Tag Archives: plant extract

Rhodomyrtus tomentosa and HIF1α-VEGF expressions in placental

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 1076-1086, November-December 2022.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres22.1517_10.6.1076

Original Article

Effect of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa Hassk. on HIF1α and VEGF expressions on hypertension placental

[Efecto de Rhodomyrtus tomentosa Hassk. sobre las expresiones de HIF1α y VEGF sobre la hipertensión placentaria]

Putri Cahaya Situmorang1*, Syafruddin Ilyas1, Doni Aldo Samuel Siahaan1, Martina Restuati2, Endang Ratna Sari1, Chairunisa Chairunisa1, Muhammad Faldhy Maliki1

1Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia.

2Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Medan, Medan, Indonesia.

*E-mail: putri.cahaya@usu.ac.id


Context: HIF1α and VEGF are proteins marker oxidative stress and a decrease in placental growth factor (PlGF). Decreasing of HIF1α and VEGF in rats displayed poor trophoblast differentiation, placental abnormalities, and fetal mortality. Rhodomyrtus tomentosa is a flowering plant in the Myrtaceae family that has the potential to be a source of health-promoting chemicals.

Aims: To analyze HIF1α and VEGF in serum and hypertension placental tissue after giving Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (RHO) leaves extract.

Methods: Six treatments were given to the rats that were identified as being pregnant and pregnant rats with hypertension were given RHO with three doses: (a) normal pregnant rats (control); (b) hypertensive rats; (c) hypertensive rats + 100 mg/kg BW of RHO; (d) hypertensive rats +200 mg/kg BW of RHO; and (e) hypertensive rats + 400 mg/kg BW of RHO and (f) hypertensive rats + nifedipine. Under ketamine anesthesia, pregnant rats were removed on their 20th day of gestation. Immunohistochemistry and ELISA were used to assess HIF1α and VEGF protein expression.

Results: There was a significant difference (p<0.01) in the expression of HIF1α and VEGF in the labyrinthine zone and yolk sac of the rat placenta between the normal (C-) and hypertensive (C+) groups. HIF1α and VEGF expression decreased when RHO was administered at doses ranging from 100 to 400 mg/kg BW. However, there was no significant change (p>0.05) in VEGF expression in the basal zone of the rat placenta across all groups.

Conclusions: Rhodomyrtus tomentosa leaves extract decreases HIF1α and VEGF expressions in serum and repairs the tissue of the placenta’s labyrinth, basal, and yolk sacs.

Keywords: basal zone; HIF1α; hypertension; labyrinth zone; plant extract; VEGF; yolk sac.



Contexto: HIF1α y VEGF son proteínas marcadoras de estrés oxidativo y disminución del factor de crecimiento placentario (PlGF). La disminución de HIF1α y VEGF en ratas mostró una pobre diferenciación del trofoblasto, anomalías placentarias y mortalidad fetal. Rhodomyrtus tomentosa es una planta con flores de la familia Myrtaceae que tiene el potencial de ser una fuente de productos químicos que promueven la salud.

Objetivos: Analizar HIF1α y VEGF en suero y tejido placentario hipertenso después de administrar extracto de hojas de Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (RHO).

Métodos: Se administraron seis tratamientos a las ratas que se identificaron como preñadas ya las ratas preñadas con hipertensión se les administró RHO con tres dosis: (a) ratas preñadas normales (control); (b) ratas hipertensas; (c) ratas hipertensas + 100 mg/kg de peso corporal de RHO; (d) ratas hipertensas +200 mg/kg de peso corporal de RHO; y (e) ratas hipertensas + 400 mg/kg de peso corporal de RHO y (f) ratas hipertensas + nifedipina. Bajo anestesia con ketamina, las ratas preñadas se extrajeron en su día 20 de gestación. Se usaron inmunohistoquímica y ELISA para evaluar la expresión de proteínas HIF1α y VEGF.

Resultados: Hubo diferencia significativa (p<0.01) en la expresión de HIF1α y VEGF en la zona laberíntica y saco vitelino de la placenta de rata entre los grupos normal (C-) e hipertenso (C+). La expresión de HIF1α y VEGF disminuyó cuando se administró RHO en dosis que oscilaron entre 100 y 400 mg/kg de peso corporal. Sin embargo, no hubo cambios significativos (p>0,05) en la expresión de VEGF en la zona basal de la placenta de rata en todos los grupos.

Conclusiones: El extracto de hojas de Rhodomyrtus tomentosa disminuye las expresiones de HIF1α y VEGF en suero y repara el tejido del laberinto, basal y saco vitelino de la placenta.

Palabras Clave: extracto de plantas; HIF1α; hipertensión; saco vitelino; VEGF; zona basal; zona laberinto.

