Tag Archives: phytochemical screening

Antidiabetic potential of Ecobolium linneanum leaf extracts

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 496-507, May-June 2022.

Original Article

Antidiabetic potential of leaf extracts of Ecobolium linneanum Kurz in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

[Potencial antidiabético de extractos de hojas de Ecobolium linneanum Kurz en ratas diabéticas inducidas por estreptozotocina]

Srilakshmi Nallapaty1, Narender Malothu1*, Rajeswari Pasupula2,Alekhya Ketha3

1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, KL College of Pharmacy, Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation, Vaddeswaram, Guntur, AP, 522 502, India.

2Department of Pharmacology, KL College of Pharmacy, Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation, Vaddeswaram, Guntur, AP, 522 502, India.

3Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, AU College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, AP, India.

*E-mail: mnarender@kluniversity.in, narendermalothu@gmail.com

Abstract

Context: In a general context, the importance’s of several medicinal plants has been explored in treating diabetes mellitus. In this connection, the antidiabetic potentiality needs to be established for one of the medicinally emerging plants Ecbolium linneanum Kurz.

Aims: To evaluate the antidiabetic activity of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of E. linneanum leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Methods: Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg BW) in male Wistar rats. Diabetic rats were treated orally with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of E. linneanum leaves at two doses (100 and 200 mg/kg BW/day) for 14 days. The blood glucose, lipid profile, serum enzyme levels, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), creatinine and serum urea levels were monitored. Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg BW) was used as a standard hypoglycaemic drug.

Results: The methanolic leaf extract at 200 mg/kg BW showed increasingly substantial (p<0.001) antidiabetic activity on day 14 and also significantly reduced (p<0.001) SGOT, SGPT, TG, TC, VLDL, LDL, HbA1c and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and GSH levels) increased significantly (p<0.001) compared to diabetic group. Renal parameters also decreased significantly (p<0.001) at both doses relative to diabetic control, but petroleum leaf extract and ethyl acetate leaf extract exhibited a less significant effect (p<0.05) compared to the methanol extract. All the extracts of leaves showed a protective effect on the oxidative status of the liver at tested concentrations (100 and 200 mg/kg BW).

Conclusions: The present research findings revealed that E. linneanum leaf possesses significant anti-hyperglycaemic activity and encourages conventional use in the treatment of diabetes mellitus under the experimental conditions exposed in this study.

Keywords: antidiabetic activity; Ecbolium linneanum; oxidative status; phytochemical screening; streptozotocin.

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Resumen

Contexto: Se ha explorado la importancia de varias plantas medicinales en el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus. A este respecto, es necesario establecer la potencialidad antidiabética de una de las plantas medicinales emergentes Ecbolium linneanum Kurz.

Objetivos: Evaluar la actividad antidiabética de extractos de éter de petróleo, acetato de etilo y metanol de hojas de E. linneanum en ratas diabéticas inducidas por estreptozotocina.

Métodos: Se indujo diabetes mediante inyección intraperitoneal de estreptozotocina (60 mg/kg de peso corporal) en ratas Wistar macho. Ratas diabéticas fueron tratadas por vía oral con extractos de éter de petróleo, acetato de etilo y metanol de hojas de E. linneanum en dos dosis (100 y 200 mg/kg PC/día) durante 14 días. Se monitorizaron los niveles de glucosa en sangre, perfil lipídico, enzimas séricas, hemoglobina glicosilada (HbA1c), creatinina y urea sérica. Se utilizó glibenclamida (10 mg/kg de peso corporal) como fármaco hipoglucemiante estándar.

Resultados: El extracto de hoja metanólico a 200 mg/kg de peso corporal mostró una actividad antidiabética cada vez más sustancial (p<0,001) en el día 14 y también redujo significativamente (p<0,001) SGOT, SGPT, TG, TC, VLDL, LDL, HbA1c y enzimas antioxidantes (niveles de SOD, CAT y GSH) aumentaron significativamente (p<0,001) en comparación con el grupo de diabéticos. Los parámetros renales también disminuyeron significativamente (p<0,001) en ambas dosis en relación con el control diabético, pero el extracto de hoja de petróleo y el extracto de hoja de acetato de etilo exhibieron un efecto menos significativo (p<0,05) en comparación con el extracto metanólico. Todos los extractos de hojas mostraron un efecto protector sobre el estado oxidativo del hígado a las concentraciones probadas (100 y 200 mg/kg de peso corporal).

Conclusiones: Los hallazgos de la presente investigación revelaron que la hoja de E. linneanum posee una importante actividad antihiperglucémica y fomenta el uso convencional en el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus en las condiciones experimentales expuestas en este estudio.

Palabras Clave: actividad antidiabética; Ecbolium linneanum; estado oxidativo; estreptozotocina; tamizaje fitoquímico.

