Tag Archives: apoptosis

Anticancer activity of Curcuma xanthorrhiza

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 1015-1025, November-December 2022.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres22.1448_10.6.1015

Original Article

Potential of Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanol extract in inhibiting the growth of T47D breast cancer cell line: In vitro and bioinformatic approach

[Potencial del extracto de etanol de Curcuma xanthorrhiza para inhibir el crecimiento de la línea celular de cáncer de mama T47D: enfoque in vitro y bioinformático]

Nur Fitriana1, Muhaimin Rifa’i1, Masruri2, Septian Tri Wicaksono1, Nashi Widodo1*

1Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia.

2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia.

*E-mail: widodo@ub.ac.id

Abstract

Context: Breast cancer most commonly occurs in women globally and has the highest mortality rate in Asia. Therefore, a safe and prominent drug to cure the disease needs to be urgently developed.

Aims: To investigate the molecular mechanism of the ethanol extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza (ECx) ininducing apoptosis in breast cancer cell line T47D.

Methods: The research was started by extracting Curcuma xanthorrhiza using ethanol as solvent. The anticancer research was carried out by cell toxicity assay and apoptosis assay. This study also observed changes in cell morphology and protein expression levels that can induce cell apoptosis. The bioinformatics approach was carried out to determine the activity of the active compound in inhibiting AKT-1, which plays an important role in the development of cancer cells. TIG-1 cells were used as controls in toxicity assays.

Results: ECx showed antioxidant and nitric oxide scavenging activity, which is beneficial for human health, and exhibited selective toxicity in T47D breast cancer cells compared to TIG-1 normal cells. ECx increased the expression of p53, Bax, caspase-3, and caspase-9, which induces apoptosis. Further analysis showed that ECx contained at least eight active compounds: curcumin, curcumin II (desmethoxycurcumin), curcumene, camphor, 1,8-cineole, p-cymene, ar-turmerone, and caryophyllene oxide. Bioinformatics studies suggest that active compounds may be involved in apoptosis via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

Conclusions: ECx significantly acts as an anticancer agent by inhibiting the growth of T47D cells. This research proves that the bioinformatics approach shows that curcumin can inhibit the expression of AKT-1.

Keywords: AKT1; apoptosis; bioinformatics; Curcuma xanthorrhiza.

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Resumen

Contexto: El cáncer de mama ocurre con mayor frecuencia en mujeres a nivel mundial y tiene la tasa de mortalidad más alta en Asia. Por lo tanto, es necesario desarrollar urgentemente un fármaco seguro y destacado para curar la enfermedad.

Objetivos: Investigar el mecanismo molecular del extracto etanólico de Curcuma xanthorrhiza (ECx) en la inducción de apoptosis en la línea celular de cáncer de mama T47D.

Métodos: La investigación se inició extrayendo Curcuma xanthorrhiza usando etanol como solvente. La investigación contra el cáncer se llevó a cabo mediante un ensayo de toxicidad celular y un ensayo de apoptosis. Este estudio también observó cambios en la morfología celular y los niveles de expresión de proteínas que pueden inducir la apoptosis celular. El enfoque bioinformático se llevó a cabo para determinar la actividad del compuesto activo en la inhibición de AKT-1, que juega un papel importante en el desarrollo de células cancerosas. Se usaron células TIG-1 como controles en los ensayos de toxicidad.

Resultados: ECx mostró actividad antioxidante y de eliminación de óxido nítrico, que es beneficiosa para la salud humana, y exhibió toxicidad selectiva en células de cáncer de mama T47D en comparación con células normales TIG-1. ECx aumentó la expresión de p53, Bax, caspasa-3 y caspasa-9, lo que induce la apoptosis. Un análisis posterior mostró que ECx contenía al menos ocho compuestos activos: curcumina, curcumina II (desmetoxicurcumina), curcumeno, alcanfor, 1,8-cineol, p-cimeno, ar-turmerona y óxido de cariofileno. Los estudios de bioinformática sugieren que los compuestos activos pueden estar involucrados en la apoptosis a través de la vía de señalización PI3K/AKT.

