Tag Archives: antibacterial activity

Caesalpinia sappan and Ochna integerrima: Time-kill kinetic and mechanism of action



J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 9(6): 813-823, 2021.

Original article

Time-kill kinetics and mechanism of action of Caesalpinia sappan L. and Ochna integerrima (Lour.) Merr. water extractsagainst pathogenic bacteria

[Cinética de tiempo de muerte y mecanismo de acción de extractos acuosos de Caesalpinia sappan L. y Ochna integerrima (Lour.) Merr. contra bacterias patógenas]

Prapairat Seephonkai1*, Sutthira Sedlak2, Komgrit Wongpakam2, Kusavadee Sangdee3, Aphidech Sangdee3

1Nanotechnology Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahasarakham University, Khamriang, Kantarawichai, Maha Sarakham, 44150, Thailand and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry (PERCH-CIC).

2Walairukhavej Botanical Research Institute, Mahasarakham University, Thailand.

3Microbiology Group, Biomedical Sciences Research Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Mahasarakham University, Thailand.

4Microbiology and Applied Microbiology Research Unit, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mahasarakham University, Thailand.

*E-mail: prapairat.s@msu.ac.th

Abstract

Context: Caesalpinia sappan and Ochna integerrima are two native plants of Thailand and distributed widely throughout the country. Recently, water extracts from the stem bark of C. sappan and O. integerrima were found to exhibit potently antibacterial property but the antibacterial mechanism of action toward target bacteria has not been investigated yet.

Aims: To study time-kill kinetic and the mechanism of action of C. sappan and O. integerrima waterextracts toward target bacteria.

Methods: The time-kill kinetic study of bacteriostatic or bactericidal activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria within 24 h experiment was conducted and the mechanism of action on cell morphology of the target bacteria by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were investigated.

Results: Both of the C. sappan and O. integerrima water extracts possessed bacteriostatic or bactericidal activity toward six tested pathogenic bacteria. The bacteriostatic or bactericidal activity depending on bacterial strains and the test concentrations (0.5, 1 and 2 × MIC) of these two extracts to the tested bacteria were observed. The bactericidal activity against all of the tested bacterial was evinced at 2 × MIC. The morphological alterations of the target bacterial cells of changing the cell size (decreased and increased), cell lysis and having cell cavity were detected by SEM after the treatment with C. sappan and O. integerrima water extracts.

Conclusions: The water extracts from the stem bark of C. sappan and O. integerrima exhibited bactericidal activity by changing the cell size, cell lysis and cell cavity of the tested bacteria cell morphology.

Keywords: antibacterial activity; Caesalpinia sappan; mechanism of action; Ochna integerrima; time-kill kinetic.

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Resumen

Contexto: Caesalpinia sappan y Ochna integerrima son dos plantas nativas de Tailandia y se distribuyen ampliamente por todo el país. Recientemente, se descubrió que los extractos de agua de la corteza del tallo de C. sappan y O. integerrima exhiben propiedades antibacterianas potentes, pero aún no se ha investigado el mecanismo de acción antibacteriano hacia las bacterias diana.

Objetivos: Estudiar la cinética de tiempo de muerte y el mecanismo de acción de los extractos de agua de C. sappan y O. integerrima sobre las bacterias objetivo.

Métodos: Se realizó el estudio cinético de tiempo de muerte de la actividad bacteriostática o bactericida contra bacterias patógenas Gram-positivas y Gram-negativas dentro de las 24 horas del experimento y se investigó el mecanismo de acción sobre la morfología celular de las bacterias diana mediante el uso de microscopio electrónico de barrido (SEM).

Resultados: Los extractos acuosos de C. sappan y O. integerrima exhibieron actividad bacteriostática o bactericida hacia seis bacterias patógenas probadas. Se observó la actividad bacteriostática o bactericida dependiendo de las cepas bacterianas y las concentraciones de prueba (0,5; 1 y 2 × MIC) de estos dos extractos en las bacterias probadas, mientras que la actividad bactericida contra todas las bacterias probadas se evidenció a 2 × MIC. Las alteraciones morfológicas de las células bacterianas diana de cambio de tamaño celular (disminución y aumento), lisis celular y cavidad celular fueron detectadas por SEM después del tratamiento con extractos de agua de C. sappan y O. integerrima.

Conclusiones: Los extractos acuosos de la corteza del tallo de C. sappan y O. integerrima exhibieron actividad bactericida al cambiar el tamaño celular, la lisis celular y la cavidad celular de la morfología celular de las bacterias probadas.

Palabras Clave: actividad antibacteriana; Caesalpinia sappan; cinética de tiempo de muerte; mecanismo de acción; Ochna integerrima.

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Citation Format: Seephonkai P, Sedlak S, Wongpakam K, Sangdee K, Sangdee A (2021) Time-kill kinetics and mechanism of action of Caesalpinia sappan L. and Ochna integerrima (Lour.) Merr. water extracts against pathogenic bacteria. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 9(6): 813–823.

