Tag Archives: COVID-19

Adverse cardiac events following mRNA COVID-19 vaccination

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 76-100, January-February 2023.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres22.1524_11.1.76


Adverse cardiac events following mRNA COVID-19 vaccination: A systematic review and meta-analysis

[Eventos cardíacos adversos tras la vacunación con COVID-19 ARNm: Una revisión sistemática y metaanálisis]

Eka Arum Cahyaning Putri1*, Misbakhul Munir1, Hayuris Kinandita Setiawan1, Lilik Herawati1, Gadis Meinar Sari1, Citrawati Dyah Kencono Wungu1, Hendri Susilo2,3, Henry Sutanto4

1Department of Medical Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.

2Department of Cardiology and Vascular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.

3Department of Cardiology and Vascular Medicine, Universitas Airlangga Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia.

4Department of Cardiology, CARIM School for Cardiovascular Diseases, Maastricht University, 6211 Maastricht, The Netherlands.

*E-mail: eka-arum-cp@fk.unair.ac.id


Context: Although have been proven able to control the prevalence of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines are reported to have possible side effects on the heart.

Aims: To know the magnitude of adverse events in the cardiac after messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA)-based vaccination.

Methods: An electronic search in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Ebsco/Cinahl was performed. The keywords were: “COVID-19 vaccine”, “SARS-CoV-2 vaccine”, “myocarditis”, “myopericarditis”, “pericarditis”, “myocardial infarction”, and “myocardial injury”. The electronic search was updated until March 2022. STATA/MP Statistical Software: Release 14 (StataCorp LLC, College Station, Texas) was used in this study to perform a meta-analysis of a random-effect for myocarditis, pericarditis, myocarditis, myocardial infarction, and myocardial injury.

Results: Twenty-one case reports/case series studies with a total of 62 individuals who had been vaccinated against COVID-19 mRNA (Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna) were included in the systematic review. Whereas seven observational cohort studies had 170,053,333 people who had been vaccinated, 245 of whom had myocarditis. In addition, two observational cohort studies with 13,948,595 vaccinated individuals, 16 of whom developed pericarditis. There was only one observational cohort study that had a total of 7,183,889 people who had been vaccinated and 11 had myopericarditis. Based on the pooled incidence, the result is <0.002%.

Conclusions: The Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines have a low incidence of myocarditis. Men are more likely to develop post-COVID-19 myocarditis with an average age of 22 years and in the age range of 21-40 years. The type of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine that causes myocarditis the most is Pfizer. The diagnosis of myocarditis is mostly made by troponin examination. COVID-19 mRNA vaccination has a low incidence of myocarditis.

Keywords: cardiac disease; cardiac events; COVID-19; mRNA vaccines; SARS-CoV-2.


Contexto: Aunque se ha demostrado que pueden controlar la prevalencia de la enfermedad por coronavirus-19 (COVID-19), se ha informado que las vacunas contra COVID-19 de Pfizer-BioNTech y Moderna tienen posibles efectos secundarios sobre el corazón.

Objetivos: Conocer la magnitud de los efectos adversos en el corazón tras la vacunación basada en ácido ribonucleico mensajero (ARNm).

Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda electrónica en PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus y Ebsco/Cinahl. Las palabras clave fueron: “vacuna COVID-19”, “vacuna SARS-CoV-2”, “miocarditis”, “miopericarditis”, “pericarditis”, “infarto de miocardio” y “lesión miocárdica”. La búsqueda electrónica se actualizó hasta marzo de 2022. Software estadístico STATA/MP: Versión 14 (StataCorp LLC, College Station, Texas) se utilizó en este estudio para realizar un metanálisis de efecto aleatorio para miocarditis, pericarditis, miocarditis, infarto de miocardio y lesión miocárdica.

Resultados: Se incluyeron en la revisión sistemática 21 estudios de informes de casos/series de casos con un total de 62 individuos que habían sido vacunados contra COVID-19 ARNm (Pfizer-BioNTech y Moderna). Mientras que siete estudios observacionales de cohortes contaban con 170.053.333 personas que habían sido vacunadas, 245 de las cuales presentaron miocarditis. Además, dos estudios observacionales de cohortes con 13.948.595 personas vacunadas, 16 de las cuales desarrollaron pericarditis. Sólo hubo un estudio observacional de cohortes con un total de 7.183.889 personas vacunadas y 11 tuvieron miopericarditis. Basándose en la incidencia agrupada, el resultado es <0,002%.

Conclusiones: Las vacunas Pfizer-BioNTech y Moderna tienen una baja incidencia de miocarditis. Los hombres son más propensos a desarrollar miocarditis post-COVID-19 con una edad media de 22 años y en el rango de edad de 21-40 años. El tipo de vacuna COVID-19 de ARNm que causa más miocarditis es Pfizer. El diagnóstico de la miocarditis se realiza principalmente mediante el examen de troponina. La vacunación con ARNm COVID-19 tiene una baja incidencia de miocarditis.

Palabras Clave: enfermedad cardiaca; eventos cardiacos; COVID-19; vacunas de ARNm; SARS-CoV-2.

Citation Format: Putri EAC, Munir M, Setiawan HK, Herawati L, Sari GM, Wungu CDK, Susilo H, Sutanto H (2023) Adverse cardiac events following mRNA COVID-19 vaccination: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 11(1): 76–100. https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres22.1524_11.1.76

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© 2023 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Oxidative stress in COVID-19 infection

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 63-75, January-February 2023.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres22.1535_11.1.63

Original Article

Oxidative stress in diverse clinical conditions of SARS-CoV-2 Cuban hospitalized patients

[Estrés oxidativo en diferentes condiciones clínicas de pacientes cubanos hospitalizados con SARS-CoV-2]

Lizette Gil-del Valle1*, Rosario Gravier-Hernández1, Mario M. Delgado-Guerra2, Joniel A. Sánchez-Márquez2, Olga E. López-Fernández2, Miguel A. Acosta-Suárez1, Teresa Rosell-Guerra1, Rodolfo Suárez-Iznaga3, Raiza Martínez-Casanueva3, Zullyt Zamora-Rodriguez4, Lidia A. Fernández-García4, Yusimit Bermudez-Alfonso1, María C. Hernández-Gonzalez-Abreu1, Gabino Garrido5**

1Institute “Pedro Kourí” (IPK), Havana, Cuba.

2Hospital Ernesto Guevara, University of Informatics’ Science, Havana, Cuba.

3Hospital Salvador Allende, Havana, Cuba.

4National Center of Scientific Research, BioCubaFarma, Havana, Cuba.