Conclusiones: ECx actúa significativamente como un agente anticancerígeno al inhibir el crecimiento de las células T47D. Esta investigación demuestra que el enfoque bioinformático muestra que la curcumina puede inhibir la expresión de AKT-1.

Palabras Clave: AKT1; apoptosis; bioinformática; Curcuma xanthorrhiza.

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Citation Format: Fitriana N, Rifa’i M, Masruri, Wicaksono ST, Widodo N (2022) Potential of Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanol extract in inhibiting the growth of T47D breast cancer cell line: In vitro and bioinformatic approach. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(6): 1015–1025. https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres22.1448_10.6.1015
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© 2022 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Effect of sikkam leaves on hyperglycemic sperm



J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(2): 270-278, 2022.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres21.1204_10.2.270

Original Article

Effect of sikkam (Bischofia javanica Blume) ethanolic extract on the quality and quantity of hyperglycemic rat sperm

[Efecto del extracto etanólico de sikkam (Bischofia javanica Blume) sobre la calidad y cantidad de esperma de rata hiperglucémico]

Syafruddin Ilyas*, Salomo Hutahaean, Rahmat S.H. Sinaga, Putri C. Situmorang

Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia.

*E-mail: syafruddin6@usu.ac.id

Abstract

Context: Hyperglycemia causes diabetes mellitus (DM), abnormal metabolism, oxidative stress, and chronic complications such as impotence. Hyperglycemia causes testicular atrophy and stromal cell, seminiferous tubular damage, and spermatogenic cells. Bischofia javanica Blume is a plant that is used for the treatment of various chronic conditions and has traditionally by the people of Indonesia as a diabetes medicine.

Aims: To determine the effect of B. javanica extract on the increase in the quality and quantity of sperm of hyperglycemic rats.

Methods: The treatment groups consisted of; G0: negative control (-), G1: positive control (DM: alloxan induction + standard feed), G2-G4: DM + 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg BW of B. javanica leaves ethanol extract, respectively, and G5: DM + glibenclamide 0.5 mg/kg BW. Rats were dissected, and then the testes were taken to analyze sperm quantity and quality and immunohistochemistry.

Results: There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in testes volume, sperm concentration and sperm motility in hyperglycemic rats. The decrease in caspase 3 expression and apoptosis was accompanied by an increase in the dose of the highest B. javanica ethanol extract, and it was seen that testicular histology in groups G4 (900 mg/kg) and G5 (glibenclamide) could improve testicular histology like in the control group (G0).

Conclusions: B. javanica can improve the quality and quantity of hyperglycemic rats’ sperm and also reduce apoptosis via caspase 3 in the histology of testis.

Keywords: apoptosis; caspase 3; hyperglycemia; immunohistochemistry; plant extracts; sperm.

Resumen

Contexto: La hiperglucemia causa diabetes mellitus (DM), metabolismo anormal, estrés oxidativo y complicaciones crónicas como impotencia. La hiperglucemia causa atrofia testicular y células estromales, daño tubular seminífero y células espermatogénicas. Bischofia javanica Blume es una planta que se utiliza para el tratamiento de diversas afecciones crónicas y tradicionalmente la gente de Indonesia la ha utilizado como medicamento para la diabetes.

Objetivos: Determinar el efecto del extracto de B. javanica sobre el aumento de la calidad y cantidad de espermatozoides de ratas hiperglucémicas.

Métodos: Los grupos de tratamiento consistieron en; G0: control negativo (-), G1: control positivo (DM: inducción de aloxano + alimentación estándar), G2-G4: DM + 300, 600 y 900 mg/kg de peso corporal de extracto etanólico de hojas de B. javanica, respectivamente, y G5: DM + glibenclamida 0,5 mg/kg de peso corporal. Se diseccionaron ratas y luego se tomaron los testículos para analizar la cantidad y calidad de los espermatozoides y la inmunohistoquímica.

