Tag Archives: GC-MS

Cytotoxic and antioxidant potential of Ajuga orientalis

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 486-495, May-June 2022.

Original Article

Chemical composition, in vitro assessment of antioxidant properties and cytotoxicity activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Ajuga orientalis L. (Lamiaceae)

[Composición química, evaluación in vitro de propiedades antioxidantes y actividad citotóxica de extractos etanólicos y acuosos de Ajuga orientalis L. (Lamiaceae)]

Sawsan A. Oran1, Arwa R. Althaher2*, Mohammad A. Al Shhab3

1Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Jordan, Amman, 11942, Jordan.

2Department of Pharmacy, Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan, Amman, 11733, Jordan.

3Department of Pharmacology, The University of Jordan, Amman, 11942, Jordan.

*E-mail: a.althaher@outlook.com, a.althaher@zuj.edu.jo


Context: Ajuga orientalis L. (Lamiaceae) is an aromatic herb used in traditional medicine in Jordan and neighboring countries.

Aims: To evaluate the cytotoxic potential of ethanolic and aqueous extracts from the aerial parts of A. orientalis against three cell lines MCF-7, Caco-2, and HDFa. In addition to assessing the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, antioxidant activity. Further to analyze the phytochemical constituents.

Methods: The phytochemical analysis was performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) contents were assessed using colorimetric methods. The antioxidant properties of both extracts were assessed using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and reducing power ability. Cytotoxicity was investigated using methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay.

Results: The most abundant compounds in the extract were 9-octadecenoic acid, methyl ester, (E)- (27.2%), hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (12.8%), and methyl stearate (9.6%). The ethanolic extract demonstrated higher TPC and TFC than the aqueous extract. Also, the ethanolic extract showed higher antioxidant activity than aqueous extract using DPPH and the reducing power ability. Furthermore, the aqueous extract of A. orientalis has a potent cytotoxic effect against the Caco-2 cell line (IC50 = 2.059 ± 0.10 μg/mL). In contrast, the ethanolic extract demonstrated a cytotoxic effect against the MCF-7 cell line (IC50 = 59.32 ± 0.04 μg/mL). Both extracts did not exhibit a toxic effect against normal dermal fibroblast cell line (HDFa). Compared to non-cancerous cells, the ethanolic extract of A. orientalis demonstrated high selectivity against MCF-7 cells and limited selectivity against Caco-2 cells. In comparison, the aqueous extract was highly selective against both cancerous cells.

Conclusions: A. orientalis demonstrated antioxidant properties and significant antiproliferative potential against breast and colon cancer. Therefore, additional investigations are needed to study the mechanism of the cytotoxicity for this plant.

Keywords: Ajuga orientalis; antioxidant properties; cytotoxic activity; GC-MS; MTT.

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Contexto: Ajuga orientalis L. (Lamiaceae) es una hierba aromática utilizada en la medicina tradicional en Jordania y países vecinos.

Objetivos: Evaluar el potencial citotóxico de extractos etanólicos y acuosos de partes aéreas de A. orientalis frente a tres líneas celulares MCF-7, Caco-2 y HDFa. Además de evaluar el contenido total de fenoles y flavonoides, la actividad antioxidante. Además de analizar los componentes fitoquímicos.

Métodos: El análisis fitoquímico se realizó mediante cromatografía de gases/espectrometría de masas. Los contenidos de fenoles y flavonoides totales se evaluaron mediante métodos colorimétricos. Las propiedades antioxidantes de ambos extractos se evaluaron utilizando la actividad de eliminación de radicales 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazilo (DPPH) y la capacidad de poder reductor. La citotoxicidad se investigó mediante el ensayo de metiltiazol tetrazolio (MTT).

Resultados: Los compuestos más abundantes en el extracto fueron ácido 9-octadecenoico, éster metílico, (E)- (27,2%), ácido hexadecanoico, éster metílico (12,8%) y estearato de metilo (9,6%). El extracto etanólico demostró mayor TPC y TFC que el extracto acuoso. Además, el extracto etanólico mostró mayor actividad antioxidante que el extracto acuoso usando DPPH y la capacidad de poder reductor. Además, el extracto acuoso de A. orientalis tiene un potente efecto citotóxico frente a la línea celular Caco-2 (IC50 = 2,059 ± 0,10 μg/mL). En cambio, el extracto etanólico demostró un efecto citotóxico frente a la línea celular MCF-7 (IC50 = 59,32 ± 0,04 μg/mL). Ambos extractos no exhibieron un efecto tóxico contra la línea celular de fibroblastos dérmicos normales (HDFa). En comparación con las células no cancerosas, el extracto etanólico de A. orientalis demostró una alta selectividad frente a las células MCF-7 y una selectividad limitada frente a las células Caco-2. En comparación, el extracto acuoso fue altamente selectivo contra ambas células cancerosas.

Conclusiones: A. orientalis demostró propiedades antioxidantes y un importante potencial antiproliferativo contra el cáncer de mama y colon. Por lo tanto, se necesitan investigaciones adicionales para estudiar el mecanismo de citotoxicidad de esta planta.

Palabras Clave: actividad citotóxica; Ajuga orientalis; GC-MS; MTT; propiedades antioxidantes.

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Citation Format: Oran SA, Althaher AR, Al Shhab MA (2022) Chemical composition, in vitro assessment of antioxidant properties and cytotoxicity activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Ajuga orientalis L. (Lamiaceae). J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(3): 486–495.

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© 2022 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Mimusops coriacea fitoquimica capacidad antioxidante y actividad antiinflamatoria

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 9(1): 33-48, 2021.

