Tag Archives: hyperglycemia

Meta-analysis of Aloe vera on blood glucose

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 737-747, July-August 2022.

Review

The effect of Aloe vera on fasting blood glucose levels in pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis

[Efecto del Aloe vera sobre los niveles de glucosa en sangre en ayunas en prediabetes y diabetes mellitus tipo 2: Una revisión sistemática y meta-análisis]

Indah Budiastutik1, Hertanto Wahyu Subagio2*, Martha Irene Kartasurya3, Bagoes Widjanarko1, Apoina Kartini3, Soegiyanto4, Suhartono Suhartono5

1Doctoral Program of Public Health, Faculty of Public Health, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia.

2Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia.

3Public Health Nutrition Department, Faculty of Public Health, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia.

4Doctoral Program of Sport Education, Postgraduate, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia.

5Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia.

*E-mail: hertantows@lecturer.undip.ac.id

Abstract

Context: Aloe vera is a traditional medicinal plant that shows a wide range of biological activities. Previous studies demonstrated the antihyperglycemic effect of Aloe vera but with inconsistent results.

Aims: To quantitatively summarize the effect of Aloe vera on fasting blood glucose in pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus by a meta-analysis.

Methods: PubMed, Scopus, Springer Link, Science Direct, Proquest, and Google Scholar were used to identify clinical trials evaluating the effect of Aloe vera on fasting blood glucose published between 2011 and 2021. The inclusion criteria were: (1) original research with a clinical trial design evaluating the effect of Aloe vera on fasting blood glucose in pre-diabetes and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus; (2) providing the data of the mean fasting blood glucose and standard deviation in both control and intervention group, and; (3) Aloe vera was used as the only intervention. The pooled effect of Aloe vera on fasting blood glucose was evaluated using the random effect model, and publication bias was assessed by Funnel plots and Fail Safe-N.

Results: A total of 25 trials were included from 13 publications involving 642 patients. The results showed that Aloe vera significantly reduced fasting blood glucose (-0.35 [95% CI, -1454, -0.616] mg/dL; p<0.001) compared to control. Aloe vera might have a more remarkable effect in males, BMI not more than 30 mg/kg2, type 2 diabetes mellitus, administered for ≥ 8 weeks, dose at 200 mg, and capsule administration. However, a high heterogeneity across the studies was found.

Conclusions: Aloe vera may reduce fasting blood glucose in pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, further study with a well-design and standardized preparation is needed to emphasize the effect of Aloe vera on blood glucose control.

Keywords: Aloe vera; hyperglycemia; meta-analysis; systematic reviews.

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Resumen

Contexto: El Aloe vera es una planta medicinal tradicional que presenta una amplia gama de actividades biológicas. Estudios previos demostraron el efecto antihiperglucémico del Aloe vera pero con resultados inconsistentes.

Objetivos: Resumir cuantitativamente el efecto del Aloe vera sobre la glucemia en ayunas en prediabetes y diabetes mellitus tipo 2 mediante un meta-análisis.

Métodos: Se utilizaron PubMed, Scopus, Springer Link, Science Direct Proquest, y Google Scholar para identificar los ensayos clínicos que evaluaron el efecto del Aloe vera sobre la glucemia en ayunas publicados entre 2011 y 2021. Los criterios de inclusión fueron: (1) investigación original con un diseño de ensayo que evalúa el efecto del Aloe vera sobre la glucosa en sangre en ayunas en prediabetes y/o diabetes mellitus tipo 2; (2) proporcionar los datos de la media de glucosa en sangre en ayunas y la desviación estándar tanto en el grupo de control como en el de intervención, y; (3) Se utilizó Aloe vera como única intervención. El efecto combinado del Aloe vera sobre la glucosa en sangre en ayunas se evaluó mediante el modelo de efectos aleatorios, y el sesgo de publicación se evaluó mediante gráficos en embudo y Fail Safe-N.

