, Doni Aldo Samuel Siahaan1, Martina Restuati2, Endang Ratna Sari1, Chairunisa Chairunisa1, Muhammad Faldhy Maliki1

1Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia.

2Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Medan, Medan, Indonesia.

*E-mail: putri.cahaya@usu.ac.id

Abstract

Context: HIF1α and VEGF are proteins marker oxidative stress and a decrease in placental growth factor (PlGF). Decreasing of HIF1α and VEGF in rats displayed poor trophoblast differentiation, placental abnormalities, and fetal mortality. Rhodomyrtus tomentosa is a flowering plant in the Myrtaceae family that has the potential to be a source of health-promoting chemicals.

Aims: To analyze HIF1α and VEGF in serum and hypertension placental tissue after giving Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (RHO) leaves extract.

Methods: Six treatments were given to the rats that were identified as being pregnant and pregnant rats with hypertension were given RHO with three doses: (a) normal pregnant rats (control); (b) hypertensive rats; (c) hypertensive rats + 100 mg/kg BW of RHO; (d) hypertensive rats +200 mg/kg BW of RHO; and (e) hypertensive rats + 400 mg/kg BW of RHO and (f) hypertensive rats + nifedipine. Under ketamine anesthesia, pregnant rats were removed on their 20th day of gestation. Immunohistochemistry and ELISA were used to assess HIF1α and VEGF protein expression.

Results: There was a significant difference (p<0.01) in the expression of HIF1α and VEGF in the labyrinthine zone and yolk sac of the rat placenta between the normal (C-) and hypertensive (C+) groups. HIF1α and VEGF expression decreased when RHO was administered at doses ranging from 100 to 400 mg/kg BW. However, there was no significant change (p>0.05) in VEGF expression in the basal zone of the rat placenta across all groups.

Conclusions: Rhodomyrtus tomentosa leaves extract decreases HIF1α and VEGF expressions in serum and repairs the tissue of the placenta’s labyrinth, basal, and yolk sacs.

Keywords: basal zone; HIF1α; hypertension; labyrinth zone; plant extract; VEGF; yolk sac.

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Resumen

Contexto: HIF1α y VEGF son proteínas marcadoras de estrés oxidativo y disminución del factor de crecimiento placentario (PlGF). La disminución de HIF1α y VEGF en ratas mostró una pobre diferenciación del trofoblasto, anomalías placentarias y mortalidad fetal. Rhodomyrtus tomentosa es una planta con flores de la familia Myrtaceae que tiene el potencial de ser una fuente de productos químicos que promueven la salud.

Objetivos: Analizar HIF1α y VEGF en suero y tejido placentario hipertenso después de administrar extracto de hojas de Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (RHO).

Métodos: Se administraron seis tratamientos a las ratas que se identificaron como preñadas ya las ratas preñadas con hipertensión se les administró RHO con tres dosis: (a) ratas preñadas normales (control); (b) ratas hipertensas; (c) ratas hipertensas + 100 mg/kg de peso corporal de RHO; (d) ratas hipertensas +200 mg/kg de peso corporal de RHO; y (e) ratas hipertensas + 400 mg/kg de peso corporal de RHO y (f) ratas hipertensas + nifedipina. Bajo anestesia con ketamina, las ratas preñadas se extrajeron en su día 20 de gestación. Se usaron inmunohistoquímica y ELISA para evaluar la expresión de proteínas HIF1α y VEGF.

Resultados: Hubo diferencia significativa (p<0.01) en la expresión de HIF1α y VEGF en la zona laberíntica y saco vitelino de la placenta de rata entre los grupos normal (C-) e hipertenso (C+). La expresión de HIF1α y VEGF disminuyó cuando se administró RHO en dosis que oscilaron entre 100 y 400 mg/kg de peso corporal. Sin embargo, no hubo cambios significativos (p>0,05) en la expresión de VEGF en la zona basal de la placenta de rata en todos los grupos.

Conclusiones: El extracto de hojas de Rhodomyrtus tomentosa disminuye las expresiones de HIF1α y VEGF en suero y repara el tejido del laberinto, basal y saco vitelino de la placenta.

Palabras Clave: extracto de plantas; HIF1α; hipertensión; saco vitelino; VEGF; zona basal; zona laberinto.

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Citation Format: Situmorang PC, Ilyas S, Siahaan DAS, Restuati M, Sari ER, Chairunisa C, Maliki MF (2022) Effect of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa Hassk. on HIF1α and VEGF expressions on hypertension placental. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(6): 1076–1086. https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres22.1517_10.6.1076
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