Resultados: Hubo una diferencia significativa (p<0,05) en el volumen de los testículos, la concentración de espermatozoides y la motilidad de los espermatozoides en ratas hiperglucémicas. La disminución de la expresión de caspasa 3 y apoptosis fue acompañada por un aumento en la mayor dosis del extracto, y se observó mediante histología una mejoría testicular en los grupos G4 (900 mg/kg) y G5 (glibenclamida) similar al grupo control (G0).

Conclusiones: B. javanica puede mejorar la calidad y cantidad de esperma de ratas hiperglucémicas y también reducir la apoptosis vía caspasa 3 en la histología de testículos.

Palabras Clave: apoptosis; caspasa 3; esperma; extractos de plantas; hiperglucemia; inmunohistoquímica.

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Citation Format: Ilyas S, Hutahaean S, Sinaga RSH, Situmorang PC (2022) Effect of sikkam (Bischofia javanica Blume) ethanolic extract on the quality and quantity of hyperglycemic rat sperm. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(2): 270–278. https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres21.1204_10.2.270

© 2022 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Volume 9, Suppl. 1 (MICPS 2021)

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 9(Suppl. 1), (October) 2021

1st Makassar International Conference on Pharmaceutical Sciences

(MICPS 2021)

Empowering Natural Product in Drugs Discovery and Development

Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Muslim Indonesia

Makassar, Indonesia

September 25-26, 2021

Conference Proceedings  [1.3 Mb]
Editing, design and realization: Gabino Garrido, Marisela Valdés, Xavier Garrido, Muammar Fawwaz, Aktsar Roskiana Ahmad
Editorial Scientific Council: Muammar Fawwaz, Aktsar Roskiana Ahmad, A. Emelda, Nurmaya Effendi

© 2021 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Apoptotic potential of Ruta chalepensis essential oil



J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(1): 73-83, 2022.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres21.1180_10.1.73

Original Article

Induction of apoptosis by Ruta chalepensis L. essential oil in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7)

[Inducción de apoptosis por el aceite esencial de Ruta chalepensis L. en células de cáncer de mama humano (MCF-7)]

Arwa R. Althaher1,2*, Sawsan A. Oran2, Yasser K. Bustanji3,4

1Department of Pharmacy, Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan, Amman, 11733, Jordan.

2Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Jordan, Amman, 11942, Jordan.

3Department of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, 27272, United Arab Emirates.

4Department of Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacy, The University of Jordan, Amman, 11942, Jordan.

*E-mail: a.althaher@outlook.com

Abstract

Context: Recent scientific studies have reported that essential oils induce apoptosis in various cancer cell types by interfering with intracellular signaling pathways.

Aims: To evaluate the cytotoxicity, the apoptotic activity of essential oil (EO) of Ruta chalepensis L. against MCF-7 cell line.

Methods: Cytotoxicity was determined using methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay. The apoptotic activity of EO was analyzed using annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide binding flow cytometry. The cell morphology was inspected under an inverted microscope. DAPI staining assay was used for the morphological observation. Activation of caspases-3/7, -8, and-9 was assessed using a caspase assay kit.

Results: Ruta chalepensis essential oil significantly inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells at 72 h. Moreover, the results showed that cell death is associated with the apoptotic process, and the number of apoptotic cells was significantly increased in the groups treated with EO than in control cells. The main morphological hallmarks of apoptosis in the nucleus were membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, and nuclear fragmentation. Also, R. chalepensis EO-induced apoptosis in the MCF-7 cell line was via the extrinsic caspase-8 dependent pathway in a dose and time-dependent manner.

Conclusions: Ruta chalepensis essential oil demonstrated significant apoptotic activity against experimental breast carcinoma. Therefore, it could be introduced as a suitable candidate for breast cancer therapy after further investigation.

Keywords: apoptosis; caspases; DAPI staining assay; flow cytometry; Ruta chalepensis.

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Resumen

Contexto: Estudios científicos recientes han informado que los aceites esenciales inducen la apoptosis en varios tipos de células cancerosas al interferir con las vías de señalización intracelular.

