Tag Archives: toxicity

Toxic effects of monosodium glutamate on ovary in rats

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 397-405, May-June 2022.

Original Article

The ovulation assessment of regular cyclic rats following subacute oral administration of monosodium glutamate: An in vivo study

[Evaluación de la ovulación en ratas con ciclos regulares después de la administración oral subaguda de glutamato monosódico: Un estudio in vivo]

Mahfoudh Almusli Mohammed Abdulghani

Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Unaizah College of Pharmacy, Qassim University, Unaizah, 51911, Al Qassim, Saudi Arabia.

*E-mail: ma.abdulghani@qu.edu.sa, mahfouz08@gmail.com

Abstract

Context: The possible toxic effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on ovarian functions have not been thoroughly evaluated in contrast to testicular functions. Few studies documented that MSG showed histological alterations.

Aims: To investigate the subacute effects of oral MSG (2 g/kg) on estrogen level and numbers of ovulated oocytes and histological changes in ovary of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats.

Methods: Virgin young adult SD female rats with a regular estrous cycle were randomly assigned to either MSG-treated group or control group, and the duration of treatment was 14-16 days for oral administration MSG or vehicle (distilled water), respectively.

Results: Oral MSG treatment with doses of 2 g/kg/day showed significantly (p<0.01) reduced numbers of ovulated oocytes in the oviduct, newly formed corpora lutea, large follicles in histology of ovarian sections and attenuated serum estrogen levels.

Conclusions: Subacute oral administration of MSG may negatively influence the ovarian function of young female rats via reduction of ovulated oocytes and the attenuation of estrogen level.

Keywords: corpora lutea; estrogen level; follicles ovarian; monosodium glutamate; oocytes; ovulation; toxicity.

Resumen

Contexto: Los posibles efectos tóxicos del glutamato monosódico (MSG) en las funciones ováricas no se han evaluado a fondo en contraste con las funciones testiculares. Pocos estudios documentaron que el GMS mostrara alteraciones histológicas.

Objetivos: Investigar los efectos subagudos del glutamato monosódico oral (2 g/kg) sobre el nivel de estrógeno y el número de ovocitos ovulados y los cambios histológicos en el ovario de ratas Sprague-Dawley (SD).

Métodos: Se asignaron al azar ratas SD hembra adultas jóvenes vírgenes con un ciclo estral regular al grupo tratado con MSG o al grupo de control, y la duración del tratamiento fue de 14 a 16 días para la administración oral de MSG o vehículo (agua destilada), respectivamente.

Resultados: El tratamiento con MSG oral con dosis de 2 g/kg/día mostró un número significativamente reducido (p<0,01) de ovocitos ovulados en el oviducto, cuerpos lúteos recién formados, folículos grandes en la histología de las secciones ováricas y niveles atenuados de estrógeno sérico.

Conclusiones: La administración oral subaguda de MSG puede influir negativamente en la función ovárica de ratas hembra jóvenes a través de la reducción de los ovocitos ovulados y la atenuación del nivel de estrógeno.

Palabras Clave: cuerpos lúteos; folículos ováricos; glutamato monosódico; nivel de estrógeno; ovocitos; ovulación; toxicidad.

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Citation Format: Abdulghani MAM (2022) The ovulation assessment of regular cyclic rats following subacute oral administration of monosodium glutamate: An in vivo study. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(3): 397–405.
References

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© 2022 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Phytotherapy against COVID-19 and risks of intoxication

J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 357-386, May-June 2022.

Original Article

Phytotherapy in response to COVID-19 and risks of intoxication: A field study in the city of Meknes (Morocco)

[Fitoterapia en respuesta al COVID-19 y riesgos de intoxicación: un estudio de campo en la ciudad de Meknes (Marruecos)]

Mariame Najem*, Jamal Ibijbijen, Laila Nassiri

Environment and Valorisation of Microbial and Plant Resources Unit, Faculty of Sciences, Moulay Ismail University of Meknes, P.O.B: 11201 Meknes, Morocco.

*E-mail: ma.najem@edu.umi.ac.ma, mariamenajem@gmail.com

Abstract

Context: The contagious global pandemic of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) has prompted many Moroccans to turn to traditional phytoremedies.

Aims: To highlight the ethnopharmacological information and the risks of intoxication related to the use of herbal medicine to combat COVID-19.

Methods: Through a semi-structured questionnaire and using the “Free listing” technique, an ethnobotanical survey was conducted among 36 herbalists of the Meknes prefecture to collect ethnopharmacological data on species used in the fight against COVID-19. Then, many databases were used to document their pharmacological and toxicological activities.

