Tag Archives: infectious disease

Stachytarpheta jamaicensis antibacterial activity

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 1087-1102, November-December 2022.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres22.1474_10.6.1087

Original Article

Antibacterial activity of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl roots extract on some bacteria proteins: An in silico and in vitro study

[Actividad antibacteriana del extracto de raíces de Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl sobre algunas proteínas bacterianas: un estudio in silico e in vitro]

Juliyatin Putri Utami1*, Sherli Diana2, Rahmad Arifin3, Irham Taufiqurrahman4, Kholifa Aulia Nugraha5, Milka Widya Sari5, Rizky Yoga Wardana5

1Department of Biomedicine, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarmasin, Indonesia.

 2Department of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarmasin, Indonesia.

3Department of Prosthodontic, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarmasin, Indonesia.

4Departement of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarmasin, Indonesia.

5Undergraduate of Dentistry Program, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarmasin, Indonesia.

*E-mail: juliyatin.utami@ulm.ac.id


Context: Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahlplant is used for traditional therapy because of its content, including flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, and coumarins.

Aims: To determine the antibacterial ability of S. jamaicensis roots extract (SJRE) on some selected mouth bacteria through in vitro and in silico studies.

Methods: Phytochemical analysis and liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) were done to explore the active compounds on SJRE. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity prediction, molecular docking simulation and visualization of luvangetin, and xanthyletin as anti-inflammatory and antibacterial were investigated in silico. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of SJRE against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Enterococcus faecalis, and Actinomyces spp. were calculated.

Results: Luvangetin and xanthyletin are good candidate drug molecules with low toxicity. Xanthyletin has higher binding activity than luvangetin to TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, peptidoglycan, flagellin, and dectin protein. SJRE exhibited a high antibacterial ability, and MIC. This extract inhibits the growth of A. actinomycetemcomitans, E. faecalis and Actinomyces spp. at various concentrations 2000, 8000, and 8000 µg/mL, respectively, with statistically significant differences (p = 0.0001; p<0.05).

Conclusions: SJRE has an antibacterial ability, and 2000 µg/mL SJRE may act as an antibacterial agent in vitro. In addition, xanthyletin in SJRE has a potential role as an antibacterial and anti-inflammatory in silico.

Keywords: communicable disease; dentistry; infectious disease; medicine; periodontal disease.



Contexto: La planta de Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl se utiliza para la terapia tradicional por su contenido, que incluye flavonoides, alcaloides, taninos, saponinas, terpenoides y cumarinas.

Objetivos: Determinar la capacidad antibacteriana del extracto de raíces de S. jamaicensis (SJRE) sobre algunas bacterias bucales seleccionadas mediante estudios in vitro e in silico.

Métodos: Se realizaron análisis fitoquímico y cromatografía líquida-espectrometría de masas de alta resolución (LC-HRMS) para explorar los compuestos activos en SJRE. Se investigaron in silico la absorción, la distribución, el metabolismo, la excreción y la predicción de la toxicidad, la simulación de acoplamiento molecular y la visualización de la luvangetina y la xantiletina como antiinflamatorios y antibacterianos. Se calcularon la concentración inhibitoria mínima (MIC) y la concentración bactericida mínima (MBC) de SJRE contra Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Enterococcus faecalis y Actinomyces spp.

Resultados: Luvangetin y xanthyletin son buenas moléculas candidatos a fármacos y tienen baja toxicidad. La xantiletina tiene una mayor actividad de unión que la luvangetina a TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, peptidoglicano, flagelina y proteína dectina. SJRE exhibió una alta capacidad antibacteriana y MIC. Este extracto inhibe el crecimiento de A. actinomycetemcomitans, E. faecalis y Actinomyces spp. a varias concentraciones 2000, 8000 y 8000 µg/mL, respectivamente, con diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p = 0,0001; p<0,05).

Conclusiones: SJRE tiene una capacidad antibacteriana y a 2000 µg/mL SJRE puede actuar como un agente antibacteriano in vitro. Además, la xantiletina en SJRE tiene un papel potencial como antibacteriano y antiinflamatorio in silico.

Palabras Clave: enfermedad infecciosa; enfermedad periodontal; enfermedad transmisible; odontología; medicamento.