Original Article

Composición química, capacidad antioxidante y actividad antiinflamatoria de los frutos de Mimusops coriacea (A.DC) Mig (Sapotaceae) que crece en Ecuador

[Chemical composition, antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activity of the fruits of Mimusops coriacea (A.DC) Mig (Sapotaceae) that grows in Ecuador]

Katherine E. Bustamante Pesantes1; Yamilet I. Gutiérrez Gaitén2; Iván A. Chóez Guaranda3; Migdalia Miranda Martínez3,4*

1Departamento de Farmacia. Facultad de Ciencias Químicas. Universidad de Guayaquil. Ciudadela Universitaria “Salvador Allende”. Ave. Kennedy S/N y Av. Delta. Guayaquil. Ecuador.

2Departamento de Farmacia, Instituto de Farmacia y Alimentos, Universidad de La Habana, Coronela, Lisa, Habana 13600, Cuba.

3Centro de Investigaciones Biotecnológicas del Ecuador. Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral, ESPOL. Campus Gustavo Galindo Km. 30.5 Vía Perimetral, P.O. Box 09-01-5863. Guayaquil, Ecuador.

4Departamento de Ciencias Químicas y Ambientales. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemáticas. Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral, ESPOL. Campus Gustavo Galindo Km. 30.5 Vía Perimetral, P.O. Box 09-01-5863. Guayaquil, Ecuador.

*E-mail: mgmiran@espol.edu.ec


Context: Mimusops coriacea (Sapotaceae) is traditionally used to treat inflammation of the urethra, cystitis, diarrhea, and dysentery, among others. In Ecuador it is used as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory, however the phytochemical and pharmacological information is scarce.

Aims: To evaluate the chemical composition, antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activity of the M. coriacea fruits in two stages of ripening.

Methods: An extraction with hexane by Soxhlet of the oils of the seeds of green and mature fruits was carried out. Saponifiable and unsaponifiable fractions were analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Hydroalcoholic extracts were obtained by maceration from the green and ripe whole fruits and were tested by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS). Antioxidant capacity by FRAP, DPPH and ABTS and anti-inflammatory activity using the plantar edema model by carrageenan were evaluated.

Results: In the saponifiable fractions, four fatty acids were identified (majority 9-octadecenoic acid) and in the unsaponifiable ones four compounds were assigned to green fruits and nine to mature fruits, the majority being squalene and urs-12-en-24-oico, 3-oxo-methyl ester, respectively. By LC-MS 31 compounds were identified, associated with phenolic compounds and triterpenic saponins. The extracts showed Fe3+ reducing capacity and antiradical activity, the green fruit extract was the most active (IC50s = 4.99 μg/mL and 246.80 μg/mL, DPPH and ABTS, respectively). The anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts was demonstrated with inhibition percentages greater than 50% by using indomethacin as reference drug.

Conclusions: The results provide the first findings of the phytochemical and bioactive potential of the M. coriacea species that grows in Ecuador.

Keywords: anti-inflammatory activity;antioxidant activity; GC-MS; LC-MS; Mimusops coriacea.


Contexto: Mimusops coriacea (Sapotaceae) se emplea tradicionalmente para el tratamiento de la inflamación de la uretra, cistitis, diarreas y disentería, entre otros. En Ecuador se utiliza como analgésico y antiinflamatorio, sin embargo, la información fitoquímica y farmacológica es escasa.

Objetivos: Evaluar la composición química, la capacidad antioxidante y la actividad antiinflamatoria de los frutos de M. coriacea en dos estados de maduración.

Métodos: Se realizó una extracción por Soxhlet, con hexano, de los aceites de las semillas de frutos verdes y maduros. Las fracciones saponificables e insaponificables fueron analizadas por CG-EM. Se obtuvieron extractos hidroalcohólicos por maceración a partir de los frutos completos verdes y maduros y se ensayaron por CL-EM. Se evaluó la capacidad antioxidante por FRAP, DPPH y ABTS y la actividad antiinflamatoria mediante el modelo de edema plantar por carragenina.

Resultados: En las fracciones saponificables se identificaron cuatro ácidos grasos (ácido 9-octadecenoico mayoritario) y en las insaponificables se asignaron cuatro compuestos a los frutos verdes y nueve a los frutos maduros, siendo los mayoritarios el escualeno y el ácido urs-12-en-24-oico, 3-oxo-metil éster, respectivamente. Se identificaron 31 compuestos por CL-EM, asociados a compuestos fenólicos y saponinas triterpénicas. Los extractos mostraron capacidad reductora de Fe3+ y actividad antirradicalaria, el extracto de fruto verde fue el más activo (CI50s = 4,99 μg/mL y 246,80 μg/mL, DPPH y ABTS, respectivamente). Se demostró la actividad antiinflamatoria de los extractos con porcentajes de inhibición superiores al 50% utilizando la indometacina como fármaco de referencia.

Conclusiones: Los resultados brindan los primeros hallazgos del potencial fitoquímico y bioactivo de la especie M. coriacea que crece en Ecuador.

Palabras clave: actividad antiinflamatoria; actividad antioxidante; CG-EM, CL-EM, Mimusops coriacea.

Citation Format: Bustamante Pesantes KE, Gutiérrez Gaitén YI, Chóez Guaranda IA, Miranda Martinez M (2021) Composición química, capacidad antioxidante y actividad antiinflamatoria de los frutos de Mimusops coriacea (A.DC) Mig (Sapotaceae) que crece en Ecuador [Chemical composition, antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activity of the fruits of Mimusops coriacea (A.DC) Mig (Sapotaceae) that grows in Ecuador]. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 9(1): 33–48.

© 2021 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)