Results: A total of 36 species in 22 families were reported to be used to prepare traditional recipes against COVID-19. According to the relative frequency index of citation, the species Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry, Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck, and Zingiber officinale Roscoe. were recommended by all respondents and recorded the highest usage values. Based on the value of the plant parts index, leaves were the most used part (PPV = 0.37). Most of the remedies were prepared as infusions and administered orally. The bibliographic research revealed that the plants used have several biological activities and are frequently used to treat respiratory diseases. However, some of them have been reported to be toxic.

Conclusions: Recommended species are endowed with innumerable biological activities. They can be a promising alternative to combat COVID-19. However, their toxic effects require pharmacotoxicological studies to ensure the safety and efficacy of these natural remedies.

Keywords: COVID-19; ethnobotany; herbalism; Morocco; Meknes; phytotherapy; toxicity.

Resumen

Contexto: La contagiosa pandemia mundial del coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) ha llevado a muchos marroquíes a recurrir a los fitorremedios tradicionales.

Objetivos: Resaltar la información etnofarmacológica y los riesgos de intoxicación relacionados con el uso de fitoterápicos para combatir el COVID-19.

Métodos: A través de un cuestionario semiestructurado y utilizando la técnica de “Listado Libre”, se realizó un relevamiento etnobotánico entre 36 herbolarios de la prefectura de Meknes para recolectar datos etnofarmacológicos sobre especies utilizadas en la lucha contra COVID-19. Luego, se utilizaron muchas bases de datos para documentar sus actividades farmacológicas y toxicológicas.

Resultados: Se informó que un total de 36 especies en 22 familias se utilizaron en la preparación de recetas tradicionales contra COVID-19. Según el índice de frecuencia relativa de citación, las especies Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry, Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck y Zingiber officinale Roscoe. son recomendados por todos los encuestados y registró los valores de uso más altos. Sobre la base del índice del valor de las partes de la planta, las hojas son la parte más utilizada (VPP = 0,37). La mayoría de los remedios se prepararon como infusiones y se administraron por vía oral. La investigación bibliográfica reveló que las plantas utilizadas tienen varias actividades biológicas y se utilizan con frecuencia en el tratamiento de enfermedades respiratorias. Sin embargo, se ha informado que algunos de ellos son tóxicos.

Conclusiones: Las especies recomendadas están dotadas de innumerables actividades biológicas, pueden ser una alternativa prometedora para combatir el COVID-19. Sin embargo, sus efectos tóxicos requieren estudios farmacotoxicológicos para garantizar la seguridad y eficacia de estos remedios naturales.

Palabras Clave: COVID-19; etnobotánica; fitoterapia; herboristería; Marruecos; Meknes; toxicidad.

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Citation Format: Najem M, Ibijbijen J, Nassiri L (2022) Phytotherapy in response to COVID-19 and risks of intoxication: A field study in the city of Meknes (Morocco). J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(3): 357–386.
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Medicinal plants and anemia in Haouz-Rehamna (Morocco)



J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(2): 279-302, 2022.

Original Article

Ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological study of medicinal plants used in the treatment of anemia in the region of Haouz-Rehamna (Morocco)

[Estudio etnobotánico y etnofarmacológico de plantas medicinales utilizadas en el tratamiento de la anemia en la región de Haouz-Rehamna (Marruecos)]

Ouafae Benkhnigue1,2*, Noureddine Chaachouay3, Hamid Khamar1,2, Fatiha El Azzouzi2, Allal Douira2, Lahcen Zidane2

1Department of Botany and Plant Ecology, Scientific Institute, University Mohammed V, B. P. 703, Rabat 10106, Morocco.

2Plant, Animal Productions and Agro-industry Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Ibn Tofail University, B.P. 133 14000, Kenitra, Morocco.

3Higher School of Education and Training, Berrechid, University Hassan, 1st, 50 Rue Ibnou Lhaytham B.P. 577, 26002 Settat, Morocco.

*E-mail: ouafae.benkhnigue@is.um5.ac.ma, benkhnigue@gmail.com

Abstract

Context: The ethnobotanical study of the plants used is of great interest in the medical field. In this perspective, we have carried out this ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological study, which is part of the development of plant resources traditionally used against anemia in a large region of Middle Atlantic Morocco (Mam-4): Al Haouz-Rehamna.

Aims: To establish a catalog of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine against anemia disease.

Methods: For this purpose, we carried out an ethnobotanical survey using 1700 questionnaire cards during five campaigns (from 2012 to 2017) in the studied field. In addition, the information sought was about the plant including its local name, its part used, its toxicity and, medical practices related. Ethnobotanical indices, such as Use Value (UV), Family Use Value (FUV) and, Plant Part Value (PPV), were determined.

