Tag Archives: diabetes

In silico anti-diabetic study of T. diversifolia

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 571-594, July-August 2022.

Original Article

In silico ADME-T and molecular docking study of phytoconstituents from Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray on various targets of diabetic nephropathy

[ADME-T in silico y estudio de acoplamiento molecular de fitoconstituyentes de Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray en varias dianas de nefropatía diabética]

Oktavia Rahayu Adianingsih*, Uswatun Khasanah, Kevin Diagonsa Anandhy, Valentina Yurina

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, 65145, Indonesia.

*E-mail: oktavia.rahayu@ub.ac.id


Context: Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Grayhas been known for treatment of diabetes mellitus, yet its mechanism as anti-diabetic has not been defined. There are various therapeutic targets for diabetes and its complication such as diabetic nephropathy.

Aims: To investigate the mechanism of phytoconstituents in Tithonia diversifolia to various targets of diabetic nephropathy and predict the pharmacokinetic profile such as absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicity (ADME-T).

Methods: Eighteen phytoconstituents in Tithonia diversifolia were analyzed for drug-likeness. The molecular docking of molecules was performed to protein targets, then its molecular interaction was determined. ADME-T properties were predicted using three different web servers.

Results: Drug-likeness analysis showed that all the phytoconstituents were within the range set by Lipinski’s rule of five. This study showed that Tithonia diversifolia have potential as a candidate for diabetic nephropathy therapy agent with various mechanisms by inhibiting α-glucosidase, ACE, ALR, DPP-4, LMW-PTP, RAGE, SGLT2, SUR1, and an analog of PPAR-γ. 5-Caffeoylquinic acid, catechin, diversifolin, hispidulin, tagitinin A, tagitinin C, tagitinin F, tithonine, and tirotundin were phytoconstituents with a high binding affinity to several proteins. β-gurjunene, tagitinin A,tagitinin C, tagitinin F, and tirotundin were predicted to have a better ADME-T properties than other compounds. In summary, tagitinin A, tagitinin C, tagitinin F, and tirotundin were showed the high binding affinity to various diabetes-related proteins and have a good ADME-T profile.

Conclusions: This study suggests that Tithonia diversifolia constituents have potential properties as an anti-diabetic nephropathy agent, and further studies to analyze its potency are required.

Keywords: diabetes; insulin leaf; nephropathy; Tithonia diversifolia.

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Contexto: Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray ha sido conocida para el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus, pero su mecanismo como antidiabético no ha sido definido. Existen varios objetivos terapéuticos para la diabetes y sus complicaciones, como la nefropatía diabética.

Objetivos: Investigar el mecanismo de los fitoconstituyentes en Tithonia diversifolia para varias dianas de la nefropatía diabética y predecir el perfil farmacocinético como la absorción, distribución, metabolismo, eliminación y toxicidad (ADME-T).

Métodos: Se analizaron 18 fitoconstituyentes en Tithonia diversifolia para determinar su similitud con las drogas. Se realizó el acoplamiento molecular de moléculas a dianas proteicas, luego se determinó su interacción molecular. Las propiedades de ADME-T se predijeron utilizando tres servidores web diferentes.

Resultados: El análisis de semejanza con las drogas mostró que todos los fitoconstituyentes estaban dentro del rango establecido por la regla de cinco de Lipinski. Este estudio mostró que Tithonia diversifolia tiene potencial como candidato para el tratamiento de la nefropatía diabética con varios mecanismos mediante la inhibición de la α-glucosidasa, ACE, ALR, DPP-4, LMW-PTP, RAGE, SGLT2, SUR1 y un análogo de PPAR-γ. Ácido 5-cafeoilquínico, catequina,  diversifolina, hispidulina, tagitinina A, tagitinina C, tagitinina F, titonina y tirotundina fueron fitoconstituyentes con una alta afinidad de unión a varias proteínas. Se predijo que β-gurjunene, tagitinina A, tagitinina C, tagitinina F y tirotundina tenían mejores propiedades ADME-T que otros compuestos. En resumen, tagitinina A, tagitinina C, tagitinina F y tirotundina mostraron una alta afinidad de unión a varias proteínas relacionadas con la diabetes y tienen un buen perfil ADME-T.

Conclusiones: Este estudio sugiere que los componentes de Tithonia diversifolia tienen propiedades potenciales como agente anti-nefropatía diabética, y se requieren más estudios para analizar su potencia.

Palabras Clave: diabetes; hoja de insulina; nefropatía; Tithonia diversifolia.

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Citation Format: Adianingsih OR, Khasanah U, Anandhy KD, Yurina V (2022) In silico ADME-T and molecular docking study of phytoconstituents from Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray on various targets of diabetic nephropathy. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(4): 571–594.