Objetivos: Evaluar la citotoxicidad, la actividad apoptótica del aceite esencial (EO) de Ruta chalepensis L. contra la línea celular MCF-7.

Métodos: La citotoxicidad se determinó mediante el ensayo de metil tiazol tetrazolio. La actividad apoptótica de EO se analizó mediante citometría de flujo de unión de anexina V-isotiocianato de fluoresceína/yoduro de propidio. La morfología celular se inspeccionó con un microscopio invertido. Se utilizó el ensayo de tinción DAPI para la observación morfológica. La activación de las caspasas-3/7, -8 y-9 se evaluó usando un kit de ensayo de caspasas.

Resultados: El EO de Ruta chalepensis inhibió significativamente la proliferación de células MCF-7 a las 72 h. Además, los resultados mostraron que la muerte celular está asociada con el proceso apoptótico, y el número de células apoptóticas aumentó significativamente en los grupos tratados con EO que en las células de control. Las principales características morfológicas de la apoptosis en el núcleo fueron la formación de ampollas en la membrana, la condensación de cromatina y la fragmentación nuclear. Además, la apoptosis inducida por EO de R. chalepensis en la línea celular MCF-7 fue a través de la vía extrínseca dependiente de caspasa-8 de una manera dependiente de la dosis y el tiempo.

Conclusiones: El aceite esencial de Ruta chalepensis demostró una actividad apoptótica significativa contra el carcinoma de mama experimental. Por lo tanto, podría presentarse como un candidato adecuado para la terapia del cáncer de mama después de una investigación adicional.

Palabras Clave: apoptosis; caspasas; citometría de flujo; ensayo de tinción DAPI; Ruta chalepensis.

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Citation Format: Althaher AR, Oran SA, Bustanji YK (2022) Induction of apoptosis by Ruta chalepensis L. essential oil in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(1): 73–83. https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres21.1180_10.1.73

© 2022 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Piper cubeba extract on triple negative breast cancer



J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(1): 39-51, 2022.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres21.1160_10.1.39

Original Article

Anticancer activity of Piper cubeba L. extract on triple negative breast cancer MDA-MB-23

[Actividad anticancerígena del extracto de Piper cubeba L. en el cáncer de mama triple negativo MDA-MB-231]

Saowanee Maungchanburi1, Thidarath Rattanaburee1, Yaowapa Sukpondma2, Aman Tedasen3, Varomyalin Tipmanee1, Potchanapond Graidist1*

1Department of Biomedical Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand.

2Division of Physical Science and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand.

3School of Allied Health Sciences, Walailak University, Thasala District, Nakhonsithammarat, Thailand.

*E-mail: gpotchan@medicine.psu.ac.th

Abstract

Context: Piper cubeba L. (family Piperaceae) is used traditionally for the treatment of many diseases, including cancer.

Aims: To determine the anticancer activity of P. cubeba crude extracts on cancer cells and identify chemical constituents of the active fraction.

Methods: Seeds of P. cubeba were sequentially extracted with dichloromethane followed by methanol and purified using column chromatography. Fractions were screened the cytotoxicity against triple negative breast cancer (MDA-MB-468) using MTT assay. Then, active fractions were evaluated cytotoxicity against breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231), colon cancer (HT-29), cholangiocarcinoma (KKU-M213) and normal fibroblast (L929) cells. Total phenolic, tannin, and flavonoid contents of active fraction were investigated, and the chemical composition was analyzed using GC-MS. Flow cytometry was applied to determine the cell cycle, apoptosis, and evidence of caspase activation.

Results: Fraction DE14 and DE15 showed cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-468. Fraction DE15 exhibited the most potent cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231, KKU-M213, HT-29 and L929. As the fraction DE15 was of dichloromethane extraction, major contents were nonpolar fatty acids and fatty acid esters, followed by propylene glycol and hydrocarbons. The phenolic compounds were however traceable, leading to their measurable antioxidant property. This extract did not cause cell cycle arrest on MDA-MB-231. However, fraction DE15 significantly increased apoptotic cells at 48 and 72 h, and significantly induced multi-caspases activity on MDA-MB-231 in a time-dependent manner.