5Departamento de Ciencias Farmacéuticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Católica del Norte, Antofagasta, Chile.

*E-mail: *lgil@ipk.sld.cu, **gabino.garrido@ucn.cl


Context: COVID-19 related to SARS-CoV-2 infection generates inflammation with increased reactive oxygen species production. Drug treatment and others factors could influence systemic oxidative stress during pathogenic insult.

Aims: To determine the redox status in COVID-19 patients with different clinical conditions and explore the relationship between redox and hematological hemochemical variables.

Methods: In this comparative longitudinal study, blood samples were drawn from 160 individuals divided into four groups: COVID-19 asymptomatic, COVID-19 symptomatic (low and moderate symptoms), COVID-19 convalescent, and presumable healthy subjects. Demographic, redox, hematological, and hemochemical indices were assessed. Statistical analyses compared the median values of each variable and explored individual, simultaneous indices, and multivariate alteration.

Results: Relative to the healthy group, acute COVID-19, and convalescent groups had significant differences in global damage indices and antioxidant status (p<0.05). The convalescent group showed significantly higher damage (malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, nitric oxide) and lower antioxidant enzymatic activities and glutathione concentration compared to other groups (p<0.05). Global modification of redox indices showed that more than 80% of studied individuals in acute conditions had simultaneous detrimental differences compared to a healthy status. The discriminant analysis permitted obtaining two canonical functions (p< 0.05) that reflect 98% of redox variables with 95% of variances with successful case classifications.

Conclusions: These results corroborate that oxidative stress occurred in different COVID-19 and post-acute conditions with different molecular alterations of redox indices. Redox diagnosis should be considered in early diagnosis and treatment of infection, which would be worthwhile to conduct a more comprehensive study and management of disease evolution.

Keywords: antioxidant status; COVID-19; oxidative stress; oxidative damage; SARS-CoV-2.


Contexto: El COVID-19 relacionado con la infección por SARS-CoV-2 genera inflamación con aumento de la producción de especies reactivas del oxígeno. El tratamiento farmacológico y otros factores podrían influir en el estrés oxidativo sistémico durante el insulto patogénico.

Objetivos: Determinar el estado redox en pacientes con COVID-19 con diferentes condiciones clínicas y explorar la relación entre las variables redox y hemoquímicas.

Métodos: En este estudio longitudinal comparativo, se extrajeron muestras de sangre de 160 individuos divididos en cuatro grupos: COVID-19 asintomáticos, COVID-19 sintomáticos (síntomas bajos y moderados), COVID-19 convalecientes y sujetos presuntamente sanos. Se evaluaron los índices demográficos, redox, hematológicos y hemoquímicos. Los análisis estadísticos compararon los valores medios de cada variable y exploraron las alteraciones en los índices individuales, simultáneos y multivariadas.

Resultados: En relación con el grupo sano, los grupos COVID-19 agudo y convaleciente presentaron diferencias significativas en los índices de daño global y en el estado antioxidante (p<0,05). El grupo convaleciente mostró un daño significativamente mayor (malondialdehído, productos proteicos de oxidación avanzada, óxido nítrico) y menores actividades enzimáticas antioxidantes y concentración de glutatión en comparación con los otros grupos (p<0,05). La modificación global de los índices redox mostró que más del 80% de los individuos estudiados tenían diferencias perjudiciales simultáneas en comparación con el estado saludable. El análisis discriminante permitió obtener dos funciones canónicas (p< 0,05) que reflejan el 98% de las variables redox con el 95% de las varianzas con clasificaciones de casos acertadas.

Conclusiones: Estos resultados corroboran que el estrés oxidativo se presentó en diferentes COVID-19 y condiciones post-agudas con diferentes alteraciones moleculares de los índices redox. El diagnóstico redox debe ser considerado en el diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz de la infección, lo que valdría la pena para realizar un estudio y manejo más exhaustivo de la evolución de la enfermedad.

Palabras Clave: daño oxidativo; COVID-19; estado antioxidante; estrés oxidativo; SARS-CoV-2.

Citation Format: Gil-del Valle L, Gravier-Hernández R, Delgado-Guerra MM, Sánchez-Márquez JA, López-Fernández OE, Acosta-Suárez MA, Rosell-Guerra T, Suárez-Iznaga R, Martínez-Casanueva R, Zamora-Rodriguez Z, Fernández-García LA, Bermudez-Alfonso Y, Hernández-Gonzalez-Abreu MC, Garrido G (2023) Oxidative stress in diverse clinical conditions of SARS-CoV-2 Cuban hospitalized patients. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 11(1): 63–75. https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres22.1535_11.1.63

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© 2023 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Sonchus arvensis L. against SARS-CoV-2 infection

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 1126-1138, November-December 2022.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres22.1489_10.6.1126

Original Article

Molecular simulation of compounds from n-hexane fraction of Sonchus arvensis L. leaves as SARS-CoV-2 antiviral through inhibitor activity targeting strategic viral protein

[Simulación molecular de compuestos de la fracción de n-hexano de las hojas de Sonchus arvensis L. como antivirales del SARS-CoV-2 a través de la actividad inhibidora dirigida a la proteína viral estratégica]

Dwi Kusuma Wahyuni1,2*, Sumrit Wacharasindhu3, Wichanee Bankeeree2, Hunsa Punnapayak2, Hery Purnobasuki1, Junairiah1, Arif NM Ansori4, Viol Dhea Kharisma1,5, Arli Aditya Parikesit6, Listyani Suhargo1*, Sehanat Prasongsuk1,2*

1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitas Airlangga Surabaya, East Java, 60115, Indonesia.

2Plant Biomass Utilization Research Unit, Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand.

3Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok,10330, Thailand.

4Professor Nidom Foundation, Surabaya, East Java, 60115, Indonesia.

5Computational Virology Research Unit, Division of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Generasi Biologi Indonesia Foundation, Gresik, East Java, 61171, Indonesia.

6Department of Bioinformatics, School of Life Science, Indonesia International Institute for Life Sciences, Jakarta, 13210, Indonesia.

*E-mail: dwi-k-w@fst.unair.ac.id (DKW), listyani-s@fst.unair.ac.id (LS), sehanat.p@chula.ac.th (SP)


Context: COVID-19 was caused by the spread and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 at the end of 2019 until now. The problem comes when antiviral drugs have not yet been found and patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 can trigger a cytokine storm condition due to the effects of viral replication. Indonesia has various kinds of medicinal plants, such as Sonchus arvensis L., which are used as medicinal plants.

Aims: To analyze the activity of the inhibitor as SARS-CoV-2 antiviral agents from n-hexane fractions of S. arvensis leaves.