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Citation Format: Srilakshmi N, Narender M, Rajeswari P, Alekhya K (2022) Antidiabetic potential of leaf extracts of Ecobolium linneanum Kurz in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(3): 496–507.
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© 2022 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Euphorbia hierosolymitana: Phytochemistry and anti-cancer properties

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 9(1): 13-23, 2021.

Original Article

Phytochemical and anti-cancer properties of Euphorbia hierosolymitana Boiss. crude extracts

[Propiedades fitoquímicas y anticancerígenas de extractos crudos de Euphorbia hierosolymitana Boiss.]

Yousef M. Al-Saraireh1*, Ahmed M.M. Youssef2,Ahmad Za’al Alsarayreh3, Tayel A. Al Hujran4, Sameeh Al-Sarayreh5, Jehad M. Al-Shuneigat5, Hamzeh Mohammad Alrawashdeh6

1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Mutah, Al-Karak, Jordan.

2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mutah University, Mutah, Al-Karak, Jordan.

3Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mutah University, Mutah, Al-Karak, Jordan.

4Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mutah University, Mutah, Al-Karak, Jordan.

5Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Mutah, Al-Karak, Jordan.

6Department of Ophthalmology, Amman Eye Clinic, Amman, Jordan.

*E-mail: yousef.sar@mutah.edu.jo

Abstract

Context: Euphorbia hierosolymitana is a member of Euphorbia species having a restricted use in traditional medicine in eastern Mediterranean countries.

Aims: To phytochemically analyze different extracts of Euphorbia hierosolymitana and to investigate their anti-cancer activity against a panel of different cancer cell lines.

Methods: The aerial parts of the plant were extracted by n-butanol and ethyl acetate. Each extract was subjected to Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine the bioactive compounds. Additionally, the anti-cancer activity of each extract compared to positive control doxorubicin was evaluated against a panel of different cancer and normal cell lines by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide  (MTT) assay.

Results: Phytochemical analysis of the different extracts revealed different compounds of alkane hydrocarbons, fatty acids, sterols, phenols, glycosides, alkaloids, indol alkaloids, terpenoids, pyridine derivatives, and desulphosinigrin. Regarding anti-cancer activity, the n-butanol extract exhibited a significant selective concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in the colon cancer cell line (Caco-2) compared to other normal and cancer cell lines. This selective differential was comparable to the positive control, doxorubicin. The ethyl acetate extract, however, showed a significant cytotoxic activity among all the tested cell lines compared to the positive control. This cytotoxicity was in a concentration-dependent manner and weak to normal cell line (Wi38).

Conclusions: The selective differential in anti-cancer activity between different types of extracts is attractive and holds significant promise for the development of new cancer therapies.

Keywords: cancer; Euphorbia hierosolymitana; natural products; phytochemical screening.

Resumen

Contexto: Euphorbia hierosolymitana es un miembro de la especie Euphorbia que tiene un uso restringido en la medicina tradicional en los países del este del Mediterráneo.

Objetivos: Analizar fitoquímicamente diferentes extractos de Euphorbia hierosolymitana e investigar su actividad anticancerígena frente a un panel de diferentes líneas celulares cancerosas.

Métodos: Las partes aéreas de la planta se extrajeron mediante n-butanol y acetato de etilo. Cada extracto se sometió a cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC-MS) para determinar los compuestos bioactivos. Además, se evaluó la actividad anticancerígena de cada extracto en comparación con la doxorrubicina (control positivo) frente a un panel de diferentes líneas celulares cancerosas y normales mediante bromuro de 3- [4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il] -2,5-difeniltetrazolio (MTT) ensayo.

Resultados: El análisis fitoquímico de los diferentes extractos reveló diferentes compuestos de hidrocarburos alcano, ácidos grasos, esteroles, fenoles, glucósidos, alcaloides, alcaloides indol, terpenoides, derivados de piridina y desulfosinigrina. El extracto de n-butanol exhibió una citotoxicidad dependiente de la concentración selectiva significativa en la línea celular de cáncer de colon (Caco-2) en comparación con otras líneas celulares normales y cancerosas. Este diferencial selectivo fue comparable a doxorrubicina. El extracto de acetato de etilo, sin embargo, mostró una actividad citotóxica significativa entre todas las líneas celulares probadas en comparación con el control positivo. Esta citotoxicidad fue dependiente de la concentración y débil frente a la línea celular normal (Wi38).

Conclusiones: El diferencial selectivo en la actividad anticancerígena entre diferentes tipos de extractos es atractivo y promete mucho para el desarrollo de nuevas terapias contra el cáncer.

Palabras Clave: cáncer; cribado fitoquímico; Euphorbia hierosolymitana; productos naturales.

Citation Format: Al-Saraireh YM, Youssef AMM, Alsarayreh AZ, Al Hujran TA, Al-Sarayreh S, Al-Shuneigat JM, Alrawashdeh HM (2021) Phytochemical and anti-cancer properties of Euphorbia hierosolymitana Boiss. crude extracts. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 9(1): 1323.

© 2021 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)