Tag Archives: extraction

Cocoa increases RUNX2 and osteoclast bone-resorbing activity

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 857-864, September-October 2022.

Original Article

Effect of cocoa administration during orthodontic tooth movement on RUNX2, calcium levels, and osteoclast bone-resorbing activity in rats

[Efecto de la administración de cacao durante el movimiento dental ortodóncico sobre RUNX2, los niveles de calcio y la actividad de reabsorción ósea de los osteoclastos en ratas]

Ananto Ali Alhasyimi*, Pinandi Sri Pudyani

Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

*E-mail: anantoali@ugm.ac.id

Abstract

Context: Cocoa contains caffeine-rich methylxanthine, which promotes accelerated orthodontic tooth movement. Caffeine affects calcium ion equilibrium, causing low bone density and shortening orthodontic treatment. It is unclear how cocoa affects periodontal tissue reconstruction when orthodontic stress is applied.

Aims: To evaluate the effect of cocoa administration during active orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) on RUNX2, calcium levels, and osteoclast bone-resorbing activity in rats.

Methods: A total of 48 Sprague Dawley rats were used. It was divided into four subgroups depending on the observation day: 0, 1, 7, and 14 (n = 3) for each group of 12 animals: group A (positive control, 2.3 mg of caffeine), group B (cocoa dose 1.37 g), group C (cocoa dose 2.05 g), and group D (cocoa dose 2.74 g).). The upper incisors of both groups were banded with a 3-spin loop spring that exerted 35 g of orthodontic force under anesthesia. Cocoa was given orally to the treatment group once a day based on the dose utilized. RUNX2 levels during OTM were determined by ELISA. Furthermore, lacuna resorption measured osteoclast bone-resorbing activity and the atomic absorption spectrophotometer assessed calcium levels. Data gathered were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and post hoc LSD (p<0.05).

Results: RUNX2 levels in the compression side were significantly different between the groups. Similarly, lacuna resorption depth was significantly different between the groups (p<0.05), but daily cocoa administration does not significantly downregulate calcium levels in rats during active OTM (p>0.05).

Conclusions: Cocoa supplementation during active OTM increases the RUNX2 levels and osteoclast bone-resorbing activity in rats.

Keywords: extraction; calcium; cocoa; orthodontic; osteoclast; RUNX2.

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Resumen

Contexto: El cacao contiene metilxantina rica en cafeína, que promueve el movimiento ortodóncico acelerado de los dientes. La cafeína afecta el equilibrio de los iones de calcio, provocando una baja densidad ósea y acortando el tratamiento de ortodoncia. No está claro cómo el cacao afecta la reconstrucción del tejido periodontal cuando se aplica estrés de ortodoncia.

Objetivos: Evaluar el efecto de la administración de cacao durante el movimiento dental ortodóncico activo (OTM) sobre RUNX2, los niveles de calcio y la actividad de reabsorción ósea de los osteoclastos en ratas.

Métodos: Se utilizaron un total de 48 ratas Sprague Dawley. Se dividió en cuatro subgrupos según el día de observación: 0, 1, 7 y 14 (n = 3) para cada grupo de 12 animales: grupo A (control positivo, 2,3 mg de cafeína), grupo B (dosis de cacao 1,37 g), grupo C (dosis de cacao 2,05 g), y grupo D (dosis de cacao 2,74 g). Los incisivos superiores de ambos grupos se vendaron con un resorte de bucle de 3 giros que ejerció 35 g de fuerza ortodóncica bajo anestesia. Se administró cacao por vía oral al grupo de tratamiento una vez al día en función de la dosis utilizada. Los niveles de RUNX2 durante OTM se determinaron mediante ELISA. Además, la reabsorción de la laguna midió la actividad de reabsorción ósea de los osteoclastos y el espectrofotómetro de absorción atómica evaluó los niveles de calcio. Los datos recopilados se analizaron mediante ANOVA de dos vías y LSD post hoc (p<0,05).

Resultados: Los niveles de RUNX2 en el lado de compresión fueron significativamente diferentes entre los grupos. De manera similar, la profundidad de reabsorción de la laguna fue significativamente diferente entre los grupos (p<0,05), pero la administración diaria de cacao no regula significativamente los niveles de calcio en ratas durante la OTM activa (p>0,05).

Conclusiones: La suplementación con cacao durante la OTM activa aumenta los niveles de RUNX2 y la actividad de reabsorción ósea de los osteoclastos en ratas.

Palabras Clave: cacao; calcio; ortodoncia; osteoclasto; RUNX2.