Methods: The sample was collected from GC-MS analysis, PubChem, and Protein Databank database, then drug-likeness identification using Lipinski Rule of Five server and bioactive prediction of bioactive compounds as inhibitor activity was conducted by Molinspiration server. Furthermore, the docking simulation was performed using PyRx 0.9.9 software to determine the binding activity, molecular interaction by Discovery Studio software to identify position and interaction type, 3D molecular visualization by PyMol 2.5. software, and dynamic by CABS-flex 2.0 server to predict interaction stability.

Results: α-Amyrin and β-amyrin from n-hexane fractions of S. arvensis leaves had activity as SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors through interactions on helicase, RdRp, Mpro, and RBD-Spike, both compounds had more negative binding affinity than control drug and can produce stable chemical bond interactions in the ligand-protein complexes. However, the results were merely computational, so they must be validated through an in vivo and in vitro research approach.

Conclusions: Sonchus arvensis L. leaves were predicted to have SARS-CoV-2 antiviral through inhibitor activity by α-amyrin and β-amyrin.

Keywords: antiviral; bioinformatics; SARS-CoV-2; Sonchus arvensis L.



Contexto: La propagación y la transmisión del SARS-CoV-2 han sido causadas por el COVID-19 desde finales de 2019 hasta ahora. El problema surge cuando aún no se han encontrado medicamentos antivirales y los pacientes infectados por el SARS-CoV-2 pueden desencadenar una condición de tormenta de citocinas debido a los efectos de la replicación viral. Indonesia tiene varios tipos de plantas medicinales, como Sonchus arvensis L., que se utilizan como plantas medicinales.

Objetivos: Analizar la actividad inhibidora de SARS-CoV-2 de fracciones de n-hexano de las hojas de S. arvensis.

Métodos: La muestra se recogió del análisis GC-MS, PubChem y la base de datos Protein Databank, luego se identificó la similitud de los fármacos utilizando el servidor Lipinski Rule of Five y se realizó la predicción de los compuestos bioactivos como actividad inhibidora mediante el servidor Molinspiration. Además, se realizó la simulación de acoplamiento mediante el software PyRx 0.9.9 para determinar la actividad de unión, la interacción molecular mediante el software Discovery Studio para identificar la posición y el tipo de interacción, la visualización molecular 3D mediante el software PyMol 2.5. y la dinámica mediante el servidor CABS-flex 2.0 para predecir la estabilidad de la interacción.

Resultados: La α-amirina y la β-amirina de las fracciones de n-hexano de las hojas de S. arvensis tuvieron actividad como inhibidores del SARS-CoV-2 a través de las interacciones en la helicasa, RdRp, Mpro y RBD-Spike, ambos compuestos tuvieron más afinidad de unión negativa que el fármaco de control y pueden producir interacciones de enlace químico estables en los complejos ligando-proteína. Sin embargo, los resultados fueron meramente computacionales, por lo que deben ser validados mediante un enfoque de investigación in vivo e in vitro.

Conclusiones: Se predijo que las hojas de S. arvensis tienen actividad antiviral contra el SARS-CoV-2 a través de la actividad inhibidora de la α-amirina y la β-amirina.

Palabras Clave: antiviral; bioinformática; SARS-CoV-2; Sonchus arvensis L.

Citation Format: Wahyuni DK, Wacharasindhu S, Bankeeree W, Punnapayak H, Parikesit AA, Kharisma VD, Ansori ANM, Suhargo L, Prasongsuk S (2022) Molecular simulation of compounds from n-hexane fraction of Sonchus arvensis L. leaves as SARS-CoV-2 antiviral through inhibitor activity targeting strategic viral protein. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(6): 1126–1138. https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres22.1489_10.6.1126

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© 2022 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Phyllanthus tenellus and Kaempferia parviflora compounds inhibit SARS-CoV-2

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 1103-1116, November-December 2022.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres22.1485_10.6.1103

Original Article

Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb. and Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex Baker compounds as inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 main protease and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase: A molecular docking study

[Compuestos de Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb. y Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex Baker como inhibidores de la proteasa principal del SARS-CoV-2 y de la ARN polimerasa dependiente de ARN: Un estudio de acoplamiento molecular]

Suhaina Supian*, Muhamad Aizuddin Ahmad, Lina Rozano, Machap Chandradevan, Zuraida Ab Rahman

Biotechnology and Nanotechnology Research Centre, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia.

*E-mail: suhaina@mardi.gov.my


Context: The outbreak of a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 has caused an unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic. To put an end to this pandemic, effective antivirals should be identified or developed for COVID-19 treatment. However, specific and effective antivirals or inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 are still lacking.

Aims: To evaluate bioactive compounds from Phyllanthus tenellus and Kaempferia parviflora as inhibitorsagainst two essential SARS-CoV-2 proteins, main protease (Mpro) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), through molecular docking studies and to predict the drug-likeness properties of the compounds.

Methods: The inhibition potential and interaction of P. tenellus and K. parviflora compounds against Mpro and RdRp were assessed through molecular docking. The drug-likeness properties of the compounds were predicted using SwissADME and AdmetSAR tools.

Results: Rutin and ellagic acid glucoside from P. tenellus and 4-hydroxy-6-methoxyflavone and 5-hydroxy-3,7,4’-trimethoxyflavone from K. parviflora exhibited the highest binding conformations to Mpro by interacting with its substrate binding site that was predicted to halt the Mpro activity. As for RdRp, ellagitannin and rutin from P. tenellus and peonidin and 5,3’-dihydroxy-3,7,4’-trimethoxyflavone from K. parviflora were the best-docked compounds that bound to the RdRp catalytic domain (Asp760 and Asp761) and NTP-entry channel that were anticipated to stop RNA polymerization. However, in the context of drug developability, 4-hydroxy-6-methoxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-3,7,4’-trimethoxyflavone, peonidin and 5,3’-dihydroxy-3,7,4’-trimethoxyflavone from K. parviflora were highly potential to be oral active drugs compared to rutin, ellagic acid glucoside and ellagitannin from P. tenellus.

Conclusions: P. tenellus and K. parviflora compounds, particularly the aforementioned compounds, were suggested as potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and RdRp.

Keywords: antiviral; compounds; COVID-19; in silico; Kaempferia parviflora; Phyllanthus tenellus.



Contexto: El brote de un nuevo coronavirus, el SARS-CoV-2, ha provocado una pandemia de COVID-19 sin precedentes. Para poner fin a esta pandemia, es necesario identificar o desarrollar antivirales eficaces para el tratamiento del COVID-19. Sin embargo, aún se carece de antivirales o inhibidores específicos y eficaces contra el SARS-CoV-2.