Resultados: Se incluyeron un total de 25 ensayos de 13 publicaciones con 642 pacientes. Los resultados mostraron que el Aloe vera redujo significativamente la glucosa en sangre en ayunas (-0,35 [IC del 95 %, -1454, -0,616] mg/dL; p<0,001) en comparación con el control. El Aloe vera podría tener un efecto más notable en varones, IMC no superior a 30 mg/kg2, diabetes mellitus tipo 2, administrado durante ≥ 8 semanas, dosis de 200 mg y administración en cápsula. Además, se encontró una alta heterogeneidad entre los estudios.

Conclusiones: El Aloe vera puede reducir la glucemia en ayunas en prediabetes y diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Sin embargo, se necesitan más estudios con una preparación bien diseñada y estandarizada para enfatizar el efecto del Aloe vera en el control de la glucosa en sangre.

Palabras Clave: Aloe vera; hiperglucemia; meta-análisis; revisiones sistemáticas.

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Citation Format: Budiastutik I, Subagio HM, Kartasurya MI, Widjanarko B, Soegiyanto, Kartini A, Suhartono S (2022) The effect of Aloe vera on fasting blood glucose levels in pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(4): 737–747.
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© 2022 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Herbal formulations for diabetes mellitus in Karachi, Pakistan



J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(2): 349-356, 2022.

Original Article

Studies on antidiabetic herbal formulations available in the herbal stores of Karachi, Pakistan

[Estudios sobre formulaciones a base de hierbas antidiabéticas disponibles en las tiendas de hierbas de Karachi, Pakistán]

Erum Shah

Department of Pharmacognosy, Dow College of Pharmacy, Dow University of Health Sciences. Karachi, Pakistan.

*E-mail: erum.shah@duhs.edu.pk

Abstract

Context: Diabetes mellitus is a condition, which is characterized by persistent hyperglycemia, abnormal functioning of insulin and difficulty in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Antidiabetic medicines of herbal origin are widely consumed in Pakistan. Therefore, there was a need to generate data on antidiabetic herbal formulations manufactured and marketed in Pakistan.

Aims: To develop a list of Pakistani manufactured antidiabetic herbal products and the most common herbal ingredients found in them.

Methods: Antidiabetic herbal formulations were collected from the renowned herbal stores of Karachi, Pakistan, and their ingredients were checked. The most common herbal ingredients found in them were determined, and the possible constituents responsible for the antidiabetic action of these herbs were discovered.

Results: A total of 15 herbal antidiabetic products were collected from the herbal stores. The most common herbs found in them include Syzygium cumini, Gymnemma sylvestre, Aloe vera, Nigella sativa, Acacia nilotica, Commiphora myrrha, Portulaca oleracea, Punica granatum, Rhus coriaria, Coriandrum sativum, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Bambusa bambos, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Swertia changii, Curcuma longa and Rumex vesicarius. The constituents responsible for antidiabetic activity include alkaloids, polysaccharides, glycosides, secoiridoid, phenolic acids, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins and volatile oil.

Conclusions: The herbs incorporated in these formulations have proven antidiabetic effects; therefore, these formulations can produce significant results in the management of diabetes. More research on each of these formulations is needed to confirm the potency of all these herbal products.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus; hyperglycemia; polyherbal drugs.

Resumen

Contexto: La diabetes mellitus es una condición que se caracteriza por hiperglucemia persistente, funcionamiento anormal de la insulina y dificultad en el metabolismo de carbohidratos, grasas y proteínas. Los medicamentos antidiabéticos de origen vegetal se consumen ampliamente en Pakistán. Por lo tanto, era necesario generar datos sobre las formulaciones a base de hierbas antidiabéticas fabricadas y comercializadas en Pakistán.

Objetivos: Desarrollar una lista de productos herbales antidiabéticos fabricados en Pakistán y los ingredientes herbales más comunes que se encuentran en ellos.