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© 2022 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Insulin use in treatment for diabetes inpatients

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(1): 84-93, 2022.

Original Article

The use of insulin in treatment for inpatients with diabetes in Can Tho, Vietnam 2017 to 2020

[El uso de insulina en el tratamiento de pacientes hospitalizados con diabetes en Can Tho, Vietnam, 2017 a 2020]

Duyen Thi My Huynh1*, Duyen Quang Loc Vo1, Van De Tran2*

1Pharmaceutical Industry-Pharmaceutics, Can Tho University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 179 Nguyen Van Cu, Can Tho, Vietnam.

2Department of Drug Administration, Can Tho University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 179 Nguyen Van Cu, Can Tho, Vietnam.

*E-mail: tvde@ctump.edu.vn


Context: Diabetes is a dangerous chronic disease with a rapidly increasing rate of hospitalization and death. Patients with uncontrolled diabetes are prone to dangerous acute and chronic complications.

Aims: To determine the characteristics of insulin use and factors related to blood glucose control in inpatients with diabetes at the Department of General Medicine-Can Tho University of Medicine and Pharmacy Hospital.

Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study on 390 medical records of inpatients with diabetes at the Department of General Medicine-Can Tho University of Medicine and Pharmacy Hospital from 2017 to 2020.

Results: Most hospitalized patients had poor control of HbA1c (52.3%). During the treatment, patients were regularly tested for blood sugar and 3.8% of them had hypoglycemic test patterns. The rate of good control of fasting blood glucose at hospital discharge accounted for the majority with 67.4%. Regarding the insulin use, premixed insulin was used the most with a rate of 77.5% and insulin monotherapy accounted for 73.3%. The mean insulin dose was 23.4 ± 10.6 UI/day. Factors such as HbA1c index, comorbidities, and insulin doses were associated with poor glycemic control of inpatients.

Conclusions: The selection of insulin use in inpatients with diabetes was consistent with global guidelines and actual situations at the hospital. It is necessary to monitor factors such as HbA1c index, comorbidities, and insulin doses because these factors are associated with poor glycemic control of inpatients.

Keywords: associated factors; diabetes; glycemic control; insulin regimen.

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Contexto: La diabetes es una enfermedad crónica peligrosa con una tasa de hospitalización y muerte que aumenta rápidamente. Los pacientes con diabetes no controlada son propensos a complicaciones crónicas y agudas peligrosas.

Objetivos: Determinar las características del uso de insulina y los factores relacionados con el control de la glucemia en pacientes con diabetes ingresados ​​en el Departamento de Medicina General-Hospital Universitario de Medicina y Farmacia de Can Tho.

Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal sobre 390 historias clínicas de pacientes hospitalizados con diabetes en el Departamento de Medicina General-Hospital Universitario de Medicina y Farmacia de Can Tho de 2017 a 2020.

Resultados: La mayoría de los pacientes hospitalizados presentaban un mal control de la HbA1c (52,3%). Durante el tratamiento, los pacientes se sometieron a pruebas periódicas de glucemia y el 3,8% de ellos presentaba patrones de prueba hipoglucémicos. La tasa de buen control de la glucemia en ayunas al alta hospitalaria representó la mayoría con 67,4%. En cuanto al uso de insulina, la insulina premezclada fue la más utilizada con una tasa del 77,5% y la monoterapia con insulina representó el 73,3%. La dosis media de insulina fue de 23,4 ± 10,6 UI/día. Factores como el índice de HbA1c, las comorbilidades y las dosis de insulina se asociaron con un control glucémico deficiente de los pacientes hospitalizados.

Conclusiones: La selección del uso de insulina en pacientes hospitalizados con diabetes fue consistente con las pautas globales y situaciones reales en el hospital. Es necesario monitorear factores como el índice de HbA1c, las comorbilidades y las dosis de insulina porque estos factores están asociados con un control glucémico deficiente de los pacientes hospitalizados.

Palabras Clave: control glicémico; diabetes; factores asociados; régimen de insulina.

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Citation Format: Huynh DTM, Vo DQL, Tran VD (2022) The use of insulin in treatment for inpatients with diabetes in Can Tho, Vietnam 2017 to 2020. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(1): 84–93.

© 2022 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

High Atlas Central of Morocco: diabetes ethnobotanical study

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 9(5): 619-662, 2021.

Original article

Ethnobotanical and toxicology study of medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in the High Atlas Central of Morocco

[Estudio etnobotánico y toxicológico de las plantas medicinales utilizadas para el tratamiento de la diabetes en el Alto Atlas Central de Marruecos]

Souad Belhaj1*, Noureddine Chaachouay2, Lahcen Zidane1

1Plant, Animal Productions and Agro-industry Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Ibn Tofail University, B.P.133 14000, Kenitra, Morocco.