Objetivos: Evaluar compuestos bioactivos de Phyllanthus tenellus y Kaempferia parviflora como inhibidores contra dos proteínas esenciales del SARS-CoV-2, la proteasa principal (Mpro) y la ARN polimerasa dependiente del ARN (RdRp), mediante estudios de acoplamiento molecular y predecir las propiedades de similitud con los fármacos de los compuestos.

Métodos: El potencial de inhibición y la interacción de los compuestos de P. tenellus y K. parviflora contra la Mpro y la RdRp fueron evaluados mediante docking molecular. Las propiedades de semejanza de los compuestos se predijeron mediante las herramientas SwissADME y AdmetSAR.

Resultados: La rutina y el glucósido del ácido elágico de P. tenellus y la 4-hidroxi-6-metoxiflavona y la 5-hidroxi-3,7,4′-trimetoxiflavona de K. parviflora mostraron las conformaciones de unión más altas a Mpro al interactuar con su sitio de unión al sustrato que se predijo para detener la actividad de Mpro. En cuanto a la RdRp, la elagitanina y la rutina de P. tenellus y la peonidina y la 5,3′-dihidroxi-3,7,4′-trimetoxiflavona de K. parviflora fueron los compuestos mejor acoplados que se unieron al dominio catalítico de la RdRp (Asp760 y Asp761) y al canal de entrada NTP que se anticipó que detendría la polimerización del ARN. Sin embargo, en el contexto del desarrollo de fármacos, la 4-hidroxi-6-metoxiflavona, la 5-hidroxi-3,7,4′-trimetoxiflavona, la peonidina y la 5,3′-dihidroxi-3,7,4′-trimetoxiflavona de K. parviflora tendrían un gran potencial para ser fármacos activos por vía oral en comparación con la rutina, el glucósido de ácido elágico y la elagitanina de P. tenellus.

Conclusiones: Los compuestos de P. tenellus y K. parviflora, en particular los mencionados, fueron sugeridos como potenciales inhibidores de Mpro y RdRp del SARS-CoV-2.

Palabras Clave: antiviral; compuestos; COVID-19; in silico; Kaempferia parviflora; Phyllanthus tenellus.

Citation Format: Supian S, Ahmad MA, Rozano L, Chandradevan M, Ab Rahman Z (2022) Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb. and Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex Baker compounds as inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 main protease and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase: A molecular docking study. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(6): 1103–1116. https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres22.1485_10.6.1103

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© 2022 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Drug utilization in patients with SARS-CoV-2

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 977-985, November-December 2022.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres22.1460_10.6.977

Original Article

Drug utilization in patients with SARS-CoV-2 in an intensive care unit

[Utilización de medicamentos en pacientes con SARS-CoV-2 en una unidad de cuidados intensivos]

Miguel Sevilla Méndez1, Ana M. Téllez López2, Giovanni Gómez Barragán3, Ivette Reyes Hernández2, Claudia Velázquez González2, Isis B. Bermúdez Camps2*

1Departamento de Servicios Farmacéuticos y la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Adulto, Hospital H+ Querétaro, Querétaro, Querétaro, México.

2Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Instituto de Ciencias de la Salud, Departamento de Farmacia, Pachuca de Soto, Hidalgo, México.

3Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, Ciudad de México, México.

*E-mail: isis_bermudes@uaeh.edu.mx


Context: Prescription indication studies allow identifying the problems that arise during the use of the drug.

Aims: To evaluate the treatments used in patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalized in critical care service, through a prescription indication study.

Methods: A longitudinal observational study of medication use of the indication-prescription type with elements of the therapeutic scheme and practical consequences was carried out. The sample was characterized from the sociodemographic, clinical, and pharmacotherapeutic points of view. The prescription was evaluated through the indicators: indication, therapeutic scheme, treatment individualization, and drug combinations. The detected adverse reactions were classified according to their causality by the Naranjo Algorithm, their severity, their clinical significance, and according to their mechanism by Rawlins and Thompson.

Results: In the sample (n = 77), the male gender predominated (79%) between 27-59 years old (64%), alcohol consumer (62%), hypertensive (33%) with long hospital stay (51%). A total of 417 medications were analyzed, being antibiotics (50.6%) the most prescribed. 73.4% of the therapeutic schemes were correct; however, 26.6% had problems with the therapeutic schemes due to incorrect doses, intervals, duration of treatment, and risky interactions. According to Rawlins and Thompson, two probable adverse reactions were detected, mild, non-serious, and type A and B.

Conclusions: The results obtained will allow the pharmaceutical professional to create risk matrices that guarantee a timely intervention in the health team to contribute to the rational and safe use of medicines in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2.

Keywords: COVID-19; drug utilization study; indication-prescription; intensive care unit; pharmacoepidemiology; pharmacological treatment.



Contexto: Los estudios de indicación prescripción permiten identificar los problemas que se presentan durante el uso del medicamento.

Objetivos: Evaluar los tratamientos utilizados en pacientes con diagnóstico de infección por SARS-CoV-2 hospitalizados en el servicio de cuidados críticos, a través de un estudio de indicación de prescripción.

Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional longitudinal del uso de medicamentos, del tipo indicación-prescripción con elementos del esquema terapéutico y consecuencias prácticas. La muestra se caracterizó desde el punto de vista sociodemográfico, clínico y farmacoterapéutico. La prescripción se evaluó a través de los indicadores: indicación, esquema terapéutico, individualización del tratamiento y combinaciones de fármacos. Las reacciones adversas detectadas se clasificaron según su causalidad por el Algoritmo de Naranjo, su gravedad, su significado clínico y según su mecanismo por Rawlins y Thompson.

Resultados: En la muestra (n = 77), predominó el género masculino (79%) entre 27-59 años (64%), consumidor de alcohol (62%), hipertenso (33%) con larga estancia hospitalaria (51%). Se analizaron 417 medicamentos, siendo los antibióticos (50,6%) los más prescritos. El 73,4% de los esquemas terapéuticos fueron correctos, sin embargo, el 26,6% tuvo problemas con los esquemas terapéuticos debido al uso de dosis, intervalos y duración del tratamiento incorrectos, así como interacciones de riesgo. Se detectaron dos probables reacciones adversas, leves, no graves y tipo A y B según Rawlins y Thompson.

Conclusiones: Los resultados obtenidos permitirán al profesional farmacéutico crear matrices de riesgo que garanticen una intervención oportuna en el equipo de salud para contribuir al uso racional y seguro de medicamentos en pacientes infectados por SARS-CoV-2.