Métodos: Se recolectaron formulaciones de hierbas antidiabéticas de renombradas tiendas de hierbas de Karachi, Pakistán, y se verificaron sus ingredientes. Se determinaron los ingredientes herbales más comunes que se encuentran en ellos y se determinaron los posibles constituyentes responsables de la acción antidiabética de estas hierbas.

Resultados: Se recogió un total de 15 productos antidiabéticos a base de hierbas de las tiendas de hierbas. Las hierbas más comunes que se encuentran en ellos incluyen Syzygium cumini, Gymnemma sylvestre, Aloe vera, Nigella sativa, Acacia nilotica, Commiphora myrrha, Portulaca oleracea, Punica granatum, Rhus coriaria, Coriandrum sativum, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Bambusa bambos, Sweidia changii, Curcuma longa y Rumex vesicarius. Los constituyentes responsables de la actividad antidiabética incluyen alcaloides, polisacáridos, glucósidos, secoiridoide, ácidos fenólicos, flavonoides, terpenoides, saponinas y aceite volátil.

Conclusiones: Las hierbas incorporadas en estas formulaciones tienen efectos antidiabéticos comprobados; por lo tanto, estas formulaciones pueden producir resultados significativos en el manejo de la diabetes. Se necesita más investigación sobre cada una de estas formulaciones para confirmar la potencia de todos estos productos a base de hierbas.

Palabras Clave: diabetes mellitus; hiperglucemia; drogas a base de plantas.

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Citation Format: Shah E (2022) Studies on antidiabetic herbal formulations available in the herbal stores of Karachi, Pakistan. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(2): 349–356.

© 2022 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Effect of sikkam leaves on hyperglycemic sperm



J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(2): 270-278, 2022.

Original Article

Effect of sikkam (Bischofia javanica Blume) ethanolic extract on the quality and quantity of hyperglycemic rat sperm

[Efecto del extracto etanólico de sikkam (Bischofia javanica Blume) sobre la calidad y cantidad de esperma de rata hiperglucémico]

Syafruddin Ilyas*, Salomo Hutahaean, Rahmat S.H. Sinaga, Putri C. Situmorang

Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia.

*E-mail: syafruddin6@usu.ac.id

Abstract

Context: Hyperglycemia causes diabetes mellitus (DM), abnormal metabolism, oxidative stress, and chronic complications such as impotence. Hyperglycemia causes testicular atrophy and stromal cell, seminiferous tubular damage, and spermatogenic cells. Bischofia javanica Blume is a plant that is used for the treatment of various chronic conditions and has traditionally by the people of Indonesia as a diabetes medicine.

Aims: To determine the effect of B. javanica extract on the increase in the quality and quantity of sperm of hyperglycemic rats.

Methods: The treatment groups consisted of; G0: negative control (-), G1: positive control (DM: alloxan induction + standard feed), G2-G4: DM + 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg BW of B. javanica leaves ethanol extract, respectively, and G5: DM + glibenclamide 0.5 mg/kg BW. Rats were dissected, and then the testes were taken to analyze sperm quantity and quality and immunohistochemistry.

Results: There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in testes volume, sperm concentration and sperm motility in hyperglycemic rats. The decrease in caspase 3 expression and apoptosis was accompanied by an increase in the dose of the highest B. javanica ethanol extract, and it was seen that testicular histology in groups G4 (900 mg/kg) and G5 (glibenclamide) could improve testicular histology like in the control group (G0).

Conclusions: B. javanica can improve the quality and quantity of hyperglycemic rats’ sperm and also reduce apoptosis via caspase 3 in the histology of testis.

Keywords: apoptosis; caspase 3; hyperglycemia; immunohistochemistry; plant extracts; sperm.

Resumen

Contexto: La hiperglucemia causa diabetes mellitus (DM), metabolismo anormal, estrés oxidativo y complicaciones crónicas como impotencia. La hiperglucemia causa atrofia testicular y células estromales, daño tubular seminífero y células espermatogénicas. Bischofia javanica Blume es una planta que se utiliza para el tratamiento de diversas afecciones crónicas y tradicionalmente la gente de Indonesia la ha utilizado como medicamento para la diabetes.