Results: The results allowed us to identify 48 medicinal plants of which 12 were toxic. The inventoried species were distributed in 45 genera and belong to 27 botanical families, of which four predominated in the number of species: Apiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Fabaceae, and Asteraceae. Also, 11 species were traditionally more used as effective plants against anemia: Rubia peregrina, Lens culinaris, Malva sylvestris, Beta vulgaris, Spinacia oleracea, Mercurialis annua, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Corrigiola telephiifolia, Nasturtium officinale, Cistus laurifolius and Armeria mauritanica. The leafy stems were the most used part (PPV = 0.28%) followed by the seed (PPV = 0.26%). These parts were usually used steamed, decocted, and rarely triturated in honey or infused in water. The recipes were administered orally until cured.

Conclusions: The present study established the importance of documenting traditional knowledge about the species of medicinal plants that are used to correct many chronic diseases such as anemia. Analysis of this knowledge has shown that several of the listed plants promoted anti-anemia activity and could become the basis for in-depth scientific investigations.

Keywords: anemia; ethnobotanic; Morocco; pharmacology; phytotherapy; toxicity.

Resumen

Contexto: El estudio etnobotánico de las plantas utilizadas es de gran interés en el ámbito médico. Es en esta perspectiva que hemos llevado a cabo este estudio etnobotánico y etnofarmacológico que forma parte del desarrollo de los recursos vegetales utilizados tradicionalmente contra la anemia en una gran región del Atlántico Medio de Marruecos (Mam-4): Al Haouz-Rehamna.

Objetivos: Establecer un catálogo de plantas medicinales utilizadas en la medicina tradicional contra esta enfermedad.

Métodos: Para ello, se realizó un relevamiento etnobotánico utilizando 1700 fichas de cuestionario durante cinco campañas (de 2012 a 2017). Además, la información buscada era sobre la planta, incluido su nombre local, la parte utilizada, su toxicidad y prácticas médicas relacionadas. Se determinaron los índices etnobotánicos, como el valor de uso (UV), el valor de uso familiar (FUV) y el valor de la parte de la planta (PPV).

Resultados: Se identificaron 48 plantas medicinales de las cuales 12 fueron tóxicas. Las especies inventariadas se distribuían en 45 géneros y pertenecían a 27 familias botánicas, de las cuales cuatro predominaron en el número de especies: Apiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Fabaceae y Asteraceae. Asimismo, tradicionalmente se utilizaban más 11 especies como plantas eficaces contra la anemia: Rubia peregrina, Lens culinaris, Malva sylvestris, Beta vulgaris, Spinacia oleracea, Mercurialis annua, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Corrigiola telephiifolia, Nasturtium officinale, Cistus laurifolius y Armeria mauritanica. Los tallos frondosos fueron la parte más utilizada (PPV = 0.28%) seguido de la semilla (PPV = 0.26%). Estas partes generalmente se usaban al vapor, cocidas y, rara vez, trituradas en miel o infundidas en agua. Las recetas se administraban por vía oral hasta que se curaban.

Conclusiones: El presente estudio estableció la importancia de documentar los conocimientos tradicionales sobre las especies de plantas medicinales que se utilizan para corregir muchas enfermedades crónicas como la anemia. El análisis de este conocimiento ha demostrado que varias de las plantas enumeradas promueven la actividad anti-anemia y podrían convertirse en la base para investigaciones científicas en profundidad.

Palabras Clave: anemia; etnobotánica; farmacología; fitoterapia; Marruecos; toxicidad.

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Citation Format: Benkhnigue O, Chaachouay N, Khamar H, El Azzouzi F, Douira A, Zidane L (2022) Ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological study of medicinal plants used in the treatment of anemia in the region of Haouz-Rehamna (Morocco). J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 10(2): 279–302.

© 2022 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)

Metabolic effects of M. charantia foliage extract


J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 9(4): 537-548, 2021.

Original article

Antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Momordica charantia L. foliage extract

[Efectos antidiabéticos, hipolipemiantes, antioxidantes y anti-inflamatorios del extracto foliar de Momordica charantia L.]

Alicia Lagarto Parra1, Roberto Menéndez Soto-del Valle2, Janet Piloto Ferrer1, Pham Thi Nguyet Hang3, Nguyen Thi Phuong3, Addis Bellma1, Orestes Darío López4, Dunia Casanave Guarnaluce1, Carlos Rodríguez Ferrada1, Alejandro S. Padrón Yaquis1, Nicte González Alfonso1, Gilberto L. Pardo-Andreu5*

1Center for Pharmaceuticals Research and Development. Av. 26 # 1605 b/ Av. Boyeros and Puentes Grandes, Havana, Cuba

2Cuban Center for Neurosciences (CNEURO), Ave 25 # 15202. Cubanacán, Playa. PO 11600. La Habana

3National Institute of Medicinal Material. 3B Quang Trung Str, Hoan Kiem Dist, Hanoi, Viet Nam.