Palabras Clave: COVID-19; estudio de utilización de fármacos; farmacoepidemiología; indicación-prescripción; tratamiento farmacológico; unidad de cuidados intensivos.


Citation Format: Sevilla MM, Téllez AL, Gómez GB, Reyes IH, Velázques CG, Bermudez IC (2022) Drug utilization in patients with SARS-CoV-2 in an intensive care unit. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(6): 977–985. https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres22.1460_10.6.977

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© 2022 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Multi-epitope spike glycoprotein vaccine for SARS-CoV-2

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 445-458, May-June 2022.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres21.1210_10.3.445

Original Article

Development of a multi-epitope spike glycoprotein vaccine to combat SARS-CoV-2 using the bioinformatics approach

[Desarrollo de una vacuna de glicoproteína spike multiepítopo para combatir el SARS-CoV-2 utilizando el enfoque bioinformático]

Aamir Shehzad1, Christijogo Sumartono2, Jusak Nugraha3, Helen Susilowati4, Andi Yasmin Wijaya4, Hafiz Ishfaq Ahmad5, Muhammad Kashif6, Wiwiek Tyasningsih7, Fedik Abdul Rantam1,4*

1Virology and Immunology Laboratory, Division of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Airlangga University, Surabaya, East Java, 60115, Indonesia.

2Anasthesiology and Reanimation Department, Dr. Soetomo Gerneral Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.

3Clinical Pathology Department, Dr. Soetomo Gerneral Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.

4Research Center for Vaccine Technology and Development, Institute of Tropical Disease, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.

5Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Ravi Campus, Pattoki, Punjab, Pakistan.

6Department of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Technology, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.

7Bacteriology and Mycology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, 60132, Indonesia.

*E-mail: fedik-a-r@fkh.unair.ac.id


Context: The current COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted health and socio-economic status worldwide. The only way to combat this situation is to develop an effective vaccine and immunize people around the globe.

Aims: To construct a multi-epitope spike glycoprotein-based vaccine from the SARS-CoV-2 Surabaya isolate using a bioinformatics approach.

Methods: The spike protein was submitted to IEDB, VaxiJen, AllerTOP, and ToxinPred webservers to predict antigenic, non-allergic, non-toxic, B- and T-cell epitopes. To develop a multi-epitope vaccine, an adjuvant cholera toxin B subunit was linked to B-cell and B-cell with T-cell through EAAAK and GPGPG linkers, respectively. The designed vaccine 3D structure development, refinement, and validation were done through PHYRE2, Galaxy Refine, and RAMPAGE webservers. Moreover, the Cluspro-2.0 webserver was used for the molecular docking of the vaccine designed with TLR3. The vaccine+TLR3 complex was docked with Surfactant protein A as a control to validate the docking results. Finally, immune-simulation and in silico cloning of the vaccine were carried out by C-ImmSim webserver and SnapGene software, respectively.

Results: A multi-epitopic vaccine containing B and T-cell was developed using 392 amino acids with a molecular weight of 40825.59 Da. The docking and immunogenicity results of the vaccine met all established parameters for constructing a quality vaccine. Furthermore, the optimized sequence of the vaccine was successfully cloned in expression vector pET 28 a (+) that yielded a colon of 2724 bp.

Conclusions: The vaccine’s immunogenicity demonstrates its effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further confirmatory testing may therefore be performed as soon as possible in the public interest.

Keywords: in silico; public health; SARS-CoV-2; spike protein; TLR3-receptor.


Contexto: La actual pandemia de COVID-19 ha afectado significativamente la salud y el estado socioeconómico en todo el mundo. La única forma de combatir esta situación es desarrollar una vacuna eficaz e inmunizar a las personas en todo el mundo.

Objetivos: Construir una vacuna basada en glicoproteína de pico de múltiples epítopos a partir del aislado SARS-CoV-2 Surabaya utilizando un enfoque bioinformático.

Métodos: La proteína de pico se envió a los servidores web IEDB, VaxiJen, AllerTOP y ToxinPred para predecir epítopos antigénicos, no alérgicos, no tóxicos, de células B y T. Para desarrollar una vacuna multiepítopo, se unió una subunidad B de la toxina del cólera adyuvante a la célula B y una célula B a una célula T a través de conectores EAAAK y GPGPG, respectivamente. El desarrollo, el refinamiento y la validación de la estructura 3D de la vacuna diseñada se realizaron a través de los servidores web PHYRE2, Galaxy Refine y RAMPAGE. Además, se utilizó el servidor web Cluspro-2.0 para el acoplamiento molecular de la vacuna diseñada con TLR3. El complejo vacuna + TLR3 se acopló con la proteína A del tensioactivo como control para validar los resultados del acoplamiento. Finalmente, la inmunosimulación y la clonación in silico de la vacuna se llevaron a cabo mediante el servidor web C-ImmSim y el software SnapGene, respectivamente.

Resultados: Se desarrolló una vacuna multiepitópica que contenía células B y T utilizando 392 aminoácidos con un peso molecular de 40825,59 Da. Los resultados de acoplamiento e inmunogenicidad de la vacuna cumplieron con todos los parámetros establecidos para construir una vacuna de calidad. Además, la secuencia optimizada de la vacuna se clonó con éxito en el vector de expresión pET 28 a (+) que produjo un colon de 2724 pb.

Conclusiones: La inmunogenicidad de la vacuna demuestra su eficacia contra la infección por SARS-CoV-2. Por lo tanto, se pueden realizar más pruebas de confirmación lo antes posible en interés público.

Palabras Clave: in silico; proteína de punta; receptor TLR3; salud pública; SARS-CoV-2.

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Citation Format: Shehzad A, Sumartono C, Nugraha J, Susilowati H, Wijaya AY, Ahmad HI, Kashif M, Tyasningsih W, Rantam FA (2022) Development of a multi-epitope spike glycoprotein vaccine to combat SARS-CoV-2 using the bioinformatics approach. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(3): 445–458.https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres21.1210_10.3.445

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© 2022 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

B-cell epitopes for the development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 429-444, May-June 2022.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres21.1262_10.3.429

Original Article

Molecular characterization and prediction of B-cell epitopes for the development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine through bioinformatics approach

[Caracterización molecular y predicción de epítopos de células B para el desarrollo de una vacuna contra el SARS-CoV-2 mediante un enfoque bioinformático]

Aamir Shehzad1, Martia Rani Tacharina1, Suryo Kuncorojakti2 , Hafiz Ishfaq Ahmad3, Rofiqul A’la1, Andi Yasmin Wijaya4, Wiwiek Tyasningsih5, Fedik Abdul Rantam1,4*

1Virology and Immunology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Airlangga University, Surabaya, East Java, 60115, Indonesia.