Objetivos: Determinar el efecto del extracto de B. javanica sobre el aumento de la calidad y cantidad de espermatozoides de ratas hiperglucémicas.

Métodos: Los grupos de tratamiento consistieron en; G0: control negativo (-), G1: control positivo (DM: inducción de aloxano + alimentación estándar), G2-G4: DM + 300, 600 y 900 mg/kg de peso corporal de extracto etanólico de hojas de B. javanica, respectivamente, y G5: DM + glibenclamida 0,5 mg/kg de peso corporal. Se diseccionaron ratas y luego se tomaron los testículos para analizar la cantidad y calidad de los espermatozoides y la inmunohistoquímica.

Resultados: Hubo una diferencia significativa (p<0,05) en el volumen de los testículos, la concentración de espermatozoides y la motilidad de los espermatozoides en ratas hiperglucémicas. La disminución de la expresión de caspasa 3 y apoptosis fue acompañada por un aumento en la mayor dosis del extracto, y se observó mediante histología una mejoría testicular en los grupos G4 (900 mg/kg) y G5 (glibenclamida) similar al grupo control (G0).

Conclusiones: B. javanica puede mejorar la calidad y cantidad de esperma de ratas hiperglucémicas y también reducir la apoptosis vía caspasa 3 en la histología de testículos.

Palabras Clave: apoptosis; caspasa 3; esperma; extractos de plantas; hiperglucemia; inmunohistoquímica.

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Citation Format: Ilyas S, Hutahaean S, Sinaga RSH, Situmorang PC (2022) Effect of sikkam (Bischofia javanica Blume) ethanolic extract on the quality and quantity of hyperglycemic rat sperm. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(2): 270–278.

© 2022 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Insulin expression and insulitis degree of diabetic rats


J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 9(5): 598-608, 2021.

Original article

Insulin expression and insulitis degree of diabetic rats after giving sikkam leaves (Bischofia javanica Blume)

[Expresión de insulina y grado de insulitis de ratas diabéticas después de administrar hojas de sikkam (Bischofia javanica Blume)]

Cheryl GP. Rumahorbo, Salomo Hutahaean*, Syafruddin Ilyas

Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia.

*E-mail: salomo@usu.ac.id

Abstract

Context: Gallic acid and quercetin in sikkam leaves (Bischofia javanica) have scientific potential as antidiabetic agents. Quercetin suppresses hyperglycemia by inhibiting active glucose transport. Meanwhile, gallic acid acts as an antidiabetic is closely related to its antioxidant properties. Antioxidant compounds neutralize cells that experience oxidative stress by donating their hydrogen atoms.

Aims: To analyze the degree of insulitis and insulin expression in the pancreatic cells of rats induced diabetes mellitus (DM) after giving B. javanica leaves extract.

Methods: The treatment groups consisted of G0: negative control (-); G1: positive control (alloxan induction + standard feed); G2: alloxan induction + 300 mg/kg BW of B. javanica leaves ethanol extract; G3: alloxan induction + 600 mg/kg BW of B. javanica leaves ethanol extract; G4: alloxan induction + ethanol extract of B. javanica leaves 900 mg/kg BW and G5: alloxan induction + glibenclamide 4.5 mg/kg BW. At day 28, the rats were sacrificed, and the pancreatic tissue dissected. This was analyzed for degree of insulitis and insulin expression by anti-insulin antibodies using immunohistochemistry and hematoxylin-eosin.

Results: There was a significant difference (p = 0.000) in insulin expression and insulitis degree. By the increase of B. javanica leaves dose, the insulin expression value also increased, and the degree of insulitis in Langerhans’ islets of DM rats was decreased. Islets of Langerhans in insulin production returned to normal after being given B. javanica ethanol extract 900 mg/kg BW like glibenclamide.