Citation Format: Situmorang PC, Ilyas S, Siahaan DAS, Restuati M, Sari ER, Chairunisa C, Maliki MF (2022) Effect of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa Hassk. on HIF1α and VEGF expressions on hypertension placental. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(6): 1076–1086. https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres22.1517_10.6.1076

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© 2022 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Insulin expression and insulitis degree of diabetic rats

J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 9(5): 598-608, 2021.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres20.998_9.5.598

Original article

Insulin expression and insulitis degree of diabetic rats after giving sikkam leaves (Bischofia javanica Blume)

[Expresión de insulina y grado de insulitis de ratas diabéticas después de administrar hojas de sikkam (Bischofia javanica Blume)]

Cheryl GP. Rumahorbo, Salomo Hutahaean*, Syafruddin Ilyas

Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia.

*E-mail: salomo@usu.ac.id


Context: Gallic acid and quercetin in sikkam leaves (Bischofia javanica) have scientific potential as antidiabetic agents. Quercetin suppresses hyperglycemia by inhibiting active glucose transport. Meanwhile, gallic acid acts as an antidiabetic is closely related to its antioxidant properties. Antioxidant compounds neutralize cells that experience oxidative stress by donating their hydrogen atoms.

Aims: To analyze the degree of insulitis and insulin expression in the pancreatic cells of rats induced diabetes mellitus (DM) after giving B. javanica leaves extract.

Methods: The treatment groups consisted of G0: negative control (-); G1: positive control (alloxan induction + standard feed); G2: alloxan induction + 300 mg/kg BW of B. javanica leaves ethanol extract; G3: alloxan induction + 600 mg/kg BW of B. javanica leaves ethanol extract; G4: alloxan induction + ethanol extract of B. javanica leaves 900 mg/kg BW and G5: alloxan induction + glibenclamide 4.5 mg/kg BW. At day 28, the rats were sacrificed, and the pancreatic tissue dissected. This was analyzed for degree of insulitis and insulin expression by anti-insulin antibodies using immunohistochemistry and hematoxylin-eosin.

Results: There was a significant difference (p = 0.000) in insulin expression and insulitis degree. By the increase of B. javanica leaves dose, the insulin expression value also increased, and the degree of insulitis in Langerhans’ islets of DM rats was decreased. Islets of Langerhans in insulin production returned to normal after being given B. javanica ethanol extract 900 mg/kg BW like glibenclamide.

Conclusions: Bischofia javanica ethanol extract increased insulin production and reduced the degree of insulitis in the islets of Langerhans histology. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which this extract protects from the sequelae of diabetes.

Keywords: hypoglycemic agent; hyperglycemia; immunohistochemistry; insulin expression; insulitis; plant extract.

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Contexto: El ácido gálico y la quercetina en las hojas de sikkam (Bischofia javanica) tienen potencial científico como agentes antidiabéticos. La quercetina suprime la hiperglucemia al inhibir el transporte activo de glucosa. Mientras tanto, el ácido gálico actúa como antidiabético y está muy relacionado con sus propiedades antioxidantes. Los compuestos antioxidantes neutralizan las células que experimentan estrés oxidativo al donar sus átomos de hidrógeno.

Objetivos: Analizar el grado de insulitis y expresión de insulina en las células pancreáticas de ratas inducidas por diabetes mellitus (DM) tras la administración de extracto de hojas de B. javanica.

Métodos: Los grupos de tratamiento estuvieron constituidos por G0: control negativo (-); G1: control positivo (inducción de aloxano + alimentación estándar); G2: inducción de aloxano + 300 mg/kg de peso corporal de extracto de etanol de hojas de B. javanica; G3: inducción de aloxano + 600 mg/kg de peso corporal de extracto de etanol de hojas de B. javanica; G4: inducción de aloxano + extracto etanólico de B. javanica hojas 900 mg/kg de peso corporal y G5: inducción de aloxano + glibenclamida 4,5 mg/kg de peso corporal. En el día 28, las ratas fueron sacrificadas y el tejido pancreático disecado. Este se analizó para determinar el grado de insulitis y expresión de insulina mediante anticuerpos antiinsulina usando inmunohistoquímica y hematoxilina-eosina.

Resultados: Hubo una diferencia significativa (p = 0,000) en la expresión de insulina y el grado de insulitis. Al aumentar la dosis de hojas de B. javanica, aumentó el valor de expresión de insulina y disminuyó el grado de insulitis en el islotes de Langerhans de ratas con DM. Los islotes de Langerhans en la producción de insulina volvieron a la normalidad después de recibir el extracto etanólico de B. javanica 900 mg/kg de peso corporal al igual que glibenclamida.

Conclusiones: El extracto de etanol de Bischofia javanica aumentó la producción de insulina y redujo el grado de insulitis en la histología de los islotes de Langerhans. Se necesitan más investigaciones para determinar hasta qué punto este extracto protege de las secuelas de la diabetes.

Palabras Clave: agente hipoglucemiante; expresión de insulina; extracto de planta; hiperglucemia; inmunohistoquímica; insulitis.

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Citation Format: Hutahaean S, Ilyas S, Rumahorbo CGP (2021) Insulin expression and insulitis degree of diabetic rats after giving sikkam leaves (Bischofia javanica Blume). J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 9(5): 598–608. DOI: https://doi.org/10.56499/jppres20.998_9.5.598

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