Citation Format: Utami JP, Diana S, Arifin R, Taufiqurrahman I, Nugraha KA, Sari MW, Wardana RY (2022) Antibacterial activity of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl roots extract on some bacteria proteins: An in silico and in vitro study. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(6): 1087–1102. https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres22.1474_10.6.1087

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Roselle flower for immunomodulatory adjuvant therapy in COVID-19

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 418-428, May-June 2022

DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres21.1316_10.3.418

Original Article

Anthocyanin, tartaric acid, ascorbic acid of roselle flower (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) for immunomodulatory adjuvant therapy in oral manifestation coronavirus disease-19: An immunoinformatic approach

[Antocianina, ácido tartárico, ácido ascórbico de flor de Jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) para la terapia adyuvante inmunomoduladora en la manifestación oral de la enfermedad por coronavirus-19: Un enfoque inmunoinformático]

Nastiti Faradilla Ramadhani1, Alexander Patera Nugraha1,2*, Desintya Rahmadhani3, Martining Shoffa Puspitaningrum3, Yuniar Rizqianti3, Viol Dhea Kharisma4, Tengku Natasha Eleena binti Tengku Ahmad Noor5, Rini Devijanti Ridwan6, Diah Savitri Ernawati7, Albertus Putera Nugraha8

1Graduate Student of Dental Health Science, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.

2Department of Orthodontic, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.

3Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.

4Graduate Student of Biology Science, Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia

5Military Dental Officer of Royal Medical and Dental Corps, Malaysian Armed Forces, Indonesia.

6Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.

7Department of Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.

8Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.

*E-mail: alexander.patera.nugraha@fkg.unair.ac.id


Context: Oral manifestations that arose from COVID-19 infection often causes morbidity and systemic drug administration is less effective. Roselle flower (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is one of the plants that is often used in infusion as it gives health benefits. Hence, H. sabdariffa may benefit from adjuvant therapy to treat oral manifestation due to COVID-19.

Aims: To investigate the potential of H. sabdariffa anthocyanins, tartaric acid, and ascorbic acid chemical compounds as antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and increasing tissue regeneration in oral manifestation due to COVID-19 infection in silico.

Methods: Chemical compounds consisted of anthocyanins, (+)-tartaric acid, and ascorbic acid beside target proteins consisted of ACE2-spike, Foxp3, IL-10, IL6, IL1β, VEGF, FGF-2, HSP70, TNFR and MDA-ovalbumin were obtained from the database, ligand samples were selected through absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicology analysis, then molecular docking simulations, identification of protein-ligand interactions, and 3D visualization were performed.

Results: Anthocyanins, tartaric acid, and ascorbic acid are the active compounds in H. sabdariffa, which act as antioxidants. The activity of anthocyanin compounds is higher than other compounds through value binding affinity, which is more negative and binds to specific domains of target proteins by forming weak binding interactions that play a role in biological responses. Anthocyanins have the most negative binding energy compared to tartaric-acid and ascorbic acid.

Conclusions: Anthocyanins act as antioxidants; this mechanism increases heat shock protein-70 (HSP70), which may play an important role in increasing wound regeneration of oral manifestation in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as documented in silico.

Keywords: COVID-19; dentistry; Hibiscus sabdariffa; infectious disease; medicine.


Contexto: Las manifestaciones orales derivadas de la infección por COVID-19 suelen causar morbilidad y la administración sistémica de fármacos es menos efectiva. La flor de Jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa) es una de las plantas que se suele utilizar en infusión ya que aporta beneficios para la salud. Por lo tanto, H. sabdariffa puede beneficiarse de la terapia adyuvante para tratar las manifestaciones orales debido a COVID-19.

Objetivos: Investigar el potencial de los compuestos químicos de H. sabdariffa, como antocianinas, ácido tartárico y ácido ascórbico como antivirales, antiinflamatorios, antioxidantes y el aumento de la regeneración de tejidos en la manifestación oral debido a la infección por COVID-19 a través de un enfoque inmunoinformático, un estudio in silico.

Métodos: Antocianinas, ácido tartárico y ácido ascórbico, además de proteínas diana como ACE2-spike, Foxp3, IL-10, IL6, IL1β, VEGF, FGF-2, HSP70, TNFR y MDA-ovoalbúmina, se obtuvieron de la base de datos, las muestras de ligando se seleccionaron mediante análisis de absorción, distribución, metabolismo, excreción y toxicología, luego se realizaron simulaciones de acoplamiento molecular, identificación de interacciones proteína-ligando y visualización 3D.

Resultados: Las antocianinas, el ácido tartárico y el ácido ascórbico son los compuestos activos de H. sabdariffa que actúan como antioxidantes. La actividad de los compuestos de antocianina es mayor que la de otros compuestos a través de una afinidad de unión de valor que es más negativa y se une a dominios específicos de proteínas diana formando interacciones de unión débiles que desempeñan un papel en las respuestas biológicas. Las antocianinas tienen la energía de unión más negativa en comparación con el ácido tartárico y el ácido ascórbico.

Conclusiones: Las antocianinas actúan como antioxidantes; este mecanismo aumenta la proteína de choque térmico-70 (HSP70), que puede desempeñar un papel importante en el aumento de la regeneración de heridas de la manifestación oral en el síndrome respiratorio agudo severo coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) como se documenta in silico.

Palabras Clave: COVID-19; enfermedad infecciosa; Hibiscus sabdariffa; medicamento; odontología.

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