Conclusions: Fraction DE15 exhibited cytotoxicity effect and induced apoptosis on triple negative breast cancer and showed less toxicity on normal fibroblast cells.

Keywords: Piper cubeba; anticancer; apoptosis; triple negative breast cancer.

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Resumen

Contexto: Piper cubeba L. (familia Piperaceae) es utilizado tradicionalmente para el tratamiento de muchas enfermedades, incluido el cáncer.

Objetivos: Determinar la actividad anticancerígena de extractos crudos de P. cubeba sobre células cancerosas e identificar los componentes químicos de la fracción activa.

Métodos: Se extrajeron semillas de P. cubeba con diclorometano seguido de metanol y se purificaron mediante cromatografía en columna. Se examinó la citotoxicidad de las fracciones frente al cáncer de mama triple negativo (MDA-MB-468) usando un ensayo MTT. Luego, se evaluó la citotoxicidad de las fracciones activas frente a células de cáncer de mama (MCF-7 y MDA-MB-231), cáncer de colon (HT-29), colangiocarcinoma (KKU-M213) y fibroblasto normal (L929). Se investigó el contenido total de fenólicos, taninos y flavonoides de la fracción activa y se analizó la composición química mediante GC-MS. Se aplicó citometría de flujo para determinar el ciclo celular, la apoptosis y la evidencia de activación de caspasa.

Resultados: Las fracciones DE14 y DE15 mostraron actividad citotóxica contra MDA-MB-468. La fracción DE15 exhibió la citotoxicidad más fuerte contra MDA-MB-231, KKU-M213, HT-29 y L929. La composición de la fracción DE15, extraída con diclorometano, fue de ácidos grasos apolares y ésteres de ácidos grasos, seguidos de propilenglicol e hidrocarburos. Sin embargo, los compuestos fenólicos fueron detectados, lo que llevó a su propiedad antioxidante medible. Este extracto no provocó la detención del ciclo celular en MDA-MB-231. Sin embargo, la fracción DE15 aumentó significativamente las células apoptóticas a las 48 y 72 h, e indujo significativamente la actividad de caspasas múltiples en MDA-MB-231 de una manera dependiente del tiempo.

Conclusiones: La fracción DE15 exhibió efecto de citotoxicidad e indujo apoptosis en cáncer de mama triple negativo y mostró menos toxicidad en células de fibroblastos normales.

Palabras Clave: anticáncer; apoptosis; cáncer de mama triple negativo; Piper cubeba.

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Citation Format: Maungchanburi S, Rattanaburee T, Sukpondma Y, Tedasen A, Tipmanee V, Graidist P (2022) Anticancer activity of Piper cubeba L. extract on triple negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(1): 39–51. https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres21.1160_10.1.39

© 2022 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

In silico tea catechin as HIV antiretroviral agent



J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 9(4): 435-445, 2021.

Original article

Tea catechin as antiviral agent via apoptosis agonist and triple inhibitor mechanism against HIV-1 infection: A bioinformatics approach

[La catequina del té como agente antiviral a través de un agonista de la apoptosis y un mecanismo de triple inhibidor contra la infección por VIH-1: un enfoque bioinformático]

Viol Dhea Kharisma1,2,3, Muhammad Hermawan Widyananda2,3, Arif Nur Muhammad Ansori1,4, Aondohemba Samuel Nege5,6, Sin War Naw7, Alexander Patera Nugraha1*

1Dental and Biomaterial Research Group, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.

2Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia.

3Computational Virology and Complexity Science Research Unit, Division of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Generasi Biologi Indonesia Foundation, Gresik, Indonesia.

4Doctoral Program in Veterinary Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.

5Department and Graduate Institute of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

6Chemical Biology and Molecular Biophysics Programme, TIGP Institute of Biological Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.

7Department of Chemistry, Myitkyina University, Myitkyina, Myanmar.