4Facultad de Ciencia e Ingeniería en Alimentos, Universidad Técnica de Ambato, Ambato, Ecuador.

5Center for Research and Biological Evaluations, Institute of Pharmaceutical and Foods Sciences, University of Havana (UH), Av. 23 # 2317 b/ 214 and 222, La Coronela, La Lisa, PO 13600 Havana, Cuba.

*E-mail: gpardo@ifal.uh.cu

Abstract

Context: Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae) is extensively distributed in tropical areas, and it is traditionally used as antidiabetic. Nevertheless, few studies supporting the metabolic effects of its foliage extracts have been reported elsewhere.

Aims: To evaluate the effects of M. charantia foliage extract (MCh) on blood glucose and lipids levels in animal models of hyperglycemia. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties together with the acute toxicity and genotoxic effects were also assessed.

Methods: An MCh powder was obtained by spray-drying techniques. The anti-hyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of MCh were evaluated in the glucose tolerance test and the alloxan-induced diabetes, respectively. The in vitro and ex vivo MCh antioxidant effects were assessed against the 2,2´-azinobis3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), peroxyl, and superoxide anion radicals. The MCh anti-inflammatory effects were also assessed together with its toxicological profile by means of the Acute Toxic Class Method, and the chromosome aberration assay.

Results: MCh administered orally diminished the glucose and lipids levels in normoglycemic healthy rats and alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice. Strong in vitro free radical scavenging effects was demonstrated by MCh against ABTS, peroxyl, and superoxide anion radicals. The extract also improved the free radical scavenging ability of diabetic mice serum. Moreover, MCh reduced the weight of cotton-induced granulomas in mice, the exudate volume, and its leukocyte counts in carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats. Very low MCh toxicity was also verified.

Conclusions: The hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities here observed make the spray-drayed powder from M. charantia foliage extract an interesting alternative for the correction of diabetes and its complications.

Keywords: antidiabetic; anti-inflammatory; antioxidant; foliage extract; toxicity; Momordica charantia.

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Resumen

Contexto: La Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae) se encuentra ampliamente distribuida en las áreas tropicales y se usa tradicionalmente como antidiabético. Sin embargo, pocos estudios sustentan los efectos metabólicos de sus extractos foliares.

Objetivos: Evaluar los efectos de un extracto foliar de M. charantia (MCh) sobre los niveles de glucosa y lípidos en modelos animales de hiperglicemia. También se evaluaron sus propiedades anti-inflamatorias y antioxidantes, así como su toxicidad aguda oral y efectos genotóxicos.

Métodos: Se obtuvo un polvo de MCh por técnicas de secado por aspersión. Sus efectos anti-hiperglicémicos e hipolipemiantes se evaluaron en modelos de tolerancia a la glucosa y de diabetes inducida por aloxano, respectivamente. Los efectos antioxidantes in vitro y ex vivo se evaluaron frente a los radicales 2,2´-azinobis3-ethylbenzotiazolina-6- ácido sulfónico, peroxilo, y el radical anión superóxido. Se evaluaron además los efectos anti-inflamatorios de MCh junto a su perfil toxicológico a través del Método de las Clases para la toxicidad aguda oral y el ensayo de aberración cromosómica.

Resultados: La administración oral de MCh disminuyó los niveles de glucosa y lípidos en ratas saludables normo-glicémicas y en ratones hiperglicémicos por acción del aloxano. Se demostró una potente actividad secuestradora de los radicales ABTS, peroxilo y superóxido, in vitro. El extracto también mejoró la actividad secuestradora de radicales libres del suero de ratones diabéticos. Además, el MCh redujo el peso de los granulomas inducidos por algodón en ratones, y en el modelo de pleuresía inducida por carragenina en ratas, redujo el volumen de exudado y su conteo de leucocitos. Se demostró una baja toxicidad para el MCh.

Conclusiones: Las actividades hipoglicémicas, hipolipemiantes, anti-inflamatorias y antioxidantes aquí observadas, hacen del extracto de M. charantia obtenido a partir de un secado por aspersión, una alternativa interesante para corregir la diabetes y sus complicaciones.

Palabras Clave: antidiabético; anti-inflamatorio; antioxidante; extracto foliar; toxicidad; Momordica charantia.

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Citation Format: Lagarto A, Menéndez R, Piloto J, Thi P, Thi N, Bellma A, Dario O, Casanave D, Rodríguez C, Padron AS, González N, Pardo-Andreu G (2021) Antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Momordica charantia L. foliage extract. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 9(4): 537–548.

© 2021 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research (JPPRes)