Conclusions: Bischofia javanica ethanol extract increased insulin production and reduced the degree of insulitis in the islets of Langerhans histology. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which this extract protects from the sequelae of diabetes.

Keywords: hypoglycemic agent; hyperglycemia; immunohistochemistry; insulin expression; insulitis; plant extract.

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Resumen

Contexto: El ácido gálico y la quercetina en las hojas de sikkam (Bischofia javanica) tienen potencial científico como agentes antidiabéticos. La quercetina suprime la hiperglucemia al inhibir el transporte activo de glucosa. Mientras tanto, el ácido gálico actúa como antidiabético y está muy relacionado con sus propiedades antioxidantes. Los compuestos antioxidantes neutralizan las células que experimentan estrés oxidativo al donar sus átomos de hidrógeno.

Objetivos: Analizar el grado de insulitis y expresión de insulina en las células pancreáticas de ratas inducidas por diabetes mellitus (DM) tras la administración de extracto de hojas de B. javanica.

Métodos: Los grupos de tratamiento estuvieron constituidos por G0: control negativo (-); G1: control positivo (inducción de aloxano + alimentación estándar); G2: inducción de aloxano + 300 mg/kg de peso corporal de extracto de etanol de hojas de B. javanica; G3: inducción de aloxano + 600 mg/kg de peso corporal de extracto de etanol de hojas de B. javanica; G4: inducción de aloxano + extracto etanólico de B. javanica hojas 900 mg/kg de peso corporal y G5: inducción de aloxano + glibenclamida 4,5 mg/kg de peso corporal. En el día 28, las ratas fueron sacrificadas y el tejido pancreático disecado. Este se analizó para determinar el grado de insulitis y expresión de insulina mediante anticuerpos antiinsulina usando inmunohistoquímica y hematoxilina-eosina.

Resultados: Hubo una diferencia significativa (p = 0,000) en la expresión de insulina y el grado de insulitis. Al aumentar la dosis de hojas de B. javanica, aumentó el valor de expresión de insulina y disminuyó el grado de insulitis en el islotes de Langerhans de ratas con DM. Los islotes de Langerhans en la producción de insulina volvieron a la normalidad después de recibir el extracto etanólico de B. javanica 900 mg/kg de peso corporal al igual que glibenclamida.

Conclusiones: El extracto de etanol de Bischofia javanica aumentó la producción de insulina y redujo el grado de insulitis en la histología de los islotes de Langerhans. Se necesitan más investigaciones para determinar hasta qué punto este extracto protege de las secuelas de la diabetes.

Palabras Clave: agente hipoglucemiante; expresión de insulina; extracto de planta; hiperglucemia; inmunohistoquímica; insulitis.

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Citation Format: Hutahaean S, Ilyas S, Rumahorbo CGP (2021) Insulin expression and insulitis degree of diabetic rats after giving sikkam leaves (Bischofia javanica Blume). J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 9(5): 598–608.

© 2021 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Sikkim and apoptosis via cytochrome c in aortic



J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 9(3): 313-323, 2021.

Original Article

Apoptosis via cytochrome c in aortic tissue of diabetes mellitus after giving sikkam leaves (Bischofia javanica Blume)

[Apoptosis vía citocromo c en tejido aórtico de diabetes mellitus después de dar hojas de sikkim (Bischofia javanica Blume)]

Syafruddin Ilyas*, Salomo Hutahaean, Rahmat SH. Sinaga, Putri C. Situmorang

Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia.

*E-mail: syafruddin6@usu.ac.id

Abstract

Context: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic hyperglycemia disease caused by abnormalities in insulin secretion and the highest increase in diabetes sufferers that occurred in Southeast Asian countries, including Indonesia. The sikkam leaf (Bischofia javanica) ethanolic extract contains many secondary metabolites, and some of them are quercetin and gallic acid, which have the potential to be used as antidiabetic.

Aims: To analyze apoptosis via cytochrome c in aortic tissue of DM after giving B. javanica leaves.