2Division of Veterinary Anatomy, Department of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Airlangga University, Surabaya, East Java, 60115, Indonesia.

3Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.

4Research Center for Vaccine Technology and Development, Institute of Tropical Disease, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, East Java, 60115 Indonesia.

5Bacteriology and Mycology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Airlangga University, Surabaya, East Java, 60132, Indonesia.

*E-mail: fedik-a-r@fkh.unair.ac.id


Context: The SARS-CoV-2 virus is the cause of the COVID-19 pandemic, which is a severe public health crisis worldwide.Aims: To analyze the SARS-CoV-2 isolates of Surabaya and predict ORF1ab polyprotein epitopes through the bioinformatics approach for vaccine candidate development.

Methods: Three genomic sequences of Surabaya isolates were obtained from the GISAID, NCBI and PDB Gen-bank databases and MEGA-11 software were used to understand the transformations in the isolates. The IEDB and VaxiJen, AllerTop, and ToxinPred web servers were used to predict B-cell epitopes and analyze their antigenicity, non-allergenicity, non-toxicity, respectively. Moreover, these epitopes were linked by EAAAK for 3D modeling, refinement, and validation through Swiss-Model, Galaxy Refine, and RAMPAGE web tools.

Results: The Surabaya isolates, RSDS-RCVTD-UNAIR-49-A, 54-A, and 42-A, had 10, 20, and 16 mutations in nucleotides and depicted a phylogenetically close relationship to isolates of Egypt, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, respectively. A total of 71 sequential Orf1ab B-cell epitopes were predicted, and only three peptides were found to be antigenic,  non-allergenic, and non-toxic. These epitopes were linked with the EAAAK linker to develop a 3D refined and validated structure. This construct was docked with TLR-3 receptor by the Cluspro webserver and found a high affinity of ORF1ab+TLR3 due to 15 hydrogen bonds. The construct demonstrated good humoral and cellular immune responses in the C-ImmSim server, and cloning in the expression vector pET28a (+) yielded a colon of 846bp.

Conclusions: ORF1ab B-cell epitopes could be useful for developing effective vaccines to combat SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Keywords: bioinformatics; epitopes; ORF1ab polyproteins; public health; Indonesia; SARS-CoV-2.


Contexto: El virus SARS-CoV-2 es la causa de la pandemia de COVID-19, que es una grave crisis de salud pública a nivel mundial.Objetivos: Analizar los aislamientos de SARS-CoV-2 de Surabaya y predecir los epítopos de poliproteína ORF1ab mediante el enfoque bioinformático para el desarrollo de candidatos vacunales.

Métodos: Se obtuvieron tres secuencias genómicas de aislamientos de Surabaya de las bases de datos GISAID, NCBI and PDB  Gen-bank y el software MEGA-11 para comprender las transformaciones en los aislamientos. Se utilizaron los servidores web IEDB y VaxiJen, AllerTop y ToxinPred para predecir epítopos de células B y analizar su antigenicidad, no alergenicidad y no toxicidad, respectivamente. Además, EAAAK vinculó estos epítopos para el modelado, el refinamiento y la validación en 3D a través de las herramientas web Swiss-Model, Galaxy Refine y RAMPAGE.

Resultados: Los aislamientos de Surabaya, RSDS-RCVTD-UNAIR-49-A, 54-A y 42-A, tenían 10, 20 y 16 mutaciones en nucleótidos y mostraban una relación filogenéticamente cercana con los aislamientos de Egipto, Pakistán y Bangladesh, respectivamente. Se predijeron un total de 71 epítopos de células B Orf1ab secuenciales, y solo tres péptidos resultaron ser antigénicos, no alergénicos y no tóxicos. Estos epítopos se vincularon con el enlazador EAAAK para desarrollar una estructura 3D refinada y validada. Esta construcción fue acoplada con el receptor TLR-3 por el servidor web Cluspro y encontró una alta afinidad de ORF1ab+TLR3 debido a 15 enlaces de hidrógeno. La construcción demostró buenas respuestas inmunitarias celulares y humorales en el servidor C-ImmSim, y la clonación en el vector de expresión pET28a (+) produjo un colon de 846 pb.

Conclusiones: Los epítopos de células B ORF1ab podrían ser útiles para desarrollar vacunas efectivas para combatir la infección por SARS-CoV-2.

Palabras Clave: bioinformática; epítopos; poliproteínas ORF1ab; Indonesia; salud pública; SARS-CoV-2.

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Citation Format: Shehzad A, Kuncorojakti S, Tacharina MR, Ahmad HI, A'la R, Wijaya AY, Tyasningsih W, Rantam FA (2022) Molecular characterization and prediction of B-cell epitopes for the development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine through bioinformatics approach. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(3): 429–444. https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres21.1262_10.3.429

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© 2022 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Roselle flower for immunomodulatory adjuvant therapy in COVID-19

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 418-428, May-June 2022

DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres21.1316_10.3.418

Original Article

Anthocyanin, tartaric acid, ascorbic acid of roselle flower (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) for immunomodulatory adjuvant therapy in oral manifestation coronavirus disease-19: An immunoinformatic approach

[Antocianina, ácido tartárico, ácido ascórbico de flor de Jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) para la terapia adyuvante inmunomoduladora en la manifestación oral de la enfermedad por coronavirus-19: Un enfoque inmunoinformático]

Nastiti Faradilla Ramadhani1, Alexander Patera Nugraha1,2*, Desintya Rahmadhani3, Martining Shoffa Puspitaningrum3, Yuniar Rizqianti3, Viol Dhea Kharisma4, Tengku Natasha Eleena binti Tengku Ahmad Noor5, Rini Devijanti Ridwan6, Diah Savitri Ernawati7, Albertus Putera Nugraha8

1Graduate Student of Dental Health Science, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.

2Department of Orthodontic, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.

3Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.

4Graduate Student of Biology Science, Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia

5Military Dental Officer of Royal Medical and Dental Corps, Malaysian Armed Forces, Indonesia.

6Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.

7Department of Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.

8Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.

*E-mail: alexander.patera.nugraha@fkg.unair.ac.id


Context: Oral manifestations that arose from COVID-19 infection often causes morbidity and systemic drug administration is less effective. Roselle flower (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is one of the plants that is often used in infusion as it gives health benefits. Hence, H. sabdariffa may benefit from adjuvant therapy to treat oral manifestation due to COVID-19.

