Tag Archives: antibacterial

Antibacterial plants from Gayo Lues Highland

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 117-128, January-February 2023.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres22.1526_11.1.117

Original Article

Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of ethnomedicinal plants from Gayo Lues Highland, Indonesia

[Cribado fitoquímico y actividad antibacteriana de plantas etnomedicinales del altiplano de Gayo Lues, Indonesia]

Hawa Purnama Celala Ary Cane1, Musri Musman2, Mustanir Yahya3, Nurdin Saidi3, Darusman Darusman4,Muhammad Nanda5, Diva Rayyan Rizki6,7, Kana Puspita2*

1Department of Chemistry, Institut Teknologi Sumatera, Lampung Selatan 35365, Indonesia.

2Department of Chemistry Education, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia.

3Department of Chemistry, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia.

4Department of Soil Science, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia.

5Department of Marine Sciences, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia.

6Medical Research Unit, School of Medicine, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh, 23111, Indonesia.

7Innovative Sustainability Lab, PT. Biham Riset dan Edukasi, Banda Aceh 23243, Indonesia.

*E-mail: kanapuspita@unsyiah.ac.id


Context: Investigations of phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity were carried out on traditional medicinal plants collected in the highlands of Gayo Lues, Aceh Province, at an elevation of 1,000 meters above sea level (m.a.s.l.).

Aims: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of plants chosen based on the interview results with the traditional healers (n = 5) in Gayo Lues.

Methods: Ethanolic maceration was performed on the 12 identified ethnomedicinal plants and qualitatively screened for the phytochemical contents. Antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus were tested for each extract based on the disc diffusion method, and MIC was determined using cephazolin as a reference drug.

Results: The phytochemical screening of twelve plant species showed secondary metabolites class steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, phenols, alkaloids, and saponins. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the extract (10 mg/mL) yielded inhibition zone ranges of 9.8 ± 0.26 to 21.87 ± 0.47 mm for E. coli and 8.93 ± 0.9 to 23.97 ± 0.68 for S. aureus. The ethanolic extract of Garcinia macrophylla Mart stem barks showed the highest antibacterial activity, where at the lowest concentration (1.25 mg/mL), the inhibition zones were found to be 19.2 ± 0.61 and 20.72 ± 0.44 mm for E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. The MIC was found to be 1.25 mg/mL.

Conclusions: This study concludes that the twelve plant species are worthy of further investigation for novel antibacterial agent exploration.

Keywords: antibacterial; Escherichia coli; ethnomedicinal plant; Garcinia macrophylla; phytochemical; Staphylococcus aureus.


Contexto: Se llevaron a cabo investigaciones de cribado fitoquímico y actividad antibacteriana en plantas medicinales tradicionales recolectadas en las tierras altas de Gayo Lues, provincia de Aceh, a una altitud de 1.000 metros sobre el nivel del mar (m.s.n.m.).

Objetivos: Evaluar la actividad antibacteriana de plantas elegidas basándose en los resultados de las entrevistas con los curanderos tradicionales (n = 5) de Gayo Lues.

Métodos: Se realizó una maceración etanólica de las 12 plantas etnomedicinales identificadas y se analizó cualitativamente su contenido fitoquímico. Se probó la actividad antibacteriana de cada extracto contra Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 y Staphylococcus aureus mediante el método de difusión en disco y se determinó la CMI utilizando la cefazolina como fármaco de referencia.

Resultados: El cribado fitoquímico de doce especies de plantas mostró una clase de metabolitos secundarios de esteroides, terpenoides, flavonoides, fenoles, alcaloides y saponinas. La evaluación de la actividad antibacteriana del extracto (10 mg/mL), arrojó rangos de zona de inhibición de 9,8 ± 0,26 a 21,87 ± 0,47 mm para E. coli y de 8,93 ± 0,9 a 23,97 ± 0,68 para S. aureus. El extracto etanólico de la corteza del tallo de Garcinia macrophylla Mart mostró la mayor actividad antibacteriana, ya que a la concentración más baja (1,25 mg/mL) las zonas de inhibición fueron de 19,2 ± 0,61 y 20,72 ± 0,44 mm para E. coli y S. aureus, respectivamente. La CMI fue de 1,25 mg/mL.

Conclusiones: Este estudio concluye que las doce especies de plantas son dignas de una mayor investigación para la exploración de nuevos agentes antibacterianos.

Palabras Clave: antibacteriano; Escherichia coli; fitoquímico; Garcinia macrophylla; planta etnomedicinal; Staphylococcus aureus.