© 2021 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Bioactivity of the endophytic fungus Fusarium sp.



J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 9(6): 755-765, 2021.

Original article

Antibacterial, antioxidant and neuroprotective activities of crude extract from the endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. isolate OQ-Fus-2-F from Euphorbia sp. plant

[Actividades antibacterianas, antioxidantes y neuroprotectoras del extracto crudo del hongo endofítico Fusarium sp. aislado OQ-Fus-2-F de Euphorbia sp. planta]

Omar S. Al-Qaralleh, Wael A. Al-Zereini*, Ahmed H. Al-Mustafa

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Mutah University, 61710 Al-Karak, Jordan.

*E-mail: wzereini@mutah.edu.jo

Abstract

Context: Human life is contested with the emergence of new infectious diseases and antibiotic-resistant pathogens, cellular deterioration due to oxidative stress, and age-related neurodegenerative disorders.

Aims: To evaluate the antibacterial, antioxidant, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of crude extract from the endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. isolate OQ-Fus-2-F as a basis for medical application.

Methods: Fusarium sp. isolate OQ-Fus-2-F was isolated from the stem of Euphorbia sp. plant. It was identified morphologically and based on 18S rRNA gene partial sequence. The isolated was cultivated in a malt extract glucose medium. Cell filtrate was extracted with ethyl acetate, and the crude extract was dried in vacuum. The crude extract was assessed for its antimicrobial activity through agar diffusion and micro-broth dilution assays; antioxidant activity was measured using DPPH and ABTS methods, and the anticholinergic activity was evaluated in terms of inhibition in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity.

Results: Crude extract of Fusarium sp. isolate OQ-Fus-2-F was more potent in inhibiting the growth of B. subtilis with a MIC value of 125 µg/mL. Its antioxidant activity was highly detected in ABTS than DPPH assay with IC50 values 37.5 ± 3.5 µg/mL and 191.3 ± 17.6 µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the extract inhibited the AChE activity with IC50 177.0 ± 13.7 µg/mL.

Conclusions: Crude extract of Fusarium sp. isolate OQ-Fus-2-F has potential biomedical applications as it contains secondary metabolites with antimicrobial, antioxidant, and neuroprotective activates.

Keywords: acetylcholinesterase inhibition; Alzheimer’s disease; antibacterial activity; antioxidant activity; Fusarium sp.

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Resumen

Contexto: La vida humana se enfrenta a la aparición de nuevas enfermedades infecciosas y patógenos resistentes a los antibióticos, el deterioro celular debido al estrés oxidativo y los trastornos neurodegenerativos relacionados con la edad.

Objetivos: Evaluar las actividades antibacterianas, antioxidantes e inhibidoras de la acetilcolinesterasa del extracto crudo del hongo endofítico Fusarium sp. aislado OQ-Fus-2-F como base para aplicaciones médicas.

Métodos: Fusarium sp. el aislado OQ-Fus-2-F se aisló del tallo de Euphorbia sp. planta. Se identificó morfológicamente y se basó en la secuencia parcial del gen ARNr 18S. El aislado se cultivó en medio de glucosa con extracto de malta. El filtrado celular se extrajo con acetato de etilo y el extracto crudo se secó al vacío. Se evaluó la actividad antimicrobiana del extracto crudo mediante ensayos de difusión en agar y dilución en microcaldo; La actividad antioxidante se midió utilizando métodos DPPH y ABTS y la actividad anticolinérgica se evaluó en términos de inhibición de la actividad acetilcolinesterasa (AChE).

Resultados: Extracto crudo de Fusarium sp. aislado OQ-Fus-2-F fue más potente para inhibir el crecimiento de B. subtilis con un valor de MIC de 125 µg/mL. Su actividad antioxidante fue altamente detectada en ABTS que en el ensayo DPPH con valores de CI50 de 37,5 ± 3,5 µg/mL y 191,3 ± 17,6 µg/mL, respectivamente. Además, el extracto inhibió la actividad de AChE con IC50 177,0 ± 13,7 µg/mL.

Conclusiones: Extracto crudo de Fusarium sp. aislado OQ-Fus-2-F tiene aplicaciones biomédicas potenciales ya que contiene metabolitos secundarios con activos antimicrobianos, antioxidantes y neuroprotectores.

Palabras Clave: acetilcolinesterasa inhibición; actividad antibacterial; actividad antioxidante; enfermedad de Alzheimer; Fusarium sp.

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Citation Format: Al-Zereini W, Al-Mustafa A, Al-Qaralleh O (2021) Antibacterial, antioxidant and neuroprotective activities of crude extract from the endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. isolate OQ-Fus-2-F from Euphorbia sp. plant. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 9(6): 755–765.

© 2021 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)