Methods: The treatment group consisted of G0: Negative control, G1: Positive control (alloxan induction + standard feed), G2: Alloxan induction + 300 mg/kg BW of B. javanica leaves ethanol extract, G3: Alloxan induction + 600 mg/kg BW of B. javanica leaves ethanol extract, G4: Induction of alloxan + ethanol extract of B. javanica leaves 900 mg/kg BW and G5: Induction of alloxan + glibenclamide 0.5 mg/kg BW. Fourteen days later, the rats were dissected, and the aortic tissue was analyzed for apoptosis by tunnel assay and cytochrome c by immunohistochemistry.

Results: There was a statistically significant difference (p<0.01) in the apoptotic value and cytochrome c. Increasing the dose of B. javanica leaves, the cytochrome c expression, and apoptotic value decreases in the aorta of DM rats. The cell shape returned to normal after being given B. javanica ethanol extract 900 mg/kg BW than glibenclamide.

Conclusions: Bischofia javanica ethanolic extract reduced apoptosis via cytochrome c in aortic histology, and this plant can be developed into a diabetic drug candidate.

Keywords: apoptosis; cytochrome c; hyperglycemia; hypoglycemic agents; immunohistochemistry; plant extracts.

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Resumen

Contexto: La diabetes mellitus (DM) es una enfermedad de hiperglucemia metabólica causada por anomalías en la secreción de insulina y el mayor aumento de pacientes con diabetes que se produjo en los países del sudeste asiático, incluida Indonesia. El extracto etanólico de la hoja de Bischofia javanica contiene muchos metabolitos secundarios, y algunos de ellos son la quercetina y el ácido gálico, que tienen el potencial de usarse como antidiabéticos.

Objetivos: Analizar la apoptosis por citocromo c en tejido aórtico de DM tras la administración de hojas de B. javanica.

Métodos: El grupo de tratamiento consistió en G0: Control negativo, G1: Control positivo (inducción de aloxano + alimentación estándar), G2: inducción de aloxano + 300 mg/kg de peso corporal de extracto de etanol de hojas de B. javanica, G3: inducción de aloxano + 600 mg/kg de peso corporal de extracto etanólico de hojas de B. javanica, G4: Inducción de aloxano + extracto etanólico de hojas de B. javanica 900 mg/kg de peso corporal y G5: Inducción de aloxano + glibenclamida 0,5 mg/kg de peso corporal. Catorce días más tarde, las ratas fueron disecadas y el tejido aórtico fue analizado para apoptosis por ensayo de túnel y citocromo c por inmunohistoquímica.

Resultados: Hubo una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p<0.01) en el valor apoptótico y el citocromo c. Al aumentar la dosis de hojas de B. javanica, la expresión del citocromo c y el valor apoptótico disminuyen en la aorta de ratas DM. La forma de la célula volvió a la normalidad después de recibir extracto de etanol de B. javanica 900 mg/kg de peso corporal que glibenclamida.

Conclusiones: El extracto etanólico de Bischofia javanica redujo la apoptosis a través del citocromo c en histología aórtica y esta planta puede convertirse en un candidato a fármaco diabético.

Palabras Clave: agentes hipoglucemiantes; apoptosis; citocromo c; extractos de plantas; hiperglucemia; inmunohistoquímica.

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Citation Format: Ilyas S, Hutahaean S, Sinaga RSH, Situmorang PC (2021) Apoptosis via cytochrome c in aortic tissue of diabetes mellitus after giving sikkam leaves (Bischofia javanica Blume). J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 9(3): 313–323.

© 2021 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Effect of GSH on human epithelial cells


J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 9(2): 175-181, 2021.

Original Article

The role of reduced glutathione on oxidative stress, reticulum endoplasmic stress and glycation in human lens epithelial cell culture

[Papel del glutatión reducido sobre el estrés oxidativo, el estrés endoplásmico del retículo y la glicación en el cultivo de células epiteliales del cristalino humano]

Nina Handayani1*, Nur Permatasari2, Hidayat Sujuti3, Achmad Rudijanto4

1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Saiful Anwar Hospital Malang, Malang 65145, Indonesia.