Citation Format: Cane HPCA, Musman M, Yahya M, Saidi N, Darusman D, Nanda M, Rizki DR, Puspita K (2023) Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of ethnomedicinal plants from Gayo Lues Highland, Indonesia. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 11(1): 117–128. https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres22.1526_11.1.117

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Consumo de antibacterianos en hospitales de Santiago de Cuba

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 986-994, November-December 2022.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres22.1453_10.6.986

Original Article

Consumo de antibacterianos en tres hospitales de Santiago de Cuba en el período 2019-2020

[Consumption of antibacterials in three hospitals in Santiago de Cuba in the period 2019-2020]

Maraelys Morales-González1*, Clara A. Zúñiga-Moro1, Oneyda Clapé-Laffita1, Elianis García-Díaz1,2, Tania Quintana-Hernández2, Niurka M. Dupotey-Varela1, Maryenis Rodríguez-Alfaro3, Lourdes Serpa-Hernández4

1Departamento de Farmacia, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Universidad de Oriente, Ave. Patricio Lumumba s/n, Santiago de Cuba 90500, Cuba.

2Departamento de Farmacia. Hospital General Santiago ¨Juan Bruno Zayas¨. Ave. Cebreco s/n, Santiago de Cuba 90400, Cuba.

3Departamento de Farmacia, Hospital Oncológico ¨Conrado Benítez García¨. Ave.  Libertadores s/n, Santiago de Cuba 90200, Cuba.

4Departamento de Farmacia, Hospital Materno ¨Mariana Grajales Coello. Ave. Victoriano Garzón s/n, Santiago de Cuba 90200, Cuba.

*E-mail: maraelys@uo.edu.cu


Context: Infections by multiresistant bacteria increase the risk of therapeutic failure, increasing hospital stay, costs and mortality. This determines the use of more expensive antibacterials with a broader spectrum, which leads to a high consumption at the hospital level, which increases bacterial resistance.

Aims: To characterize the consumption of antibacterials in three hospitals in Santiago de Cuba.

Methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study of consumption was carried out. The consumed units, anatomical, therapeutic, and chemical classification, route of administration and price were analyzed for each antimicrobial. The defined daily dose (DDD)/100 beds/day and the cost of antibacterials for systemic use were determined. Descriptive statistics were used.

Results: The most used antibacterial in both years (2019 and 2020) was ceftriaxone (12.6% and 26.9%). The most used group was J01D (39.5% and 44.8%), mainly parenteral via. In 2019 they presented higher DDD/100 beds/day: gentamicin (38.74 in the General Hospital and 20.20 in the Maternal Hospital) and ciprofloxacin (31.51 in the General Hospital and 15.00 in the Oncology Hospital); and in 2020 it was cefazolin (41.42 in General Hospital), ciprofloxacin (17.73 in Oncology) and gentamicin (26.99 in Maternal). The highest total costs were for ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone.

Conclusions: The increase in consumption evidenced the need to update therapeutic policies and validation of prescriptions for this group of drugs.

Keywords: antibacterial; consumption; defined daily dose.



Contexto: Las infecciones por bacterias multirresistentes incrementan el riesgo de falla terapéutica, aumentando la estadía hospitalaria, los costos y la mortalidad. Esto condiciona el uso de antibacterianos más costosos y de mayor espectro, lo cual conlleva un elevado consumo a nivel hospitalario, lo que incrementa la resistencia bacteriana.

Objetivos: Caracterizar el consumo de antibacterianos en tres hospitales de Santiago de Cuba.

Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de consumo, descriptivo y transversal. De cada antimicrobiano se analizaron las unidades consumidas, clasificación anatómica, terapéutica y química, vía de administración y precio. Se determinó la dosis diaria definida (DDD)/100 camas/día y el costo de los antibacterianos de uso sistémico. Se empleó la estadística descriptiva.

Resultados: El antibacteriano más consumido en ambos años (2019 y 2020) fue la ceftriaxona (12,6% y 26,9%) y el grupo J01D el más empleado (39,5% y 44,8%), principalmente por vía parenteral. En el 2019 presentaron mayores DDD/100 camas/día gentamicina (38,74 y 20,20 en el Hospital General y el Materno) y ciprofloxacina (31,51 y 15,00 en el Hospital General y el Oncológico); y en el 2020 fue la cefazolina (41,42 en Hospital General), ciprofloxacina (17,73 en Oncológico) y gentamicina (26,99 en Materno). Los mayores costos totales fueron de la ciprofloxacina y la ceftriaxona.

Conclusiones: El aumento del consumo evidenció la necesidad de actualizar las políticas terapéuticas y la validación de las prescripciones de este grupo de medicamentos.

Palabras Clave: antibacteriano; consumo; dosis diaria definida.


Citation Format: Morales M, Zúñiga CA, Clape O, García E, Quintana T, Dupotey NM, Rodríguez M, Serpa L (2022) Consumo de antibacterianos en tres hospitales de Santiago de Cuba en el período 2019-2020. [Consumption of antibacterials in three hospitals in Santiago de Cuba in the period 2019-2020]. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(6): 986–994. https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres22.1453_10.6.986

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