*E-mail: alexander.patera.nugraha@fkg.unair.ac.id

Abstract

Context: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antiretrovirals that target the binding of viral enzyme are chosen as the lead solution in the treatment of HIV-1 infection, such as non-catalytic site integrase inhibitor (NCINI), nevirapine, and darunavir. There are natural compounds from specific plants that can be effective in treating HIV-1 infection such as tea catechin. Tea catechin administration causes a decrease in viral load and inhibition of entry mechanisms and an increased effect of apoptosis in infected cells.

Aims: To identify the triple inhibitor mechanism in tea catechins against the three HIV-1 enzymes and apoptosis agonists through in silico approach as an innovation in handling HIV-1 infection.

Methods: The 3D structure of tea catechin compounds from the database was examined, and then all target compounds were analyzed for drug-likeness, molecular docking, pathway prediction, and molecular interactions to determine the potential of tea catechin compounds as antiviral HIV-1 in silico.

Results: Tea catechin compounds have the potential to serve as antiviral against HIV-1 through apoptosis agonist and triple inhibitor mechanisms. Apoptosis occurs due to the interaction of tea catechins with pro-apoptotic proteins in cells, and the epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) compound is a class of tea catechins with the same binding position as control.

Conclusions: The binding of the EGCG molecule complex results in low binding energy. Therefore, it allows EGCG acts as a triple inhibitor in HIV-1 infection.

Keywords: antiretrovirals; apoptosis; catechin; herbal medicine; human immunodeficiency virus.

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Resumen

Contexto: Los antirretrovirales del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) que se dirigen a la unión de la enzima viral se eligen como la solución principal en el tratamiento de la infección por VIH-1, como el inhibidor de la integrasa del sitio no catalítico (NCINI), la nevirapina y el darunavir. Existen compuestos naturales de plantas específicas que pueden ser eficaces en el tratamiento de la infección por VIH-1, como la catequina del té. La administración de catequinas del té provoca una disminución de la carga viral e inhibición de los mecanismos de entrada y un aumento del efecto de la apoptosis en las células infectadas.

Objetivos: Identificar el mecanismo triple inhibidor en las catequinas del té contra las tres enzimas del VIH-1 y los agonistas de la apoptosis a través de un enfoque in silico como una innovación en el manejo de la infección por VIH-1.

Métodos: Se examinó in silico la estructura 3D de los compuestos de catequina del té de la base de datos y luego se analizaron todos los compuestos objetivo para determinar su similitud con el fármaco, acoplamiento molecular, predicción de vías e interacciones moleculares para determinar el potencial de los compuestos de catequina del té como antivírico VIH-1.

Resultados: Los compuestos de catequina del té tienen el potencial de actuar como antivirales contra el VIH-1 mediante mecanismos agonistas de apoptosis y triple inhibidor. La apoptosis ocurre debido a la interacción de las catequinas del té con proteínas proapoptóticas en las células y el compuesto de galato de epigalocatequina (EGCG) es una clase de catequinas del té con la misma posición de unión que el control.

Conclusiones: La unión del complejo de moléculas EGCG da como resultado una baja energía de unión. Por tanto, permite que el EGCG actúe como un triple inhibidor en la infección por VIH-1.

Palabras Clave: antirretrovirales; apoptosis; catequina; medicina herbaria; virus de inmunodeficiencia humana.

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Citation Format: Kharisma VD, Widyananda MH, Ansori ANM, Nege AS, Naw SW, Nugraha AP (2021) Tea catechin as antiviral agent via apoptosis agonist and triple inhibitor mechanism against HIV-1 infection: A bioinformatics approach. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 9(4): 435–445.

© 2021 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Sikkim and apoptosis via cytochrome c in aortic



J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 9(3): 313-323, 2021.

Original Article

Apoptosis via cytochrome c in aortic tissue of diabetes mellitus after giving sikkam leaves (Bischofia javanica Blume)

[Apoptosis vía citocromo c en tejido aórtico de diabetes mellitus después de dar hojas de sikkim (Bischofia javanica Blume)]

Syafruddin Ilyas*, Salomo Hutahaean, Rahmat SH. Sinaga, Putri C. Situmorang

Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia.