Aims: To investigate the potential of H. sabdariffa anthocyanins, tartaric acid, and ascorbic acid chemical compounds as antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and increasing tissue regeneration in oral manifestation due to COVID-19 infection in silico.

Methods: Chemical compounds consisted of anthocyanins, (+)-tartaric acid, and ascorbic acid beside target proteins consisted of ACE2-spike, Foxp3, IL-10, IL6, IL1β, VEGF, FGF-2, HSP70, TNFR and MDA-ovalbumin were obtained from the database, ligand samples were selected through absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicology analysis, then molecular docking simulations, identification of protein-ligand interactions, and 3D visualization were performed.

Results: Anthocyanins, tartaric acid, and ascorbic acid are the active compounds in H. sabdariffa, which act as antioxidants. The activity of anthocyanin compounds is higher than other compounds through value binding affinity, which is more negative and binds to specific domains of target proteins by forming weak binding interactions that play a role in biological responses. Anthocyanins have the most negative binding energy compared to tartaric-acid and ascorbic acid.

Conclusions: Anthocyanins act as antioxidants; this mechanism increases heat shock protein-70 (HSP70), which may play an important role in increasing wound regeneration of oral manifestation in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as documented in silico.

Keywords: COVID-19; dentistry; Hibiscus sabdariffa; infectious disease; medicine.


Contexto: Las manifestaciones orales derivadas de la infección por COVID-19 suelen causar morbilidad y la administración sistémica de fármacos es menos efectiva. La flor de Jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa) es una de las plantas que se suele utilizar en infusión ya que aporta beneficios para la salud. Por lo tanto, H. sabdariffa puede beneficiarse de la terapia adyuvante para tratar las manifestaciones orales debido a COVID-19.

Objetivos: Investigar el potencial de los compuestos químicos de H. sabdariffa, como antocianinas, ácido tartárico y ácido ascórbico como antivirales, antiinflamatorios, antioxidantes y el aumento de la regeneración de tejidos en la manifestación oral debido a la infección por COVID-19 a través de un enfoque inmunoinformático, un estudio in silico.

Métodos: Antocianinas, ácido tartárico y ácido ascórbico, además de proteínas diana como ACE2-spike, Foxp3, IL-10, IL6, IL1β, VEGF, FGF-2, HSP70, TNFR y MDA-ovoalbúmina, se obtuvieron de la base de datos, las muestras de ligando se seleccionaron mediante análisis de absorción, distribución, metabolismo, excreción y toxicología, luego se realizaron simulaciones de acoplamiento molecular, identificación de interacciones proteína-ligando y visualización 3D.

Resultados: Las antocianinas, el ácido tartárico y el ácido ascórbico son los compuestos activos de H. sabdariffa que actúan como antioxidantes. La actividad de los compuestos de antocianina es mayor que la de otros compuestos a través de una afinidad de unión de valor que es más negativa y se une a dominios específicos de proteínas diana formando interacciones de unión débiles que desempeñan un papel en las respuestas biológicas. Las antocianinas tienen la energía de unión más negativa en comparación con el ácido tartárico y el ácido ascórbico.

Conclusiones: Las antocianinas actúan como antioxidantes; este mecanismo aumenta la proteína de choque térmico-70 (HSP70), que puede desempeñar un papel importante en el aumento de la regeneración de heridas de la manifestación oral en el síndrome respiratorio agudo severo coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) como se documenta in silico.

Palabras Clave: COVID-19; enfermedad infecciosa; Hibiscus sabdariffa; medicamento; odontología.

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Citation Format: Ramadhani NF, Nugraha AP, Rahmadani D, Puspitaningrum MS, Rizqianti Y, Kharisma VD, Noor TNEBTA, Ridwan RD, Ernawati DS, Nugraha AP (2022) Anthocyanin, tartaric acid, ascorbic acid of roselle flower (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) for immunomodulatory adjuvant therapy in oral manifestation coronavirus disease-19: An immunoinformatic approach. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(3): 418–428. https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres21.1316_10.3.418

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© 2022 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Phytotherapy against COVID-19 and risks of intoxication

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 357-386, May-June 2022.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres21.1257_10.3.357

Original Article

Phytotherapy in response to COVID-19 and risks of intoxication: A field study in the city of Meknes (Morocco)

[Fitoterapia en respuesta al COVID-19 y riesgos de intoxicación: un estudio de campo en la ciudad de Meknes (Marruecos)]

Mariame Najem*, Jamal Ibijbijen, Laila Nassiri

Environment and Valorisation of Microbial and Plant Resources Unit, Faculty of Sciences, Moulay Ismail University of Meknes, P.O.B: 11201 Meknes, Morocco.

*E-mail: ma.najem@edu.umi.ac.ma, mariamenajem@gmail.com


Context: The contagious global pandemic of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) has prompted many Moroccans to turn to traditional phytoremedies.

Aims: To highlight the ethnopharmacological information and the risks of intoxication related to the use of herbal medicine to combat COVID-19.

Methods: Through a semi-structured questionnaire and using the “Free listing” technique, an ethnobotanical survey was conducted among 36 herbalists of the Meknes prefecture to collect ethnopharmacological data on species used in the fight against COVID-19. Then, many databases were used to document their pharmacological and toxicological activities.

Results: A total of 36 species in 22 families were reported to be used to prepare traditional recipes against COVID-19. According to the relative frequency index of citation, the species Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry, Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck, and Zingiber officinale Roscoe. were recommended by all respondents and recorded the highest usage values. Based on the value of the plant parts index, leaves were the most used part (PPV = 0.37). Most of the remedies were prepared as infusions and administered orally. The bibliographic research revealed that the plants used have several biological activities and are frequently used to treat respiratory diseases. However, some of them have been reported to be toxic.

Conclusions: Recommended species are endowed with innumerable biological activities. They can be a promising alternative to combat COVID-19. However, their toxic effects require pharmacotoxicological studies to ensure the safety and efficacy of these natural remedies.

Keywords: COVID-19; ethnobotany; herbalism; Morocco; Meknes; phytotherapy; toxicity.


Contexto: La contagiosa pandemia mundial del coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) ha llevado a muchos marroquíes a recurrir a los fitorremedios tradicionales.

Objetivos: Resaltar la información etnofarmacológica y los riesgos de intoxicación relacionados con el uso de fitoterápicos para combatir el COVID-19.

Métodos: A través de un cuestionario semiestructurado y utilizando la técnica de “Listado Libre”, se realizó un relevamiento etnobotánico entre 36 herbolarios de la prefectura de Meknes para recolectar datos etnofarmacológicos sobre especies utilizadas en la lucha contra COVID-19. Luego, se utilizaron muchas bases de datos para documentar sus actividades farmacológicas y toxicológicas.