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Citation Format: Alhasyimi AA, Pudyani PS (2022) Effect of cocoa administration during orthodontic tooth movement on RUNX2, calcium levels, and osteoclast bone-resorbing activity in rats. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(5): 857–864.
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© 2022 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Wound healing ability of flaxseed extracts



J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(1): 1-12, 2022.

Review

Systematic review of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) extract and formulation in wound healing

[Revisión sistemática sobre extracto y formulación de linaza (Linum usitatissimum L.) en la cicatrización de heridas]

Abdul Talib Mat Sharil1, Mustafa Basma Ezzat2, Lestari Widya2, Mat Husin Amri Nurhakim1, Ab Razak Nor Hikmah2, Zainon Nabilah Zafira2, Muhammad Salahuddin Haris1*

1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia.

2Department of Fundamental Dental and Medical Sciences, Kulliyyah of Dentistry, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, 25200, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia.

*E-mail: solah@iium.edu.my

Abstract

Context: Flaxseed constituents provide to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and wound healing benefits.

Aims: To systematically review the experimental evidence on the wound healing ability of flaxseed extracts and formulations.

Methods: Comprehensive searches in six databases (Scopus, Science Direct, Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar and Dimensions) were carried out from the beginning of databases until December 2020, according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) protocol. The terms used in searches were (Linum usitatissimum L., flaxseed, linseed, flax) AND (extract) AND (wound heal, heal, heal type, wound) for collection of articles, with only articles in English and research articles were included. Transgenic term were excluded. AXIS tool was chosen to assess the quality and risk of bias. The data were then categorised in term of extracts, laboratory formulation, and wound healing.

Results: In total, 999 articles were collected and screened based on the pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Finally, 10 articles were included in the review. The majority of publications reported significant findings of flaxseed oil on wound healing regardless of extraction method and formulation. Healing parameters on excision, incision, and burn wound models were studied. Lack of laboratory formulation mentioned in the collected articles gave limitation impact on this study.

Conclusions: Flaxseed oil formulation appears to exert a positive effect on wound healing. Therefore, extensive studies needed to evaluate the transportation of flaxseed phytochemicals into skin dermis by advanced drug formulation.

Keywords: extraction; flaxseed; formulation; Linum usitatissimum L.; systematic review; wound healing.

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Resumen

Contexto: Los componentes de la linaza proporcionan beneficios antioxidantes, antiinflamatorios, antimicrobianos y de cicatrización de heridas.

Objetivos: Revisar sistemáticamente las evidencias experimentales sobre la capacidad de cicatrización de heridas de los extractos y formulaciones de linaza.

Métodos: Se realizaron búsquedas integrales en seis bases de datos (Scopus, Science Direct, Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar y Dimensions) desde el inicio de las bases de datos hasta diciembre de 2020, según Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes (PRISMA) protocolo. Los términos utilizados en las búsquedas fueron (Linum usitatissimum L., flaxseed, linseed, flax) AND (extracto) AND (herida curar, curar, curar tipo, herida) para la colección de artículos, con solo artículos en inglés y se incluyeron artículos de investigación. Se excluyeron los términos transgénicos. Se eligió la herramienta AXIS para evaluar la calidad y el riesgo de sesgo. Luego, los datos se clasificaron en términos de extractos, formulación de laboratorio y cicatrización de heridas.

Resultados: En total, se recopilaron y seleccionaron 999 artículos según los criterios de inclusión y exclusión predeterminados. Finalmente, se incluyeron 10 artículos en la revisión. La mayoría de las publicaciones informaron hallazgos significativos del aceite de linaza en la cicatrización de heridas, independientemente del método de extracción y la formulación. Se estudiaron los parámetros de curación en modelos de escisión, incisión y quemaduras. La falta de formulación de laboratorio mencionada en los artículos recopilados dio un impacto de limitación en este estudio.

Conclusiones: La formulación de aceite de linaza parece ejercer un efecto positivo en la cicatrización de heridas. Por lo tanto, se necesitaban estudios extensos para evaluar el transporte de fitoquímicos de la linaza a la dermis de la piel mediante una formulación avanzada de fármacos.

Palabras Clave: extracción; cicatrización de herida; formulación; Linum usitatissimum; revisión sistemática; semilla de lino.

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Citation Format: Mat Sharil AT, Basma Ezzat M, Widya L, Amri Nurhakim MH, Nor Hikmah AR, Nabilah Zafira Z, Haris MS (2022) Systematic review of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) extract and formulation in wound healing. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(1): 1–12.

© 2022 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)