*E-mail: syafruddin6@usu.ac.id

Abstract

Context: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic hyperglycemia disease caused by abnormalities in insulin secretion and the highest increase in diabetes sufferers that occurred in Southeast Asian countries, including Indonesia. The sikkam leaf (Bischofia javanica) ethanolic extract contains many secondary metabolites, and some of them are quercetin and gallic acid, which have the potential to be used as antidiabetic.

Aims: To analyze apoptosis via cytochrome c in aortic tissue of DM after giving B. javanica leaves.

Methods: The treatment group consisted of G0: Negative control, G1: Positive control (alloxan induction + standard feed), G2: Alloxan induction + 300 mg/kg BW of B. javanica leaves ethanol extract, G3: Alloxan induction + 600 mg/kg BW of B. javanica leaves ethanol extract, G4: Induction of alloxan + ethanol extract of B. javanica leaves 900 mg/kg BW and G5: Induction of alloxan + glibenclamide 0.5 mg/kg BW. Fourteen days later, the rats were dissected, and the aortic tissue was analyzed for apoptosis by tunnel assay and cytochrome c by immunohistochemistry.

Results: There was a statistically significant difference (p<0.01) in the apoptotic value and cytochrome c. Increasing the dose of B. javanica leaves, the cytochrome c expression, and apoptotic value decreases in the aorta of DM rats. The cell shape returned to normal after being given B. javanica ethanol extract 900 mg/kg BW than glibenclamide.

Conclusions: Bischofia javanica ethanolic extract reduced apoptosis via cytochrome c in aortic histology, and this plant can be developed into a diabetic drug candidate.

Keywords: apoptosis; cytochrome c; hyperglycemia; hypoglycemic agents; immunohistochemistry; plant extracts.

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Resumen

Contexto: La diabetes mellitus (DM) es una enfermedad de hiperglucemia metabólica causada por anomalías en la secreción de insulina y el mayor aumento de pacientes con diabetes que se produjo en los países del sudeste asiático, incluida Indonesia. El extracto etanólico de la hoja de Bischofia javanica contiene muchos metabolitos secundarios, y algunos de ellos son la quercetina y el ácido gálico, que tienen el potencial de usarse como antidiabéticos.

Objetivos: Analizar la apoptosis por citocromo c en tejido aórtico de DM tras la administración de hojas de B. javanica.

Métodos: El grupo de tratamiento consistió en G0: Control negativo, G1: Control positivo (inducción de aloxano + alimentación estándar), G2: inducción de aloxano + 300 mg/kg de peso corporal de extracto de etanol de hojas de B. javanica, G3: inducción de aloxano + 600 mg/kg de peso corporal de extracto etanólico de hojas de B. javanica, G4: Inducción de aloxano + extracto etanólico de hojas de B. javanica 900 mg/kg de peso corporal y G5: Inducción de aloxano + glibenclamida 0,5 mg/kg de peso corporal. Catorce días más tarde, las ratas fueron disecadas y el tejido aórtico fue analizado para apoptosis por ensayo de túnel y citocromo c por inmunohistoquímica.

Resultados: Hubo una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p<0.01) en el valor apoptótico y el citocromo c. Al aumentar la dosis de hojas de B. javanica, la expresión del citocromo c y el valor apoptótico disminuyen en la aorta de ratas DM. La forma de la célula volvió a la normalidad después de recibir extracto de etanol de B. javanica 900 mg/kg de peso corporal que glibenclamida.

Conclusiones: El extracto etanólico de Bischofia javanica redujo la apoptosis a través del citocromo c en histología aórtica y esta planta puede convertirse en un candidato a fármaco diabético.

Palabras Clave: agentes hipoglucemiantes; apoptosis; citocromo c; extractos de plantas; hiperglucemia; inmunohistoquímica.

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Citation Format: Ilyas S, Hutahaean S, Sinaga RSH, Situmorang PC (2021) Apoptosis via cytochrome c in aortic tissue of diabetes mellitus after giving sikkam leaves (Bischofia javanica Blume). J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 9(3): 313–323.

© 2021 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)