2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Malang 65145, Indonesia.

3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Malang 65145, Indonesia.

4Division of Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Saiful Anwar Hospital Malang, Malang 65145, Indonesia.

*E-mail: nina_handayani@ub.ac.id, ninahdyn@gmail.com

Abstract

Context: Cataracts are currently the main cause of blindness worldwide. This condition caused by a low concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the lens.

Aims: To evaluate the effect of glutathione (GSH) on the hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress, reticulum endoplasmic stress, and glycation in human lens epithelial cells.

Methods: Human lens epithelial cells were cultured under high-glucose conditions. Malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl content (PCC), glucose reactive protein (GRP), and advanced glycation end product (AGE) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after 72 h of incubation for MDA, PCC, GRP and after 2 weeks incubation for AGE.

Results: The MDA and PCC levels increased in response to high-dose glucose administration compared to the control group.  MDA and PCC levels were decreased at all GSH doses, whereas the lowest mean MDA and PCC levels were observed at GSH doses of 10 and 100 μM, respectively.  GRP levels increased after high-glucose administration as compared to the control group. Additionally, the groups co-treated with 30 and 100 μM GSH showed reduced PCC. The AGE level was reduced at all doses of GSH compared to those in the control group.

Conclusions: The results suggest that GSH inhibits oxidative stress, reticulum endoplasmic stress, and AGE formation, which may lead to the progression of diabetic cataract. Additionally, GSH may maintain lens transparency by acting as an antiglycation and controlling the AGE formation.

Keywords: glycation; glutathione; glucose reactive protein; hyperglycemia; malondialdehyde; oxidative stress.

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Resumen

Contexto: Las cataratas son actualmente la principal causa de ceguera en todo el mundo. Esta condición es causada por una baja concentración de glutatión reducido (GSH) en el cristalino.

Objetivos: Evaluar el efecto del glutatión (GSH) sobre el estrés oxidativo inducido por la hiperglucemia, el estrés endoplásmico del retículo y la glicación en las células epiteliales del cristalino humano.

Métodos: Se cultivaron células epiteliales del cristalino humano en condiciones de alto contenido de glucosa. El malondialdehído (MDA), el contenido de carbonilo proteico (PCC), la proteína reactiva a la glucosa (GRP) y el producto final de glicación avanzada (AGE) se midieron mediante un ensayo inmunoabsorbente ligado a enzimas después de 72 h de incubación para MDA, PCC, GRP y después de 2 semanas incubación para AGE.

Resultados: Los niveles de MDA y PCC aumentaron en respuesta a la administración de glucosa en dosis altas en comparación con el grupo de control. Los niveles de MDA y PCC disminuyeron en todas las dosis de GSH, mientras que los niveles medios más bajos de MDA y PCC se observaron en dosis de GSH de 10 y 100 μM, respectivamente. Los niveles de GRP aumentaron después de la administración de glucosa alta en comparación con el grupo control. Además, los grupos tratados conjuntamente con 30 y 100 µM de GSH mostraron una reducción del PCC. El nivel de AGE se redujo en todas las dosis de GSH en comparación con las del grupo de control.

Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que GSH inhibe el estrés oxidativo, el estrés endoplásmico del retículo y la formación de AGE, lo que puede conducir a la progresión de la catarata diabética. Además, GSH puede mantener la transparencia de la lente actuando como antiglicación y controlando la formación de AGE.

Palabras Clave: estrés oxidativo; glicación; glutatión; hiperglucemia; malondialdehído; proteína reactiva a la glucosa.

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Citation Format: Handayani N, Permatasari N, Sujuti H, Rudijanto A (2021) The role of reduced glutathione on oxidative stress, reticulum endoplasmic stress and glycation in human lens epithelial cell culture. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 9(2): 175–181.

© 2021 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)