2Nutrition, Health and Environment Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Ibn Tofail University, B.P. 133 14000, Kenitra, Morocco.

*E-mail: souadbelhaj2050@gmail.com


Context: Diabetes mellitus is considered one of the scourges of the third millennium in the world for several years.

Aims: To evaluate, identify and preserve the experiences gained over the centuries. It is about therapeutic use of medicinal plants exploited for the treatment of diabetes, and to clarify its toxicities, in order to sensitize the population of the High Atlas Central (HAC) of Morocco not only on the risk but also the benefit of the use of phytotherapy.

Methods: The surveys ethnopharmacological were conducted 834 the interviewees, using semi-structured survey, by application of quantitative indices such as Consensus index (CI %), Use value (UVi), family UV (FUV), relative frequency of citation (RFC), plant part value (PPV), and informant consensus factor (ICF) to assess the exact value of medicinal plants (MP).

Results: We found that 144 medicinal plants in 121 genera and 52 plant families were traditionally used to treat diabetes, of which seven species were endemic to the study area, and 32 were being cited first ever to treating diabetes. In addition, we collected toxicological information on 99 antidiabetic plants, of which 41 species showed no toxic activity and 43 were toxic and sometimes lethal in high doses. The Ranunculaceae family showed the highest use value (FUV =0.139). Leaves were the most used plant parts (PPV =0.282) and infusion was the dominant method of preparation. The frequently used species were Olea europaea L. (UVi =0.172), Salvia officinalis L. (UVi =0.156) and Euphorbia resinifera Berg (UVi =0.150).

Conclusions: These results are a rich source of information. They contribute to the knowledge of the antidiabetic medicinal flora of our study area, and to the preservation of the local popular know-how of the word that tends to disappear. They may also represent a database that consists of purifying and identifying the characterization of active compounds of herbal extracts with antidiabetic activity.

Keywords: diabetes; High Atlas Central (Morocco); pharmacological; therapeutic use; toxicology.

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Contexto: La diabetes mellitus se considera uno de los flagelos del tercer milenio en el mundo desde hace varios años.

Objetivos: Evaluar, identificar y preservar las experiencias adquiridas a lo largo de los siglos. Se trata del uso terapéutico de las plantas medicinales explotadas para el tratamiento de la diabetes, y de aclarar sus toxicidades, a fin de sensibilizar a la población del Alto Atlas Central (HAC) de Marruecos no sólo sobre el riesgo sino también sobre el beneficio del uso de la fitoterapia.

Métodos: Las encuestas etnofarmacológicas se realizaron 834 a los entrevistados, utilizando una encuesta semiestructurada, mediante la aplicación de índices cuantitativos como el índice de consenso (CI %), el valor de uso (UVi), la familia UV (FUV), la frecuencia relativa de citación (RFC), el valor de la parte de la planta (PPV) y el factor de consenso de los informantes (ICF) para evaluar el valor exacto de las plantas medicinales (MP).

Resultados: Encontramos que 144 plantas medicinales en 121 géneros y 52 familias de plantas se usaban tradicionalmente para tratar la diabetes, de las cuales siete especies eran endémicas del área de estudio y 32 se citaban por primera vez para tratar la diabetes. Además, recopilamos información toxicológica sobre 99 plantas antidiabéticas, de las cuales 41 especies no mostraron actividad tóxica y 43 eran tóxicas y, a veces, letales en dosis altas. La familia Ranunculaceae mostró el valor de uso más alto (FUV = 0,139). Las hojas eran las partes de las plantas más utilizadas (VPP = 0,282) y la infusión el método de preparación predominante. Las especies más utilizadas fueron Olea europaea L. (UVi = 0,172), Salvia officinalis L. (UVi = 0,156) y Euphorbia resinifera Berg (UVi = 0,150).

Conclusiones: Estos resultados son una rica fuente de información. Contribuyen al conocimiento de la flora medicinal antidiabética de la zona de estudio, y a la preservación del saber popular local de la palabra que tiende a desaparecer. También pueden representar una base de datos para depurar e identificar la caracterización de compuestos activos de extractos de hierbas con actividad antidiabética.

Palabras Clave: Alto Atlas Central (Marruecos); diabetes; farmacológico; toxicología; uso terapéutico.

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Citation Format: Belhaj S, Chaachouay N, Zidane L (2021) Ethnobotanical and toxicology study of medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in the High Atlas Central of Morocco. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 9(5): 619–662.

© 2021 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)