Resultados: Se informó que un total de 36 especies en 22 familias se utilizaron en la preparación de recetas tradicionales contra COVID-19. Según el índice de frecuencia relativa de citación, las especies Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry, Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck y Zingiber officinale Roscoe. son recomendados por todos los encuestados y registró los valores de uso más altos. Sobre la base del índice del valor de las partes de la planta, las hojas son la parte más utilizada (VPP = 0,37). La mayoría de los remedios se prepararon como infusiones y se administraron por vía oral. La investigación bibliográfica reveló que las plantas utilizadas tienen varias actividades biológicas y se utilizan con frecuencia en el tratamiento de enfermedades respiratorias. Sin embargo, se ha informado que algunos de ellos son tóxicos.

Conclusiones: Las especies recomendadas están dotadas de innumerables actividades biológicas, pueden ser una alternativa prometedora para combatir el COVID-19. Sin embargo, sus efectos tóxicos requieren estudios farmacotoxicológicos para garantizar la seguridad y eficacia de estos remedios naturales.

Palabras Clave: COVID-19; etnobotánica; fitoterapia; herboristería; Marruecos; Meknes; toxicidad.

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Citation Format: Najem M, Ibijbijen J, Nassiri L (2022) Phytotherapy in response to COVID-19 and risks of intoxication: A field study in the city of Meknes (Morocco). J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(3): 357–386. https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres21.1257_10.3.357

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© 2022 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Moroccan medicinal plants against COVID-19

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(2): 227-238, 2022.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres21.1200_10.2.227

Original Article

Molecular docking study of the main phytochemicals of some medicinal plants used against COVID-19 by the rural population of Al-Haouz region, Morocco

[Estudio de acoplamiento molecular de los principales fitoquímicos de algunas plantas medicinales utilizadas contra el COVID-19 por la población rural de la región de Al-Haouz, Marruecos]

Ridwane Ghanimi1*, Ahmed Ouhammou2, Yassine El Atki3, Mohamed Cherkaoui1

1Laboratory of Pharmacology, Neurobiology, Anthropobiology, Environment and Behaviour, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech, BP 2390, 40000, Morocco.

2Laboratory of Microbial Biotechnologies, Agrosciences and Environment (BioMAgE), Agrosciences, Phytobiodiversity and Environment Team, Regional Herbarium ‘MARK’, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences Semlalia , Cadi Ayyad University, PO. Box 2390, Marrakech, 400001, Morocco.

3Laboratory of Physiology Pharmacology and Environmental Health, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences Dhar Mehraz,Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Fez, Morocco.

*E-mail: ghanimiridwane@gmail.com, ridwane.ghanimi@ced.uca.ma


Context: The infection by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global health emergency. The management of this crisis requires the discovery of new drugs able to cure or reduce the severity of SARS-CoV-2.

Aims: To explore the medicinal plants consumed by the rural population of Al-Haouz region against the emergence of the COVID-19, and to assess in silico the main phytochemicals present in the essential oils and the extracts of these medicinal plants, as potential inhibitors of the COVID-19 main protease (Mpro).

Methods: The survey was conducted through a semi-structured questionnaire among 85 respondents aged 30 years and above, in the Al-Haouz region, Morocco. AutoDock Vina, was used to assess the binding affinity of the phytochemicals to the Mpro.

Results: Eleven wild medicinal species were cited; 10 belonging to the Lamiaceae family and one to the Compositae family. Thymus saturejoides Coss., Artemisia herba-alba Asso.and Mentha suaveolens Ehrh. were respectively the three most cited species during the survey. The rosmarinic acid (-7.7 kcal/mol), hesperetin (-7.2 kcal/mol), gallocatechin (-7.2 kcal/mol) and cyasterone (-7.2 kcal/mol) have shown the higher inhibitory potential against covid-19 Mpro respectively.

Conclusions: In addition to their different recognized biological activities, the medicinal plants used in the Al-Haouz region have shown good inhibitory potential against SARAS-CoV-2 Mpro. Furthermore, the phytochemicals that exhibited the highest inhibitory potentials in this virtual study require further investigation in vitro and in vivo.

Keywords: COVID-19; ethnomedicine; medicinal plants; molecular docking; Morocco; SARS-CoV-2.


Contexto: La infección por el coronavirus 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo (SARS-CoV-2) es una emergencia sanitaria mundial. El manejo de esta crisis requiere el descubrimiento de nuevos medicamentos capaces de curar o reducir la gravedad del SARS-CoV-2.

Objetivos: Explorar las plantas medicinales consumidas por la población rural de la región de Al-Haouz frente a la aparición del COVID-19, y evaluar in silico los principales fitoquímicos presentes en los aceites esenciales y los extractos de estas plantas medicinales, como potenciales inhibidores. de la proteasa principal COVID-19 (Mpro).

Métodos: La encuesta se realizó a través de un cuestionario semiestructurado entre 85 encuestados de 30 años o más, en la región de Al-haouz, Marruecos. Se utilizó AutoDock Vina para evaluar la afinidad de unión de los fitoquímicos al Mpro.

Resultados: Se citaron once especies medicinales silvestres; 10 pertenecientes a la familia Lamiaceae y una a la familia Compositae. Thymus saturejoides Coss., Artemisia herba-alba Asso. y Mentha suaveolens Ehrh. fueron, respectivamente, las tres especies más citadas durante la encuesta. El ácido rosmarínico (-7,7 kcal/mol), la hesperetina (-7,2 kcal/mol), la galocatequina (-7,2 kcal/mol) y la ciasterona (-7,2 kcal/mol) han mostrado el mayor potencial inhibitorio frente al covid-19 Mpro, respectivamente.

Conclusiones: Además de sus diferentes actividades biológicas reconocidas, las plantas medicinales utilizadas en la región de Al-Haouz han mostrado un buen potencial inhibitorio contra SARAS-CoV-2 Mpro. Además, los fitoquímicos que exhibieron los potenciales inhibidores más altos en este estudio virtual requieren más investigación in vitro e in vivo.

Palabras Clave: acoplamiento molecular; COVID-19; etnomedicina; Marruecos; plantas medicinales; SARS-CoV-2.

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Citation Format: Ghanimi R, Ouhammou A, El Atki Y, Cherkaoui M (2022) Molecular docking study of the main phytochemicals of some medicinal plants used against COVID-19 by the rural population of Al-Haouz region, Morocco. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(2): 227–238. https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres21.1200_10.2.227

© 2022 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)